· An activity, that is, the specific social activity or activities in which the participants, in this case the writer and the reader of the autobiography are engaging; activities are, in turn, made up of sequence of actions.
· A material aspect, that is the place, time, bodies and objects, presented during interaction, which is the autobiographical text decoding process.
· A socio-cultural aspect, that is, the personal, social, and cultural knowledge, feelings, values, identities, and relationships relevant in the interaction, including, of course, socio-cultural knowledge about sign systems, activities, the material world, and politics, i.e. all the other aspects above.these extra-linguistic features together constitute an extra-linguistic system, within which extra-linguistic components or aspects simultaneously give meaning to linguistic features. (P. Verdonk 10)the autobiography is a narrative about oneself, it naturally follows that the author is free to impart his/her emotions and feelings while writing the story of his/her life. It goes without saying that the reader takes an immediate part in sharing this kind of information with the writer, the intimacy between the reader and the writer reaches its highest point, especially in autobiographic genre.autobiographical narratives, the use of the linguistic features is preconditioned by extra-linguistic ones. The process of sharing information, for the purpose of giving the reader more detailed information about his/her life, can be influenced by various extra-linguistic features as well., being another factor necessary for the reader-writer interaction is an extra-linguistic feature but it should be noted that it has its realizations in linguistic features, which are mainly modal verbs; such as should/would. For example, - My early readiness in learning to read, and the opinion of all his friends, that I should certainly make a good scholar. (B. Franklin; 3).
Settings are those for example, the nationality of the writer, the country, the year and also the religion of the writer. Settings described in this way are also:
üThe place in which the events of a work of autobiography happen.
üThe time in which a work of autobiography takes place.
üThe social context in which the characters in a work of autobiography exist.
üThe time and place (sometimes the social environment) of a personal narrative.to sum up the above said, it is essential to note that the extra-linguistic features such as: time, place, authors experience, function with the help of linguistic features.are some linguistic and extra-linguistic features analyzed in the autobiography by Benjamin Franklin.
ØImagining it may be equally agreeable to you to know the circumstances of my life, many of which you are yet unacquainted with, and expecting the enjoyment of a weeks uninterrupted leisure in my present country retirement (B. Franklin; p.1)
- As it was mentioned in previous chapters, one of the linguistic features is the use of the first point of view. In this example we can see the pronoun my, which proofs it. With the help of the first point of view, the reader feels close to the writer. In this case the pronoun my contributes to the intimacy between the reader and the writer.
ØHaving emerged from the poverty and obscurity in which I was born and bred, to a state of affluence and some degree of reputation in the world, and having gone so far through life with a considerable share of felicity, the conducting means I made use of, which with the blessing of God so well succeeded, my posterity my like to know, as they may find some of them suitable to their own situations, and therefore fit to be imitated. (B. Franklin p. 1)
In this sentence the author used the pronouns I and my, which, as it was mentioned in the previous example, is the linguistic feature, i.e. the use of the first point of view. In the first person point of view, the narrator does participate in the action of the story. When reading stories in the first person, we need to realize that what the narrator is recounting might not be the objective truth.
ØThat felicity, when I reflected on it, has induced me sometimes to say, that were it offered to my choice, I should have no objection to a repetition of the same life from its beginning, only asking the advantages authors have in a second edition to correct some faults of the first. So I might, besides correcting the faults, change some sinister accidents and events of it for others more favorable (B. Franklin p. 1)
In this sentence the author expresses his thoughts with the help of the modal verb should, which shows intention or uncertain future, that is to say the author does not certainly know what will really happen. Besides the author used the modal verb might for the purpose of imparting uncertain future intention.
ØI shall indulge the inclination so natural in old men, to be talking of themselves and their own past actions; and I shall indulge it without being tiresome to others, who, though respect to age, might conceive themselves obliged to give me a hearing, since this may be read or not as any pleases. (B. Franklin p. 2)
In this sentence we see the linguistic features, which are realized with the help of modal shall the meaning of which is to show obligation.
ØFrom these notes I learned that family had lived in the same village, Ecton, in Northamptonshire, for three hundred years. (B. Franklin p. 2)
As it was mentioned in the previous chapters, the extra-linguistic features include the settings, which are the birth place, or the country, being used in the book and which allows the reader to know about where the author is from. In this example we can see the proof by the words Ecton, Northamptonshire.
ØThey got an English Bible, and to conceal and secure it, it was fastened open with tapes under and within the cover of a joint-stool. (B. Franklin p. 3)
The linguistic features of the autobiography were given as the use of the past tense forms, an example of which is the given sentence. With the help of past tense form, the reader gets the information exactly, that is to say, when the events happened. It is done in such a way so that the reader will be able to feel the sequence of the events.
ØJosiah, my father, married young, and carried his wife with three children into New England, about 1682. (B. Franklin p. 3)
In this se