.The first category is basically of a sequential collection of memories of the writer since his childhood. Such autobiographies are the most common ones. Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin or Charles Chaplin is an excellent example of such an autobiography.
.The second category is the type of autobiography, which is just a collection of memories that revolve around one phenomenon, incidence or event. In such an autobiography, the writer focuses on the event or incidence that took place in his life.
.The third category offers the reader a short story from one of the writers experiences. Such an autobiographical short story is basically, spanned over a couple of hours. Such a short story is sometimes also known as an autobiographical account or short story. In the three mentioned categories the first category can be commented to be a true autobiography. most unique example of autobiographical book is the autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. The practical part of this thesis paper is taken out of this autobiographical work. The analyses of linguistic and extra-linguistic features are mainly taken from B. Franklins autobiography.
CHAPTER 2: LINGUISTIC AND EXTRA-LINGUISTIC FEATRUES OF THE AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL GENRE
is a genre in which the use of linguistic and extra-linguistic features can be equally observed. This chapter will focus on the theoretical dimensions of the research and looks at how linguistic and extra-linguistic features of autobiography are defined. The first section of this chapter will give a brief overview of the research on linguistic and extra-linguistic features, whereas the second one will assess and analyze the linguistic and extra-linguistic features in Benjamin Franklins autobiography. various points in the autobiography the narrator refers to persons, places and times by means of words and phrases, like I, my, this city, and past tenses of verbs, for example told, lived. In a face-to-face conversation these terms will be easily understood, but in autobiography things are different. Certainly, readers know the textual or semantic meaning of these words, but they do not know their situational or pragmatic meaning. This is because they cannot see the people referred to by I, my in the flesh, nor check the times in the relations to the verb tenses. However, prompted by their experience of the real world, readers will understand these linguistic expressions as representations of the people, places and times in the story, and will treat them as cues to imagine themselves as participating in the situation of the autobiographical world. begin with, let us to start by considering the linguistic features in autobiographical genre, which are as follows: the category of modality (subjective), the category of retrospection, the first point of view, past perfect, past indefinite, the future in the past tense, and the use of modal verbs. first point of view is a point in which an I or we serves as the narrator. The narrator may be a minor character, observing the action, as in autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. While first person point of view can allow a reader to feel very close to a specific characters point of view, it also limits the reader to that one perspective. The reader can only know what this character knows. first point of view is the perspective from which an autobiography is written. Since autobiographies are written on the themes that touch upon the writers personal experience and life events, they are told from the first point of view, consequently the use of the I, we pronouns are very actual to and peculiar of this genre. past indefinite tense denotes an action or happenings that took place in the past, that is to say in autobiography the author very often mentions an action, subjects, phenomena that took place in the past; for example, - They got an English Bible, it was fastened opened with tapes under and with the cover of a joint-stool. (B. Franklin; 3) past perfect tense is used side by side with other past tenses (Simple past, past progressive, past perfect progressive) when the writer of the autobiography refers to his /her past experience. It is used in story-telling, biography, autobiography, reports, eye-witnessing accounts, etc. and is especially useful for establishing the sequence of events. in the past is used to express an action in the past, the author had planned to undertake in future. It goes without saying that the autobiography is in the past tense form, and all the future actions, planned or unplanned are also used in the past tense forms.linguistic feature of the autobiographical genre is the frequent use of the modal verbs, which shows the writers attitude towards his message. In the English language, a modal verb is an auxiliary verb, which can be used to change the modality of the sentence. The modal verbs are used in the past tense forms in autobiography, depending on the meaning they indicate. Some of them are:
Could indicates possibility or ability in the past. Could speculates about future possibilities.modals should/ought to indicate an obligation; for example, - My early readiness in learning to read, and the opinion of all his friends, that I should certainly make a good scholar.
Would introduces habitual actions in the past. Its used frequently in autobiographical genre. Would explains an action as a result of a supposed or real condition. next linguistic features are the textual categories, which are peculiar of this genre. Equally relevant to the issue are the questions of text analysis and its categories. It should be mentioned that the most characteristic of this genre is the category of retrospection.is a grammatical category of the autobiography. Retrospection within the process of its realization reactualizes certain parts of the autobiography. Actually, any text is based upon retrospection. While reading an autobiography the reader keeps in mind various portions of information, presented in the text, and from time to time he has to recall them to be able to understand and realize the certain development of the events. This process is purposive and is created by the author of the autobiography, as it is his will to force the reader to recall the facts which are to be actualized.we should point out that the communicative process is the attitude of the author of the utterance towards whatever is presented in his/her speech. This speech- creative process is termed as the category of modality. The subjective modality may be textual. In autobiography we can meet a lot of supraphrasal units which indicate a modal meaning. Since autobiography is a work about the narrators self, no other textual category, like modality can be of that frequent use. With the help of different expressi