Australian English: main characteristics

Дипломная работа - Иностранные языки

Другие дипломы по предмету Иностранные языки

Для того чтобы скачать эту работу.
1. Подтвердите что Вы не робот:
2. И нажмите на эту кнопку.
закрыть



Content

 

Introduction

I. Australian English. Main characteristics

1.1 History and origins

1.2 Words of Australian Aboriginal origin

1.3 Australian Spelling

1.4 Australian Language Peculiarities

1.5 Australian to English languages comparison

II. Australian slang

2.1 The colloquialism

Colloquialisms in dictionaries and language guides

The Australian idiom

Substitutions, abbreviations and comparisons

Convict sources

Aboriginal languages

Gentle Insults

Perverse reversals

Nicknames describing Australian States

Lost phrases

III. Australian English in different fields

3.1 Food and drink

Beer glasses

Sport

Cricket

Football

3.2 Vehicles

Work vehicles

Police vehicles

3.3 Military slang

3.4 Rhyming slang

Conclusion

Literature

 

Introduction

 

The urgency of conducted analysis is proven by the fact that all types of English language have their own peculiarities which are always difficult to get. The same is true for the Australian English. That is especially takes place and is important for people who have to spend some time in Australia, because even if they know English on a good level they can be very confused by lots of words and expressions Australians often use in their everyday speech. Their history, people, life became the reasons of their language peculiarities. A lot of researches were conducted to examine Australian way of speech and slang., the purpose of conducting this yearly project consists in the determination of such peculiarities and main features of Australian English from different points of view (history, origin, spoken language, slang and so on). According to this purpose the main task of this degree includes carrying out of Australian English analysis using information about Australian speech in different fields.compliance with specified purpose and main task of the research the following tasks were set in this project:

.Firstly, to examine Australian English itself, its peculiarities, history, origin, aboriginal influence, spelling and so on. To determine difference between men and women speech in Australia.

2.Secondly, to examine Australian slang including information about colloquialism, history and ways of Australian spoken speech, Australian slang dictionary.

.Thirdly, to trace Australian speech peculiarities in different life spheres: sport, food, vehicles, etc.

To accomplish these tasks three clauses were written. The first clause includes the information concerning definition of Australian English, its peculiarities, Aboriginal English, Australian spelling, Australian language and English comparison and so on. The second clause of this project contains the information about Australian slang, its features and history, including Australian slang dictionary. The third clause is dedicated to the Australian speech in different life spheres.literature including works of famous English specialists in analyzed field () and online sources of information was used as methodological and theoretical data base for writing of this project.

Structurally the project consists of the introduction, three clauses, conclusion and list of information sources.

I. Australian English. Main characteristics

 

Spoken Australian English is thought to be highly colloquial, possibly more so than other spoken variants. Whether this idea is true or not, a substantial number of publications aimed at giving an overview of Australian English have been published.books about Australian lore have been published, beginning with Karl Lentzners Dictionary of the Slang-English of Australia and of Some Mixed Languages in 1892. The first dictionary of based on historical principles that covered Australian English was E. E. Morriss Austral English: A Dictionary of Australasian Words, Phrases and Usages (1898).a long period of uninterest and/or antipathy, the first synchronic dictionaries of Australian English began to appear. In 1976, the Australian Pocket Oxford Dictionary was published, the first dictionary edited and published in Australia. In 1981, the more comprehensive Macquarie Dictionary of Australian English was published, after 10 years of research and planning. Updated editions have been published since and the Macquarie Dictionary is widely regarded as authoritative. Oxford University Press also publishes a range of dictionaries of Australian English, including the Oxford Dictionary of Australian English.publishers have also produced phrase books" to assist visitors. These books reflect a highly exaggerated and often outdated style of Australian colloquialisms and they should partially be regarded as amusements rather than accurate usage guides.

 

1.1 History and origins

 

Australian English incorporates many terms that Australians consider to be unique to their country. One of the best-known of these is outback which means a remote, sparsely-populated area. Many such words, phrases or usages originated with British and Irish convicts transported to Australia in 1788-1868. And many words which are still used frequently by rural Australians are also used in all or part of England, with variations in meaning. For example:

a creek in Australia (as in North America), is any stream or small river, whereas in England it is a small watercourse flowing into the sea;

paddock is the Australian word for field, while in England it is a small enclosure for livestock;

bush (as in North America) or scrub mean wooded areas" or country areas in general" in Australia, while in England, they are commonly used only in proper names (such as Shepherds Bush and Wormwood Scrubs).

Australian English and several British English dialects (eg. Cockney, Scouse, Geordie) use the word mate to mean a close friend of the same gender (or sometimes a platonic friend of the opposite sex), rather than the conventional meaning of a spouse, although this usage has also become common in some other varieties of English.origins of other terms are not as clear, or are disputed. Dinkum or fair dinkum means true, the truth, speaking the truth, and related meanings, depending on context and inflection. It is often claimed that dinkum was derived from the Cantonese (or Hokkien) ding kam, meaning top gold, during the Australian goldrushes of the 1850s. This, however, is chronologically improbable since dinkum is first recorded in the 1890s. Scholars give greater credence to the notion that it originated with a now-extinct dialect word from the East Midlands in England, where dinkum (or dincum) meant hard work or fair work, which was also the original meaning in Australian English. The derivation dinky-di means a true" or devoted Australian. The words dinkum or dinky-di and phrases like true blue are widely purported to be typical Australian sayings, however these sayings are more commonly used in jest or parody rather than as an authentic way of speaking.

australian english language

Similarly, gday, a stereotypical Australian greeting, is no longer synonymous with good day" in other varieties of English (it can be used at night time) and is never used as an expression for farewell, as good day" is in other countries.

Sheila, Australian slang for woman, is derived from the Irish girls name Sle.

 

1.2 Words of Australian Aboriginal origin

 

Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been incorporated into Australian English, mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example, dingo, kangaroo). Beyond that, few terms have been adopted into the wider language, except for some localised terms, or slang. Some examples are cooee and Hard yakka. The former is a high-pitched call (pronounced /kʉː. iː/) which travels long distances and is used to attract attention. Cooee has also become a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Yagara/Jagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region. Also from the Brisbane region comes the word bung meaning broken. A failed piece of equipment might be described as having bunged up or referred to as on the bung or gone bung. Bung is also used to describe an individual who is pretending to be hurt; such individual is said to be bunging it on. In Western Australia the Nyoongah word Winyarn, meaning poor" or sick" or is used similarly, especially among young people, in a similar sense to the more common piss weak. The final syllable is extended to denote intensity, and may be followed by unna, a Nyoongar word translatable loosely as isnt it, or arent you?".often thought of as an Aboriginal word, didgeridoo (a well known wooden ceremonial musical instrument) is probably an onomatopaoeic word of Western invention. It has also been suggested that it may have an Irish derivation. use a variety of colourful terms to refer to people. These terms may indicate such things as the persons ethnicity, the place where the person resides, the social status of the person, the persons beha