- A truly national realistic tradition began with the appearance of the "Wanderers". Kramskoy organized a protest against prescribed mythological




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- Are you fond of arts?

- Yes, I am. I am fond of arts. I really enjoy everything that is aesthetically beautiful. I like painting, sculpture, and architecture. I am also fond of music, ballet, opera, and theatre. Masterpieces have always inspired people. The twentieth century has given the world one more variety of arts - cinema.

- What kind of music do you like?

- I like both serious and pop music. I want to say that the striking changes in musical style occurred about 1900. After World War II avant-garde music began to employ the electronics techniques. The dehumanizing of music has been carried further by the use of computers to determine the nature of sound materials and even to create musical pieces.

- Was popular music wide spread in the 20th century?

- Yes, it was.

- What brought about the tremendous growth of popular music during the 20th century?

- The tremendous growth of popular music during the 20th century was the result of advances in electronics. New techniques have made possible high-fidelity reproduction of sound and its widespread and rapid dissemination through radio, phonograph, tape recorder, and television. In addition, some of the instruments used in popular music have incorporated electronic amplification as well as sound production.

- When did popular music originate?

- Popular music in the modern sense originated in the late 18th century, when ballads made popular in ballad operas and dance music received wide circulation.

- What prompted a new direction in popular music in the 20th century?

- In the 20th century a new direction in popular music was prompted by the emergence of jazz among blacks in the southern United States. After the original ragtime came jazz proper, swing, bebop, and rock in its numerous manifestations - punk, new wave, etc. Early in the century, the novelty of jazz rhythms and dominance of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments over strings attracted some serious composers who occasionally incorporated suitable jazz idioms into their works. Since about 1930 popular music has gradually adopted techniques that originated in serious music. Regardless of the interaction of popular and serious music, the popularity of the former is one of the most significant musical developments of the 20th century.

- Who is your favourite composer?

- My favourite composer is Sergey Rachmaninoff. He was the last great figure of the tradition of Russian Romanticism and a leading piano virtuoso of his time. He is especially known for his piano concerti and the piece for piano and orchestra entitled "Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini". At the age of 19 he graduated from the conservatory, winning a gold medal for his one-act opera "Aleko" (after Aleksandr Pushkin's poem "The Gypsies"). His fame and popularity, both as composer and concert pianist, were launched by two compositions: the "Prelude", and his "Piano Concerto No. 2". Rachmaninoff's music, although produced mostly in the 20th century, re mains firmly entrenched in the 19th-century music. He was the final to express the tradition embodied by P. Tchaikovsky.

- Do you like the music of other Russian composers?

- Yes, of course. I also enjoy Mikhail Glinka's music. He was me first Russian composer to win international recognition, and the acknowledged founder of the Russian nationalist school. The opera that first won him fame was "Life for the Tsar". It was produced at St. Petersburg in 1836.

- What else did Glinka create?

- In 1842 Glinka created his second opera "Ruslan and Lyudmila". The composer Franz Listz was fascinated by the novelty of Glinka's music.

- Did Glinka's music influence the composers of succeeding generations?

- It should be said that Glinka's work, although small in bulk, is the basis of practically all later Russian music. "Ruslan and Lyudmila" provided models of lyrical melody and colourful orchestration on which Mily Balakirev, Aleksandr Borodin, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov formed their styles. Glinka's orchestral composition "Kamarinskaya", of 1848, according to Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, became the foundation of later Russian symphonic music.

- Do you like the music of modern composers?

- As for modern composers I am fond of experimental works of Igor Stravinsky. He heralded a new epoch in music. Stravinsky's revolutionary style, labelled "dynamism," "barbarism," or "primitivism," concentrated on metric imbalance and dissonance. Following the leadership of Stravinsky, Bela Bartok, and Sergey Prokofiev, entered a Neo-classical period characterized by restraint of emotional content.

- Do you like opera?

- Yes, I do. Especially I like the operas created by Mozart, Verdi, and Tchaikovsky.

- Do you known anything about the history of opera?

- It is generally accepted that opera began in 1600 when the Florentine composer Jacopo Peri produced his "Euridice", which is considered to be the first opera, at the wedding of the King of France Henry IV and Maria de Medici. Later a group of Italian musicians, poets, and noblemen called "Camerata" revived the style of musical story that had been used in Greek tragedy. By the late 1600s operas spread throughout Europe. Composers produced complicated arias, recitatives, duets to demonstrate the splendid voices of the singers.

- Do you like pop music?

- Yes, I do. I prefer the "Beatles" to all recent pop groups.

- Who were the members of the group?

- The four members of the group, all born in Liverpool, were Paul McCartney, John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. They came from a working-class background, and ail had worked in various rock groups before they started performing together.

- When was the name of the group adopted?

- The name the "Beatles" was adopted in 1960. They were per forming at clubs in Liverpool and in Hamburg, which served as a proving ground for popular musicians of the period.

- What songs made them the most popular rock group in Eng land!

- Such songs as "Love Me Do," "Please Please Me," "She Loves You," and "I Want To Hold Your Hand" made them the most popular rock group in England. Early in 1964 what soon came to be called "Beatlemania" struck the United States with the release there of the two last-named records and their first U.S. television appearance on the "Ed Sullivan Show."

- Who was inspired by the music of the "Beatles"!

- Such U.S. performers as Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, and Bill Haley were inspired by the music of the "Beatles". The "Beatles'" long hair and tastes in dress proved influential throughout the world.

- What kept the "Beatles" at the top of popularity charts for several years?

- The freshness and excitement of the earliest days of rock and roll and, in combination with the simple but engaging lyrics of Lennon and McCartney, kept the group at the top of popularity charts for several years. They won recognition from the music industry in the form of awards for performances and songs. With a solid financial basis they could experiment with new musical forms and arrangements. The result was a variety of songs ranging from ballads such as "Yesterday" to complex rhythm tunes like "Paperback Writer," from children's songs such as "Yellow Submarine" to songs of social comment, including "Eleanor Rigby."

- When did their public performances end?

- Their public performances ended in 1966.

- Do you know any other long-lived and popular rock band?

- The "Rolling Stones", English musical group, was one of the most long-lived and popular of all rock bands.

- What can you tell us about this rock band?

- The name "Rolling Stones" was adopted from a song by the American blues musician Muddy Waters. The "Rolling Stones" began to perform in England in 1963, and a series of outstanding songs had made the band second in popularity only to the "Beatles" among rock and roll audiences by 1966.

- What albums made the "Rolling Stones" popular?

- The group reached the height of its popularity in the late 1960s and early '70s with such albums as "Beggar's Banquet", "Let It Bleed", "Sticky Fingers", and "Exile On Main Street".

- When were the "Rolling Stones" performing?

- The "Rolling Stones" were still performing in the late 20th century, long after the "Beatles" and other classic rock bands of the 1960s had disbanded.

- What was the "Rolling Stones" music marked by?

- The "Rolling Stones'" music was marked by a driving back- beat, biting and satirical lyrics, simple but expressive instrumental accompaniments, and Jagger's blues-influenced singing.

- Well, now let us talk about painting. Are you fond of painting?

- To me painting is second only to music. I take a special liking to masters' masterpieces. I have several albums with the greatest Russian and West European paintings.

- Which painting do you prefer Russian or West European?

- It is almost impossible to say which painting I prefer Russian or West European. Each of them has its own peculiarities. I like the colour of Andrew Rublev's masterpieces and I enjoy the Impressionists works of art. I am also fond of the "Little masters'" wo

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