Appendix a for the course paper "Australia"

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APPENDIX A FOR THE COURSE PAPER AUSTRALIA

 

CONTENTS

 

INTRODUCTION1 AUSTRALIAN HISTORY

.1 First Europeans

.2 Commonwealth

.3 War. Games. War2 AUSTRALIAN GEOGRAPHIC

.1 Location

.2 States of Australia

.3 People

.4 Flora and Fauna

REPORT

 

INTRODUCTION

has chosen for the course paper the theme Australia.aim of given course paper Australia is learning this amazing continent and country.has taken this topic, because Australia is very beautiful and interesting country. This exotic country astonishing ones own fauna and flora. It is rich by the natural resources. Also it is computing as a one from most developed, English languages country.course paper consists of 2 Chapters and 2 Appendixes.first Chapter devotes the history of Australia, which is very interesting. Because Australian history is very unique and also engaging. Australia is very old continent. Australia broke away from Asia 65 million years ago and hasnt looked back.Australia is one of the most cosmopolitan and dynamic societies in the world. Over 200 languages are spoken, with English the common language. The nation has thriving ethnic media, an international business reputation, an innovative artistic community, diverse religious and cultural activities and variety in foods, restaurants, fashion and architecture.second Chapter devotes the facts about the geography of Australia. Also authors purpose given course paper Australia is learning of map of Australia and Australian geographic.has 6 states and 2 territories. It is Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia.of course flora and fauna of Australia.Australian landscape has a bit of everything - mountain ranges, rainforests, deserts and coastal dunes.is known for its unique animals. Weve got it all. Dangerous spiders, giant birds, egg-laying mammals, beautiful frogs and of course dangerous dogs Dingo...A devotes the Australian National Flag.

Appendix B devotes the map of given country

 

Chapter 1. AUSTRALIAN HISTORY

is really, really old. The continent broke away from Asia 65 million years ago and hasnt looked back. Beasts such as Megalania, a 6 meter flesh-eating goanna called it home for a period before Aborigines turned up about 60,000 years ago or so. None of the science types are exactly sure when these first humans arrived but nonetheless it was a pretty fair effort when you consider they had to travel a thousand miles in a small outrigger fishing canoe. Clearly distance didnt daunt them as they quickly inhabited all corners of a continent as big as Europe.Aboriginal history was passed on by word-of-mouth and is known as Dreaming, a complex intertwining of land, culture, language, family relations and spiritualism. There are 500 known tribes who speak 250 separate languages. The Aborigines were hunters and gatherers moving with the seasons, taking with them only those possessions that were necessary for the hunting and preparation of food. In areas of plentiful food sources they confined their movements to a relatively small area, something the size of Ireland, perhaps. In the arid desert regions they were forced to travel over vast tracts of land to obtain food and water. There is evidence they traded with Indonesian sailors circa 1451 BC. Aboriginal society was a complex network of intricate kinship relationships. All members of the family unit had their own role and responsibilities. No formal government or authority existed, but social control was maintained by a sophisticated system of beliefs. These beliefs found expression in song, art, and dance. A rich oral tradition existed in which stories of the Dreamtime, the time of creation, or recent history were passed down the generations.

 

.1 First Europeans

first bumped off the coast of Terra Incognito as early as the 1500s when Dutch and Portuguese explorers made vario1us explorations from the East Indies and Asia. It was Englishman Lieutenant James Cook who first planted a flag on the great mystery south land and forever changed it. The year was 1770., the gap between rich and poor in Britain was widening and those in charge didnt have enough room to put all the people who had become criminals. The Americans had won the war of independence so that place was out, so in their wisdom the aristocracy decided to use the Great South Land as a penal colony. Steal some bread? Youre going to Aussie, Geezer. Penal servitude was seen as the worst of punishments, a banishment from everything one knew.Arthur Phillip turned up with the first fleet in 1788. Eleven ships containing 1350 passengers, none of whom had much of an idea what to expect. They knew nothing about the climate, the vegetation, the animals, or the native Indigenous people and culture.was a strategic place to own for Britain. Her Majestys navy had ruled the seas for years and still wanted to. Its hard to imagine the hauteur of a people who believed they could come over and decide they could put down a flag and henceforth own a continent the size of Australia.fleet consisted mainly of convicts and their guards. Men outnumbered women four to one. They first arrived at Botany Bay, the area Cook had planted the flag on, but deciding it was too marshy. Phillip upped the whole fleet and sailed a few miles up the coast to Port Jackson, now known as Sydney Harbour. They put down at Circular Quay (the area just in between the Harbour Bridge and Opera House) and thats how Sydney began.1802, after various rebellions and plagues, a fellow called Matthew Flinders took his ship and circumnavigated the whole continent. Free settlers began turning up in the hope of making their fortunes. After the establishment of Port Jackson, from 1803 to 1836 settlements began in Hobart, Brisbane, Perth, Melbourne and Adelaide, each now a state capital city.right into the guts of the place proved a harder ask. Most of Australia is harsh, arid desert. But men like Gregory, William Wentworth, and William Lawson found a way over the Blue Mountains (part of the Great Dividing Range of mountains that stretch for much of the east coast) trying to find the fabled inland sea. Many died, the most famous of whom are Robert Burke and William Wills who explored the desert for months trying to get from Adelaide in the south to Darwin in the north.of the most important things to happen to Australia in the early colonial days, at least as far as financial prosperity is concerned, was the introduction of sheep by Captain John Macarthur. After several experiments with various breeds Macarthur introduced a Spanish sheep called a Merino, which proved to be perfectly suited to the dry, arid conditions of Australia. Their wool made Australia rich. In 30 years the sheep population grew from 34,000 to half a million, the demand for this high quality fabric high in the factories of the Northern England. And it still is. There used to be a saying that Australia rides on the sheeps back and while that may prompt uncharitable innuendo, the country became a viable member of the world on the strength of its woolly exports.important moment in the population of Australia was the discovery of gold in Bathurst, Ballarat and Bendigo. At first the authorities tried to keep it a secret, for fear that the agricultural industry would be short of workers when everyone ran off to find nuggets. But after a succession of lean years and with the news of the wealth that California had experienced in their gold rush, the government decided to reveal to people that Ballarat was the richest alluvial goldfield in the world.course, everyone went mad. Prospectors from all over the world rushed to the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria in the hope of making their fortune. Tent cities dotted the Australian countryside, some as large as 40,000 people. Most prospectors were from Britain or China.went from a farming community of a few thousand European settlers to a thriving, buzzing global community of peoples from everywhere. Hence the authorities couldnt cope with the influx and there were outbreaks of violence, the most famous of which was known as the Eureka Stockade. By 1854, miners held many grievances against what they believed to be a corrupt and unjust goldfields administration. The brutal policing of an unfair license system, blatant corruption among Government officials and the lack of representation in the Victorian Parliament were the chief causes of their resentment. Their calls for "true British justice" fell on deaf ears.of the most vocal critics were Irishmen who worked on the Eureka Lead. After a series of minor skirmishes tensions were so great that armed miners swore allegiance to a new flag - the Flag of the Southern Cross- and built a stockade. The authorities obviously couldnt have the Union Jack undermined like this and early one Sunday morning launched a surprise attack and squashed the miners stand., everything the miners fought for was later instated, such as the abolition of the gold license system, the right to vote and representation in parliament. Many believe the Eureka Rebellion was the birthplace of Australian democracy.

 

.2 Commonwealth

 

Forty-seven years after the democratic action known as the Eureka Stockade, one nation, Australia, was forged from the colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania. Until 1901 they were separate entities, governed by dif

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