The division of large historical periods into periods is presented in the book by N. A. Chmykhov. For example, the duration of a historical epoch is approximately 532 years. In the context of the offered system of periodization, the contemporary epoch began approximately in 419 AD and will continue till 2015. It is conventionally divided into three 532-periods: 419-951 (the early feudalism), 951-1483 (the developed feudalism), 1483-2015 (the modern time).
The content of the historical process is opened through the 133-year half-stages: 419-552 AD, the migratory processes in Europe, making the lands, invaded by the Barbarians, to be habitable; the first signs of feudalism; 552-685 AD the victory of the feudalist relations, the disappearance of the signs of the early iron epoch; 685-818 the consolidation processes, the completion of the main migrations; 818-951 the early feudalist society; 951-1084 the transition to the feudalist disunity; 1084-1217 the peak of the feudalist disunity; 1217-1350 the transition to centralization; 1350-1483 the establishment of centralized feudalist societies; 1483-1616 the origin of «capitalist» relations; 1616-1749 the coming of capitalism; 1749-1882 the transformation of capitalism into the power acting throughout the world; 1882-2015 the blossom and the crisis of the contemporary epoch. Despite the immanent controversy, the existing systems of periodization give «beacons» that help to continue the work.
Periodization of the world history
in the light of a new conceptual construction: global (macro) level of analisys
Let us return to the problem of definition of hypothetical periodization of the w-orlds historical process according to the conception of the research. The assumed chronological frames may constitute up to 5000 years, i.e., from 3000 BC to 2000 AD.
It is natural that the subject of historical activity will change during this period of history, but the approach to three levels of analysis should remain unchanged. These levels are: the global level that must reflect a change of epochs at the level of civilizations; the regional level (continents and their most important territorial parts), and specific countries. The problem of the co-existence of the state and the society, the interaction of the individual (including the most prominent historical personalities) and the society should be at the focus of attention.
The revolutionary period of the first epochal cycle characterizes the emergence of the first civilizations (Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China), which is connected with the establishment of the counting of (astronomical) time. Let us cite the most prominent «eras». The 1st January 4713 BC is the beginning of Scaligers era, whence the uninterrupted counting of days is conducted. 3761 BC is the creation of the world according to the Hebrew calendar. The creation of the man is referred to 3113 BC by the Maya. The emergence of the most ancient (archeological) cultures is chronologically referred approximately to the same period. For example, they are the Trypillya culture (near 4000 BC), Mohenjo-Daro (India), Chatal Huyuk (Asia Minor), the first agricultural cultures in Mexico. The origin of the civilizations in Mesopotamia (Uruk) and Egypt (3000-2800 BC) (The Ancient Kingdom), the epoch of building the Pyramids, the sources of the Chinese civilization (the first legendary emperor Fu Hsi) all this is referred to the involutionary stage of the first epochal cycle.
The transition to the co-evolutionary stage of development is connected with the processes of territorial unification (Sargon I the Accadian united all Mesopotamian territories). In Sumer near 2000 BC, punishments according to the principle of Taleon (eye for eye) are replaced by a ransom.
The mosaic migrations of ethnoses stimulated changes in the balance of force at the regional level. The Chaldean kingdom is the hegemon in the Interfluve. The Laws of Hammurapi (1750 BC). The strengthening of the Hittites. Near 1750 BC the split of Egypt (The Upper and the Lower by the unification of nomes on the Nile). The processes of unification in China (near 1766 BC the victory of Shan tribes over the Sia ones). The appearance of Shan-In dynasty. Social restoration processes take place in Crete (the Minoan civilization) (1700-1400 BC the period of the «new castles»).
A growth of fight between the most ancient civilization centers of the Mediterranean region and Asia Minor for hegemony is connected with the evolutionary period of the epochal cycle. 1580-1314 BC Egypt the 18th dynasty Yakhmosis I, Tuthmosis III 15 invasive campaigns of the Pharaoh to Palestine, that turned Egypt into the «worlds state», Akhenaten (the reformator of religion, the idea of monotheism Aten, the God of Sun). The blossom of Mycenae. The fight of Egypt against the Hittites. The beginning of migration of Aryan tribes to India. The Trojan War (13th century BC). The first epochal cycle of the worlds historic process terminated approximately at this time. The formation and struggle of ancient centers of civilization became the content of this cycle. (30-13th centuries BC).
The second epochal cycle begins with the revolutionary stage, connected with the following historical events. The political decline of Babylon (XI-VIII centuries BC), the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, the geopolitical changes in Mesopotamia. The struggle of Egypt with the «sea nations». The Western and Eastern Chou (China). The involutionary stage of the cycle is connected with the beginning of the decline of the Israelite kingdom (after David and Solomon) (935 BC) and with the imperialistic policy of Assyria in the Interfluve. The social-innovative activity at the co-evolutionary stage of the cycle is connected with nearly simultaneous important events. 770-481 BC the period of «Spring and Autumn», connected with the intensification of fight for hegemony between the leading Chinese kingdoms, 776 BC the traditional date of conducting the First Greek Olympics, and 753 BC the date of the foundation of Rome. Meantime, Assyria continued the war for preserving the invaded territories in Asia Minor, which was particularly successful during the rule of Sargon II (722-705 BC).
The evolutionary stage within this cycle is connected with important changes both in the spiritual sphere (Karl Jaspers called VIII-VI centuries BC as the «axial time») and in the sociopolitical sphere. India: Upanishads. China: Taoism. Persia: Zoroastrism. Avesta. Near 664-525 BC The Later kingdom of Egypt. Saiss dynasty. Japan: 660 BC the official date of appearance of the Yamato dynasty. 594 BC the reforms of Solon in Athens, new principles of the polis structure, differentiated from the Asian tradition of a state structure. 612 AD the downfall of Assyria. Thus, the second epochal cycle had the chronological duration of about 600 years (XII-VI centuries BC).
The third epochal cycle on the revolutionary stage is identified with the beginning of the new Old Testament tradition, which is connected with the Jews being in the Babylonian captivity (597-586 BC) after the invasion of Judaea by the king Nebuchadnezzar II. (till 539 BC, when Babylon was captured by the Persians). One of the world religions Buddhism emerges at this stage (560-480 BC Buddha). As known, the doctrine of transmigration of souls was characteristic of Pythagoreans.
The involutionary stage is connected with the strengthening of the Persians ( in the 6th century BC, they established their control practically over the whole territory of Asia Minor, including the Greek cities, and reached more than Assyria at its times). 525 BC the Persians received the victory over Egypt. 510 BC the establishment of a republic in Rome. China: written laws, money, Confucianism.
The co-evolutionary stage of the third epochal cycle is identified with the wars between the Greeks and the Persians (500-449 BC). At the same time, there happened the first great clash of the West and the East, the time of growth of the classic antique culture (Aeschyle, Sophocle, Pericles, Thucydides, Protagor: «the man is a measure of all things»). China: 481-281 BC the period of «fighting kingdoms» of the «seven strongest»: Chin, Chu, Yuan, Chi, Wei, Chao, Han. The philosopher Mo-Czi (utopianism). The evolutionary stage of the characterized cycle is connected with the following historical events: the conflict of plebeians and patricians in Rome. 469-399 BC Socrates. The dialectic thinking in the western civilizational tradition. 444-429 BC the Athenian democracy. Pericles. 431-404 BC the Peloponnesus war between Athens and Sparta for hegemony, the beginning of decline of a traditional Greek polis. The strengthening of Macedonia. The beginning of creation of the Great Chinese wall the only artificial structure seen from the cosmos.
The third epochal cycle, impregnated with large-scale historical events, has the chronological frames of VI-V centuries BC. In fact, it is the «axial time» according to Jaspers.
The fourth epochal cycle took its start in the 6th century BC in the revolutionary phase and is connected with the sources of the Hellenism and the synthesis of the western and eastern traditions. 356-323 BC Alexander the Great. 378-338 BC the second Athenian naval union («The Gold Autumn of Athens»). 359-348 BC the legist traditions (totalitarian model) of Shan Yan in the kingdom of Chin (China). The involutionary stage of the cycle is characterized with the wars of Diadochi for the heritage of Alexander the Great; India: the Empire of Maurya. Artha