The transient periods of social development are characterized with historical phases opposite by the direction of changes: «coevolution» and «revolution». For example, the «co-evolution» is the phase of transition from the normative period of «involution» to the normative period of «evolution». This period is realized within the single epochal cycle, that is why only the polarity of the system qualities of the society or «vectors» of social development are changing under such conditions.
As distinct from «co-evolution», «revolution» is a qualitative transformation of the entire social structure of the society. It creates the mechanism of transition from the normative condition of «evolution» to the «involution». At the same time, this process is connected with radical changes of the societal characteristics. The «revolution» as if generalizes the results of development of the society during the entire epochal cycle and opens a new cycle.
The characteristic of a subject of history is changing in the process of development. In fact, various types of subjects are acting. For example, during the «revolution», the role of a subject-individual is activizing. Let us recall the fact that, in the period of the Great French Revolution of 1789-1794, there were the most characteristic personalities acting on the political stage. Such names as Mirabeau, Danton, Robespierre, Napoleon became denominative for each stage of the mentioned revolution, and the roles played by them became typical of the analysis of similar processes. The same phenomena may be observed in Russia of 1905-1917, when the cohort of revolutionary activists actually «exceeded the demand» of the history. During the transformation of the «co-evolutionary» type, the role of the subject-socium becomes more significant. Let us emphasize that, under conditions of the involutionary process, the temporal space of the society is deformed in the direction of the future that, respectively, makes the society a mythological one. In the process of the «evolution», one observes the displacement of attention to the past.
The information about the number of social roles confirms the relevance of the research hypothesis concerning the different levels of complexity of the social structures of the «involutionary» and the «evolutionary» societies. Whereas the number of social roles is about 70,000 in the countries that went through the Great Depression of 1929-1933, this number is about 30-40 thousand in the domestic area.
The discrepancy between the calendar-historic time of development of the society and the levels of biological and societal development are fundamental for antroposociogenetic development. Of adequacy for the social-historic analysis is the universal epochal cycle consisting of four interrelated elements (two opposite historical periods and two transient periods), which form the conventional scheme: «involution»«co-evolution» «evolution» «revolution».
Now let us try to define specific «beacons» (the most important events in the spiritual or material spheres) on the historical material (after receiving the empirical data, this hypothesis may be reviewed). These «beacons» will give grounds for defining the possible chronological frames of every phase and the epochal cycle on the whole. After this analysis, we define an approximate number of cycles, already «processed» in the world historical process. On the grounds of such a research, it would be possible to create an adequate model of periodization of a change of epochal cycles.
Such a periodization should reflect the mechanisms of interaction at the three hierarchical levels: global, regional, and of certain countries. In this case, one may assume that the higher the hierarchical level, the later the transformational changes begin at it (for example, at the global level).
But, first of all, we make an approximate list of the elements (classifications) of the social-economic formations. The Marxist «five-element structure» primitive communal, slave-owning, feudalist, capitalist, and communist systems «works» to the «post-capitalist» formation.
The «three-stage» classifications are quite popular. They are presented by Morgan [wildness (since the appearance of the primitive people), barbarity (since the emergence of the primitive forms of agriculture), civilization (since the emergence of the state)] and by Bell [the pre-industrial period (the production is human-powered or animal-powered), the industrial (the basis is the work of mechanisms), the post-industrial period (the life of a society is maintained mainly by the means of the reproduction of information)]. These classifications are provided with chronological characteristics: the prehistoric epoch (before the creation of writing), antique, mediaeval, modern and contemporary time. However, this approach is too scholastic and conditional.
The creation of a more adequate single system of classification is complicated by the controversial semantic loads carried by the corresponding terminology. However, such an attempt can be undertaken.
Wildness Barbarism Primitive communal systemAncient civilizationsPre-industrial societyThe epoch of ancient kingdomsEstate-class societyMiddle AgesCapitalismIndustrial societyModern and contemporary timeInformational society Post-industrial society
We emphasize that the model by Spengler is the most developed system of periodization in a strong accordance with the cyclic approach.
«Simultaneous» spiritual epochs
BC0-300 ADsince 900 ADVedic religion
Indian cultureHellen-Italic “demetrian” culture
The Olympic myth
Antique cultureArabic culture
Germanic CatholicismThe birth of a myth of the big style as the expression of the new
God perception. The worlds fear and the worlds sorrow. (Spring)
Legends about Heracles and TessApocalepticsBernard de Clairvaux Knightly epos.
St. Francis of Assisi.The early mystico-metaphysical formation of a new view on the world. High scholasticism. (Summer)The most ancient parts of the VedaThe Orphic,
Avesta, TalmudThomas Aquinas (1274)
Dante (1321) scholasticismReformation:
the protest within the national religion against the great forms of the early epochBrahminsThe religion
Nestorians, MazdakHus (1415),
BC0-300 ADsince 900 ADThe beginning
of the pure philosophical formulation of idealistic and realistic systemsUpanishadsGreat pre- So craticsByzantine,
Hebrew, Syrian, Coptic, Persian literature of
Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz (XVI - XVII centuries)The creation
of a new mathematics. The conception of a number as the reflection of the sense of the world formlostNumber as measure.
(540 BC)Indefinite number.
AlgebraNumber as function.
Fermat (1030) Traces in the UpanishadsPythagorean unionMohammed (622 AD),
the Paulicians, the iconoclastsEnglish Puritans (1620), French Jansenists (1640)Autumn
Intellectuals of big towns. The culmination of strictly intellectual creativity«Enlighten-ment»: the faith in the omnipotence of intellect, the cult of «nature». «Reasonable religion»The Sutra, Buddhathe Sophists,
of the mathematical thinking. The enlightenment of the world of number forms
Null as a numberEudox (conic section)Number theory, trigonometryEuler (1783), Laplace (1827)
BC0-300 ADsince 900 ADThe great concluding systemsof idealism:Yoga, VedantaPlatonAl-FarabiGoethe, Schellingof epistemology:NyaaAristotleAvicennaHegel, Kant, FichteWinter
The beginning of outward-looking civilization. The dying of the spiritual creative power. The very life is becoming problematicThe materialistic view of the world: the cult of science, profit, happinessSankhaya, Charvakathe CynicsEpicurean sects of the Abbasids epochBentham, O.Comte, Darwin, Spencer, MarxEthico-social ideals of life: the epoch of «philosophy without mathematics»Currents of Buddha epochHellenismCurrents in the Islam Schopenhauer, NietzscheThe inner completion of the mathematic world of forms.
The concluding thoughtslostArchimedesAl-Khoresmi, Al-Biruni Gauss, Riemann (1866)The decline in abstract thinking up to the professionally-scientific cathedra-philosophy«Six classic systems»AcademySchools of Baghdad and Basra
ComteansThe spread of the last outlookIndian BuddhismHellenistical- Roman StoicismPractical Islamic fatalismEthical socialismThen O. Spengler presents the tables of the «simultaneous» art epochs and «simultaneous» political epoch