The evolutionary stage of the cycle is ended with the colonization of North America by the Englishmen and Frenchmen, and South America by the Spaniards and the Portuguese. For America, the first epochal cycle came to its end in the middle of the 18th century.
The second epochal cycle began with the revolutionary events. 1775-1783 the War of Independence of the USA. 1810-1822 the independence of the South American states from Spain. 1783-1730 Simon Bolivar. 1823 the Monroe doctrine. 18611865 the Civil War in the USA. 1898 the war of the USA against Spain. The establishment of the US hegemony in South and Central America.
The involutionary stage of the cycle lasts till the middle of the 20th century and is characterized by the domination of the military regimes in most South American countries. The period of 1900-1945 is connected with the immanent preparation of the USA to playing the role of «the single superpower».
The co-evolutionary stage of the second epochal cycle began with the revolution in Cuba (1959), 1973-1989 the rule of Pinochet in Chile, 1979 the revolution in Nicaragua. For South and Central America, the end of the 20th century is connected with a gradual democratization of political regimes and integrational processes. 1995 MERCOSUR: Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay. 1993 NAFTA: USA, Canada, Mexico. The free trade area from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego is planned to be created by 2005. On December 31, 1999, the USA quitted the Panama Canal Zone (1914). In fact, America entered the evolutionary stage of the cycle.
Africa was the cradle of the man. The most ancient state formations belong to the Egyptian civilization. The revolutionary stage of the first epochal cycle began practically with the emergence of the Old Egyptian Kingdom (3000-2800 BC) and the period of building the Pyramids.
The involutionary stage of the cycle is identified with the division of Egyptian nomes along the stream of Nile (near 1750 BC). It comprises about 1200 years substantially connected with the peak of might of the Ancient Egypt.
The co-evolutionary stage of the first African epochal cycle is connected with the history of the Late Egyptian kingdom (664-525 BC) and, in fact, ends with the war between Carthage and Rome for domination over the Mediterranean region and with the emergence of the Hellenistic Egypt near 200 BC. This event became the beginning of the evolutionary stage of the cycle that ended in the 7th century with the process of Islamization of Egypt.
The second African epochal cycle is connected with the history of the Negro-Australoid race (which consists of three subraces: Negritic, Negrilic, Bushman) and the transitional Ethiopian subrace.
The revolutionary stage of the cycle began on the boundary of Anno Domini with the emergence of the first state formations. West Africa: Ghana (III-XIII centuries AD), Mali (XIII-XVII centuries AD), the Songhai (Ghao) Empire (XIII-XVI centuries AD), Kanem-Bornu (VII-XVII centuries AD). Central Africa: Congo (X-XIII centuries AD), North-East Africa: the Acsum kingdom (III-IV centuries AD). Acsum embraced the Monophysite Christianity in the 4th century, which allowed Ethiopia to defend its independence in the colonial epoch. The 13th century the peak of the might of Ethiopia.
The involutionary stage of the cycle is characterized by the beginning of the colonial seizures of Europeans (XV-XVI centuries). The export of Negro slaves to America delivered the blow upon the social relations of the African nations, which limited the possibilities of progressive development. In fact, the 300-400 years of colonial dependence deepened the external dependence of Africa by preserving the archaic social structure.
The co-evolutionary stage of the cycle is connected with the beginning of the process of decolonization. 1833 the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. 1847 the independence of Liberia (ex-American Negro slaves), 1858 the Republic of South Africa. 1808-1830 the reforms of Mohammed Ali in Egypt. 1869 the opening of the Suez Canal.
The evolutionary stage of the second African epochal cycle began in the 1960s with the establishment of independence of African countries and will last about one century.
Australia has a specific history. The large territory, inhabited on the boundary of Anno Domini by Aborigines practically did not have any state formations till the discovery of the continent by the Europeans (1606 the Dutchman Willem Jantz). In fact, the revolutionary stage of the first Australian epochal cycle begins in the middle of the 18th century (1768-1779 James Cook). The involutionary stage is identified with the war of the European immigrants against the Aborigines in the 19th the first part of the 20th century. The co-evolutionary stage began in the latter half of the 20th century with the creation of a civilization that has an European identity.
Antarctica is the sixth continent of the Earth with the area of 50 million square kilometers, being twice more than the area of Australia. It is discovered in 1820 by Bellingshausen and Lazarev, the great Russian navigators. Prior to this moment, the history of the continent remained under the ice cover. The international-legal status of Antarctica is defined by the corresponding treaty of the 1st of December, 1959, which foresees the exploitation of the territory of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only, prohibits declaring the territorial claims in Antarctica, and ensures the freedom of scientific researches under the condition that natural resources be conserved and preserved.
National-state (micro) level of analysis
of the history
Having viewed the main points of the scheme of development of epochal cycles at the global (macro) and regional (medi) levels, we focus our attention at the research of historical cycles at the national-state (micro) level, which corresponds to the scale of our research in general.
The criteria for construction of a similar sampling may be the following: various states should be represented, first, countries of all continents, second, countries belonging to various world religions, and, third, countries with the population of at least 8 million persons as of the end of the 1990s.
According to the criteria given above, the required sampling may be the following:
##CountryPopulation (millions)ReligionThe beginning of developmentEUROPE
- Austria8.039CatholicismХIII century
- Belgium10.190Catholicism1830 AD
- Bulgaria8.628Orthodox680 AD
- Vatican1 thousandCenter
of Catholicism750 AD
- Great Britain58.550AnglicanismVI century
- Greece10.560OrthodoxVIII century BC
- Spain39.220CatholicismVII century AD
- Italy57.520CatholicismVIII century BC
- Netherlands15.615ProtestantismХIV centuryContinued ##CountryPopulation (millions)ReligionThe beginning of development10.Germany83.870Catholicism, Protestantism.843 AD11.Poland38.915Catholicism960 AD12.Portugal10.800Catholicism1143 AD13.Russia150.50Orthodox1147 AD14.Belorussia10.204Orthodox, Uniate.ХII century15.Hungary9.963Catholicism1000 AD16.Romania22.260Orthodox185917.Ukraine50.500Orthodox988 AD18.France58.160Catholicism843 AD19.Czech Republic10.320Catholicism, ProtestantismХ century20.Sweden8.928ProtestantismIХ century21.Yugoslavia (Serbia)10.635Orthodox, Catholicism, IslamIХ centuryASIA22.Afghanistan23.230IslamХVIII century23.Bangladesh124.17Islam194724.Vietnam74.570BuddhismVI century AD25.Israel5.575JudaismХI century BC26.India961.69Buddhism, Islam, HinduismIV century BC27.Indonesia208.06Islam, Catholicism.VI century ADContinued ##CountryPopulation (millions)ReligionThe beginning of development28.Iraq21.810IslamVI century BC29.Iran66.820IslamVI century BC30.China1232.310Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Catholicism.ХIV century BC31.Korea45.710 + 24.550BuddhismVI century AD32.Malaysia20.770IslamХIII century AD33.Pakistan133.572IslamХII century AD34.Saudi Arabia18.835IslamVI century BC35.Turkey63.050Islam107136.Japan125.580Buddhism, ShintoismVI century BCAFRICA37.Algeria29.505Islam171138.Ethiopia57.970Monophysite ChristianityV century AD39.Ghana17.895CatholicismIII century AD40.Kenya29.460IslamХIV century AD41.Nigeria105.470IslamХIV century AD42.Republic of South Africa42.120Catholicism, Islam1820AMERICA43.Canada28.975Catholicism1608 ADContinued ##CountryPopulation (millions)ReligionThe beginning of development44.Mexico96.630CatholicismVI century AD45.USA266.890Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam1607 AD46.Argentina34.845CatholicismХVI century AD47.Brazil163.640Catholicism1500 AD48.Chile14.420CatholicismХ century AD49.Peru23.565CatholicismVI century BCAUSTRALIA50.Australia18.350CatholicismХVII century