Социальное объявление развития english

#CountryNumber of completed epochal cyclesDeveloping Epochal CyclePeriod (Phase of the Developing Epochal Cycle)Probability of Actualization of the Prospective Transient Period

Социальное объявление развития english

Информация

История

Другие материалы по предмету

История

Сдать работу со 100% гаранией
shastra the science of policy. Rome the end of the struggle between plebeians and patricians, the strengthening of the republican system, the spread of the Roman hegemony on the entire Apennine peninsula. The co-evolutionary stage is connected with the recognition of Buddhism as the official religion in India (Asoka 268-231 BC). The end of the Diadochian wars, the consolidation of the Hellenistic kingdoms (near 281 BC). The unification of China at the time of the Chin dynasty (246-201 BC). The beginning of the Punic wars between Rome and Carthage for the dominance over the Mediterranean region (264 BC). 146 BC Rome established its power over Greece. The downfall of Carthage. The transformation of the Roman republic into the most powerful state. China: 145-87 BC Ssu-ma Chien. The classical tractate «Shi Tzi» (The Historical Notes). The evolutionary stage of the fourth epochal cycle comprises about 200 years (a hundred years BC and a hundred years AD) and is characterized with important changes: the crisis of the Roman Republic (the problems of the land reform the activity of the brothers Gracchus); the peasants war in China under the guidance of Luban and the rule of the first dynasty of Han (206 BC 9 AD). Near 165 BC: Judaea the revolt of the Makoveii. The establishment of the «Great Silk Way» between the Empire of Han and Rome. Civil wars, the crisis of the Roman Republic. The 1st January 45 BC the Julian Calendar. 30 BC Rome emperor Octavian Augustus. We recall that, in the era of Anno Domini, there is no null year. The date of Christmas was defined in 525 AD by Dionysus the Little. China: the revolt of the «Red Brows» in 18-29 AD. China: the invention of the rice paper. Resurrection of Jesus Christ. The beginning of the Christianity in the Roman Empire. The fourth epochal cycle IV BC I AD. The blossom of the Roman Empire. The spiritual crisis and the appearance of the new world religion of Christianity.

The fifth epochal cycle begins approximately in the 2nd century AD. The revolutionary stage is connected with the empire traditions of Rome. China: 220-265 AD the «triregnum» period (hegemons), 3rd century AD the spread of the Buddhist tradition from India. 313 AD Constantine acknowledged the Christianity as the official religion in the Roman Empire. The involutionary stage of the cycle is identified with the war between Rome and Persia. 381 AD the Ecumenical council the censure of Aryanism, the fight with the Christian heresies. 395 AD the division of the Roman empire to the Western and Eastern ones (the Byzantine Empire). 451 AD the defeat of Huns on the Catalaun fields. 455 AD the spoliation of Rome by the Vandals. Nesterians Christianity moves to the East. The co-evolutionary stage is connected with the formation of Barbarian statehood (the Barbarization of the Western Roman Empire and the Romanization of the Barbarians). 481-511 AD Chlodwig the king of Francs. 419-554 AD the Visigothic kingdom. 439-534 AD North Africa: Vandals. Byzantine Empire: Justinian (482-565 AD). 568 AD Langobards in Italy ( in 757 AD, they were defeated by Pippinus Brevis). 407 AD the Roman legions left Britain («the period of seven kings»).

The evolutionary stage of the fifth epochal cycle (6th century AD) is connected with important events in the development of the world religions. Christianity. Pope Gregorius I (590-604) the attempt to strengthen the thearchy, which became the symbol of the struggle of Vatican as a universalistic force and secular feudalists for the hegemony over Europe till the period of the Reformation. Islam: 570-632 AD prophet Mohammed, Koran. The 20th of September, 622 AD Hegira (the emigration of the Prophet to Mecca) the beginning of the chronology («the null year») according to the Muslim Calendar. Buddhism: the penetration to Japan, Cambodia, Korea, Tibet. The Slavs: the struggle against the Avars. 623-658 AD the state of Samo (Czechia, Moravia).

Therefore, the fifth epochal cycle at the global level of the world historical process chronologically comprises the period from the 2nd to the 6th centuries AD.

The sixth epochal cycle is identified within the chronological frames of approximately VII-XII centuries: from Arabic invasions, the Islamic expansion, to the crusades, whose historical content was the continuation of the process of convergence between the West and East.

The revolutionary stage of the sixth epochal cycle is connected with the crisis of development of the early-feudalist state formations or, as the history of Byzantine and Chinese states showed, with the overexertion of forces in the foregoing periods of unsuccessful wars for a regional hegemony. 618-906 AD the dynasty of Tang. The struggle against nomads. Peru: the state of Chimu. The involutionary stage is connected with large Arabic invasions: 638 AD Jerusalem is captured. The Persians are defeated. 643 AD Cairo is founded. 661 750 AD the Caliphate of Omeyads. The struggle between the Shiah (the followers of Ali) and the Sunni. 714 AD the Arabs reached the Pyrenees (in 732, Carolus Martellus stopped them). 711 AD India: Arabs captured Multan, the center of Hinduism. 751 AD the victory of Arabs over the Chinese near the Talas river. 726-843 AD the iconoclastism in the Byzantine Empire.

The co-evolutionary stage of the sixth epochal cycle is characterized by the strengthening of states, belonging to the advance-guard in various regions. 863 AD Cyril and Methodius the Cyrillic alphabet. 768-814 AD Carolus Magnus the king of Franks, since 800 AD the emperor. Normanns campaigns. 862 AD Rurik in Novgorod, 879-912 AD Oleg in Kiev. 803-814 AD the Bulgarian Khan Krum. 829 AD the unification of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (Britain). 843 AD Ludwig the German. 877-889 AD Cambodia: the Empire of Angkor (Buddhism). 988 AD Rus introduced the Byzantine Christianity. 966 AD Poland introduced the Latin Christianity. France: 987-1328 AD the Capetian dynasty. Germany: 919-1024 AD the Saxon dynasty: the struggle for domination over Italy. North America: sources of the Maya civilization. 1054 AD the split of the Orthodox and the Catholic. 1049 AD Kiev Illarion «The Word on the Law and Welfare». 1097 AD the meeting of princes in Lubech: «Let Everyone Keep Ones Own Domain».

The evolutionary stage of the sixth epochal cycle is characterized with the important changes. The cities were becoming more powerful in Western Europe. Their economic life made competition to the traditional agricultural production. The first universities, the centers of free thinking that stimulated the Reformation, begin to appear. The war for power between the civil and church feudalists was becoming more intense. China: 1069-1086 AD the reforms of Van Anshi; the substitution of working off by taxation, the administrative regulation of prices. Japan: the strengthening of samurai. 1068-1167 AD the period of «insei». The spiritual content: 1048-1112 AD Omar Khayyam. 1079-1142 AD Pierre Abelard. 1096-1270 AD the crusades for the deliverance of the Holy Sepulchre. Despite the defeat of the West, the crusades became, in fact, «a repetition» for future colonial seizures.

Approximate chronological frames of the seventh epochal cycle can be started from the 13th century the period of the early Italian Renaissance (in fact, it was the revolutionary stage of the «return» to the best antique traditions) to the times of the struggle of the United States for independence (1774) and the Great French Revolution (1789-1794).

The involutionary stage of that cycle is connected with the period of the Reformation of the Catholic Church, which promoted the origin of the «spirit» of capitalism. The contrasts between the «unique» West-European values and the «universal» Asian values became more apparent since that moment.

The co-evolutionary stage of the seventh epochal cycle is identified with the period of the Great geographic discoveries and the beginning of colonial seizures. The leaders in conducting the successful bourgeois revolutions England and the Netherlands became the organizers of these seizures. The emergence of the actually global colonial system influenced both the rhythms of the cycles of development of dependent countries and the development of colonial states themselves. The North-American United States were the first to have gained independence.

The eighth epochal cycle. Having appeared in the bosom of the global evolutionary tendencies of development, the French revolution (1789-1794) «opened» the prospect to new tendencies of the global social development that, apparently, could be connected with the notion of «modernism». As a new global tendency, it had its influence on the course of world processes by crossing the borders of a phenomenon of the purely national French history. Generating the ideals of liberty, egality, and fraternity, it was more and more apparently becoming the inheritance of the whole Europe and, with a growth of this tendency, becoming impregnate with new cultural traditions the inheritance of the world. Its influence gave its shoots in Europe (revolutions of 1830, 1848-1849), in Russia (the revolt of the Decembrists in 1825 and the revolutions of 1905, 1917), in Japan (Meiji revolution of 1868), in China (The Sin-Hai revolution of 1911 and the revolution of 1949). In Latin America, this period comprises the time since the struggle for independence under the guidance of Simon Bolivar (19th century) to the revolution in Cuba (1959) and Nicaragua (1979). In Africa, this period began only since the time of the collapse of the colonial system (1960s).

The involutionary period of the eighth epochal

Похожие работы

<< < 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 > >>