writing joyce literature novel
The aim of the present paper is to study the life of James Joyce, an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century, who broke all the rules of writing. He was a representative of writers who used the method of the stream of consciousness.importance of the topic is the role of the writings of James Joyce in the world literature and their influence on the literature worldwide.paper consists of 5 chapters. Chapter 1 tells about the life of the Great Writer, his childhood and family. This chapter is paid much attention to as our nature is formed in our childhood and childhood experiences affect all our life, no matter what we are. James Joyce is one of the writers whose childhood remained in his mind forever and woke up every time he took the pen in his hands in order to depict life in general.2 gives a brief description of the writers works.3 reveals the image of Stephen Dedalus, the main character of the novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.4 is a comparison of the writer himself and his creation, namely Stephen Dedalus.5 represents some interesting facts related to Joyce, his life and works, which are taken from different Internet sites.
The Life of the Great Writer
Joyce was born on 2 February 1882 to John Stanislaus Joyce and Mary Jane Murray in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar. He was the eldest of ten children. His father's family had once owned a small salt and lime factory, which was eventually lost. In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by a Dublin Corporation and the family moved to the small town of Bray 19 km from Dublin. Around this time Joyce was attacked by a dog, which engendered in him a lifelong cynophobia. He also suffered from keraunophobia, as his deeply religious aunt had described thunderstorms as a sign of God's wrath. (www.james-joyce.ru/jaj/facts. )
Entering Jesuit schools in Clongowes and Belvedere, then the National University of Ireland, he excelled as a student.at age nine wrote a poem, Et Tu Healy on the death of Charles Steward Parnell. His father was angry with the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church. The elder Joyce had printed the poem and even sent a part to the Vatican Library. In November of the same year, John Joyce entered in Stubbs Gazette (an official register of bankruptcies) and was suspended from work. John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, and the family began to slide into poverty. John's drinking habit and general financial mismanagement were the main causes of this mishap.Joyce began his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school, which he entered but had to leave when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce then studied at home and briefly at the Christian Brothers school in North Richmond Street, Dublin, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College. He hoped that this offer would help him to join the Order. Students were elected to the Order on account of their leadership qualities, positive attitudes and were meant to develop enthusiasm for studies among the students. And at the age of 16 Joyce rejected Catholicism, but later he came to his faith back again.graduating from the Belvedere College in 1898, he enrolled at the recently established University College, Dublin, studying English, French, and Italian. He also became active in theatrical and literary circles in the city. In 1900 his review of Ibsens New Drama was published in Fortnightly review, which was his first publication. Many of the friends he made at the University College later appeared in Joyce's works.graduating from UCD, Joyce left for Paris to study medicine, but soon he abandoned this. He stayed on for a few months, appealing for finance to his family, who could ill afford it. When his mother was diagnosed with cancer, his father sent a telegram which said, "NOTHER DYING COME HOME FATHER". Joyce returned to Ireland. She finally passed into a coma and died on 13 August, James and Stanislaus refused to kneel with other members of the family praying at her bedside. After her death he continued to drink heavily. He scraped a living reviewing books, teaching and singing.7 January 1904 he attempted to publish A Portrait of the Artist, an essay-story dealing with aesthetics, but the free-thinking magazine Dana rejected it. On his twenty-second birthday he decided to turn the story into a novel which he called Stephen Hero. It was a fictional rendering of Joyce's youth, but he eventually grew frustrated with its plot and abandoned this work. It was never published in this form, but years later, in Trieste, Joyce completely rewrote it as A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.same year he met Nora Barnacle, a young woman from Connemara, County Galway who worked as a chambermaid. On 16 June 1904, they first stepped out together (as James Joyce said). This event will be commemorated as the date for the action of Ulysses. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Joyce )
Shy, bespectacled James Joyce never allowed himself a single curse in the presence of women, but in his writings he reached the depths of the black swearing and sexual fantasies. His masterpiece, the novel "Ulysses" was banned in 1920 in the U.S. and UK for obscenity and remained under a censor ban until the mid 30-ies.a teenager, Joyce often spent time in the "Night City ". It was the name of the area where brothels were concentrated. In "Night City" Joyce became a man" at the age of fourteen. When he was twenty years old, he decided that he would never have sexual relations with prostitutes, saying that from now on he would only sleep with a woman who "has a soul." Nora Barnacle was the very woman. After their first meeting Joyce wrote "It was the first time I didnt pay money for love" ... So the 16 June 1904, became the day, which is described in the novel "Ulysses." This day is now celebrated in Ireland with carnival parades. (www.tonnel.ru )
Joyce remained in Dublin for some time, drinking heavily. After one of these drinking binges, he got into a fight over a misunderstanding. He was picked up and dusted off by one of his father's acquaintance Alfred H. Hunter, who brought him into his home to treat his injuries. Hunter was rumored to be a Jew and to have an unfaithful wife. At that time Hunter helped a medical student Oliver St John Gogarty. Hunter later became one of the models for Leopold Bloom, the main character of Ulysses, and Gogarty was the one who became the prototype for the character Buck Mulligan in Ulysses. After staying in Gogarty's Martello Tower for six nights, Joyce left in the middle of the night because of a quarrel which involved Gogarty shooting a pistol at some pans hanging directly over Joyce's bed. He walked all the way back to Dublin to stay with relatives for the night, and sent a friend to the tower the next day to pack his trunk. Shortly thereafter he eloped to the continent with Nora. (www.just-facts.info)and Nora went into self-imposed exile, moving first to Zurich, where he worked as a teacher of English at the Berlitz Language School, then director of the school sent him to Trieste, which was a part of Austria-Hungary until World War I (today part of Italy). With the help of Almidano Artifoni, the director of the Trieste Berlitz School, he secured a teaching position in Pola, also a part of Austria-Hungary (today part of Croatia). He stayed there, teaching English mainly to Austro-Hungarian naval officers until the Austrians expelled all aliens. With Artifoni's help, he moved back to Trieste and began teaching English there. He would remain in Trieste for the next ten years. Later that year Nora gave a birth to their first child, George. Joyce invited his brother, Stanislaus, and secured him a teaching position at the school. Stanislaus and James had strained relations throughout the time they lived together in Trieste because of James's drinking habits and frivolity with money.became frustrated with life in Trieste and moved to Rome in late 1906, having secured employment in a bank. He intensely disliked Rome and moved back to Trieste. His daughter Lucia was born in the summer of the same year.returned to Dublin in mid-1909 with George, in order to visit his father and work on getting Dubliners published. He visited Nora's family in Galway. He also launched Ireland's first cinema, the Volta Cinematograph. While preparing to return to Trieste he decided to take one of his sisters, Eva, back with him to help Nora run the home. He spent only a month in Trieste and went back to Dublin. His venture was successful and he returned to Trieste in January 1910 with another sister, Eileen. Eva became very homesick for Dublin and returned a few years later, but Eileen spent the rest of her life on the continent.returned to Dublin again in mid-1912 during his years-long fight with his Dublin publisher George Roberts over the publication of Dubliners. His trip was once again fruitless. After this trip he never again came closer to Dublin than London.of his students in Trieste was Ettore Schmitz. They became lasting friends and mutual critics. While living in Trieste, Joyce found eye problems for the first time that ultimately required over a dozen surgeries.skill at borrowing money saved him from indigence. His income came partially from his position at the Berlitz School and partially from teaching private students.1915he moved to Zurich. There, he met one of his most enduring and important friends, Frank Budgen, whose opinion Joyce constantly sought