INTRODUCTION1. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ALLUSION THEORY
.1 Definition of allusion
.2 Classification of allusion: different approaches
.3 Stylistic functions of allusion2. STYLISTIC FUNCTIONS OF ALLUSION IN THE POETIC TEXT (IN LEWIS CAROLLS ECCENTRIC FAIRY TALE ALICES ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND
.1 Allusion as a category of vertical context
.2 Varieties of allusion in the eccentric tale Alices Adventures in Wonderland
.3 Stylistic functions of allusion in the eccentric tale Alices Adventures in WonderlandOF REFERENCE SOURCES
Discourse (from Latin discursus, meaning running to and from.%20It%20is%20a%20generalization%20of%20the%20concept%20of%20conversation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversation>%20to%20all%20modalities%20and%20contexts.%20In%20a%20poetic%20text%20allusion%20as%20one%20of%20the%20most%20frequently%20used%20stylistic%20devices,%20plays%20an%20important%20role%20while%20being%20a%20discourse%20symbol,%20uncovering%20its%20meaning%20to%20a%20reader.thesis%20of%20the%20work:%20the%20systematic%20use%20of%20the%20stylistic%20device%20of%20allusion%20in%20Lewis%20Caroll">) generally refers to written or spoken communication <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication>. It is a generalization of the concept of conversation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversation> to all modalities and contexts. In a poetic text allusion as one of the most frequently used stylistic devices, plays an important role while being a discourse symbol, uncovering its meaning to a reader.thesis of the work: the systematic use of the stylistic device of allusion in Lewis Carolls eccentric tale Alices Adventures in Wonderland depicts great variety of the authors contexts which are the important feature of Carolls poetic text.rationale for the study is conditioned by the fact that major linguistic researches pay great attention to the notion of discourse and the related notions.aim of the research is to define the major functions of allusion in Lewis Carolls eccentric tale Alices Adventures in Wonderland.of this goal implies a solution of the following problems:of the notion of allusion and its major types;of the functions of allusion;analysis of the functions examined according to the examples from the text.subject of the investigation is allusion as a discourse symbol.object of the research are the stylistic functions of allusion in Lewis Carolls eccentric tale Alices Adventures in Wonderland.data source of the investigation is the original text of Lewis Carolls tale Alices Adventures in Wonderland.methods of the research: the method of linguistic observation, the method of contextual analysis.composition of the research paper. The study consists the introduction, two chapters, conclusion, list of reference and data sources.the introduction we substantiate the rationale for the study, its subject, object and aim, formulate the thesis of the investigation and its methods, its theoretical and practical value.first chapter deals with the theoretical points of allusion, its definition, major classifications and finally the functions of allusion.the second chapter we analyse the varieties of allusion and its stylistic functions mentioned in the first chapter using the examples from Lewis Carolls tale Alices Adventures in Wonderland.the conclusion we summarize all the research and formulate its resume.value of the research is to generalize the theoretical material on the issue of allusion, its major types and functions in a poetic text.value of the research is that the survey materials can be used in profound studying of stylistic and literature.
CHAPTER 1. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE ALLUSION THEORY
1.1 Definition of allusion
There is no universal definition of allusion in modern scientific literature. This can be explained by versatile approaches of analysis of the allusion phenomenon and also by the fact that structural-semantic and functional peculiarities of allusion are different in texts of different styles.to scholar Khristenko allusion is a term denoting a stylistic device [16, p.38]. In philology allusion is studied as a verbal poetic image .while studying the phenomenon of allusion it is important to remember that it was firstly used as a figure of speech. Etymologically this term originates from Latin alludere (from ludere - to joke, to to play, to give a hint) [16, p.39]. Figures of speech were subdivided into verbal figures (figurae verborum) and figures of reflection (figurae sententiarum). Verbal figures always depend on the words; if one component of verbal figure is changed, the figure can not exist. So allusion was treated as a verbal figure [16, p.39].Dictionary.com online dictionary allusion is defined as a passing or casual reference; an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication .philological reference book gives us a following definition of allusion: Allusion (Latin allusio - a joke, a hint) - a stylistic device, a hint, a reference to some poetic text, topic, image or historical event counting on the erudition of the reader who will decode the hidden content [8, p.30]..O. Mashkova broadens the understanding of this term. She makes emphasis on the fact that allusion is a kind of bridge between two poetic worlds, two different epochs. She comes to the conclusion that allusion provokes complicated and multidimensional interplay between two texts. In this case we can speak about the allusive process. Though the allusive process differs according to the style of texts and various other features Mashkova [11, p, 27] underlines the following its characteristics:process is directed. So to say, allusion is the reference to the concrete text (sometimes it can even be several texts).makes possible the connection with certain literary source. So for better understanding of every allusion the knowledge of certain allusive fact is important.of allusion is not only understanding of the certain allusive fact.allusive process is double-sided. Here the most important is interaction of the text under study and the source of allusion.readers background knowledge is the indispensable condition of allusive process. Proceeding from this fact Mashkova states that there are two aspects of the problem under consideration. On the one hand, we can excuse the author who uses allusions only when he caters for the readers background knowledge. On the other hand, readers knowledge should be quite extensive for him to understand the poetic texts. But at the same time Mashkova explains that the readers possibilities are limited as understanding of allusion is not only the knowledge of the literary source but, first of all, the understanding of its content [11, p.28].the author needs an active reader. According to scientist Tukharelli while depicting some characters and events the author gives only few details for the reader to finish the picture; the text is characterized by intermittence of the content. This feature is very close to allusion as the text is always full of special images and hints that can help the reader to amplify it using his memory and associations. [13, p.113]is versatile phenomenon. There are such traditional forms of allusion as:name;;also can not omit the localization of allusion in paragraphs, strophe or even chapter and a literary work itself. The article of Tukharelli gives detailed examination of this problem. Here the scientist provides us with such well known examples as the novel Ulysses by James Joyce [13, p.115].allusion we must also mention its another important feature which is called orientation. In his work researcher Evseev points out that allusion always contains the intention of the author. This intention helps us to differentiate allusion from such phenomena as accidental coincidence, predetermined coincidence, accidental borrowing and influence [7, p.9].important feature, according to Evseev, is the feedback. It is the bond between metatext and prototext which sometimes can be hidden by the author but can not be totally removed. The feedback also helps to differentiate allusion from plagiarism and artistic borrowing [7, p.10].
1.2 Classification of allusion: different approaches
We can not study the phenomenon of allusion without knowledge of its types and their major differences so let us dwell upon various approaches to the classification of allusion.topic was the matter of consideration for many scholars. Speaking about structural classification of allusion one of the most profound was created by scholar Evseev. According to Evseev, allusive process can be executed in two ways: nomination and citation [7, p.7]. There are essential differences between this two types of allusion:nominative allusion the relation between the representative and the denotatum of allusion is symbolic while in quotation allusion it is iconic;nominative allusion the denotatum can be various while in quotation allusion the denotatum can only be the text and objects connected with the text under consideration metonymically.he devided allusions into quotation and nominative according to the language and text levels, assuming their representative in the metatext as a basis of the classification [7, p.12]. differentiates twelve levels on which allusion may occur:levellevellevelof word combinationsof the sentenceof the textof imagesof means and devicesof scenes and mise-en-sceneslevelof the idealevelscholars state classifications that being no so profound differ from Evseevs a lot. Vast spear is the classification of allusions into simple and extended. There is also a classification of allusion according its position in the text:allusionallusionallusion.H. Mamaeva points out the classification of