# Algorithmic recognition of the Verb

It is a well known fact that many difficulties are encountered in Text Processing. A major difficulty, which if not

## Algorithmic recognition of the Verb

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arm, a small familiar gesture which alwaysNG

Managed to conveyVG

Both understanding and dismissal.NG

3 Examples of hand checking of the performance of the algorithm

Let us see how the following sentence will be processed by Algorithm No 1, word by word: Her apartment was on a floor by itself at the top of what had once been a single dwelling, but which long ago was divided into separately rented living quarters. First the algorithm picks up the first word of the sentence (of the text), in our case this is the word her, with instruction No 1. The same instruction always ascertains that the text has not ended yet. Then the algorithm proceeds to analyse the word her by asking questions about it and verifying the answers to those questions by comparing the word her with lists of other words and Punctuation Marks, thus establishing, gradually, that the word her is not a Punctuation Mark ('operations 3-5), that it is not a figure (number) cither (operation 5 7i, and that its length exceeds two letters (operation 8). The fact that its length exceeds two letters makes the algorithm jump the next procedures as they follow in sequence, and continue the analysis in operation No 31. Using operation No 31 the algorithm recognizes the word as a three-letter word and takes it straight away to operation No 34. Here it is decreed to take the word her together with the word that follows it and to remember both words as a NG. Thus: Her apartment~NG Then the algorithm returns again to operation No 1, this time with the word was and goes through the same procedures with it till it reaches instruction No 38, where it is seen that this word is in fact was. Now the algorithm checks if was is preceded (or followed) by words such as there or it (operation No 39, which instructs the computer to compare the adjacent words with there and it), or if it is followed up to two words ahead by a word ending in -ly or by such words as never, soon, etc., none of which is actually the case. Then, finally, operation No 39d instructs the computer to remember the word was as a VG

Was=VG

And to return to the start again, this time with the next word on. Going through the initial procedures again, our hand checking of this algorithm reaches instruction No 9 where it is made clear that the word is indeed on. Then the algorithm checks the left surroundings of on, to see if the word immediately preceding it was recognized as a Verb (No 10), excluding the Auxiliary Verbs. Since it was not (was is an Auxiliary Verb), the procedure reaches operation Nos 12 and 12a, where it becomes known to the algorithm that on is followed by a. The knowledge that on is followed by an Article enables the program to make a firm decision concerning the attribution of the next two words (12a): on and the next two words are automatically attributed to the NG:

On a floorNG

After that the program again returns to operation No 1, this time to analyse the word by. The analysis proceeds without any result till it reaches operation No 11. Where the word by is matched with its recorded counterpart (see the List enumerating the other possibilities). In a similar fashion (see on), operation No 12b instructs the computer to take by and the next word blindfoldedly (i.e. without analysis) and to remember them as a NG. Thus we have:

By itself= NG

We return again to operation No 1 to analyse the next word at and we pass, unsuccessfully, through the first ten steps. Instruction No 11 enables the computer to match at with its counterpart recorded in the List (at). Since at is followed by the (an Article), this enables the computer to make a firm decision: to take at plus the plus the next word and to remember them as a NG:

At the top=NG

We deal similarly with the next word - of - and since it is not followed by a word mentioned in operation No 12, we take only the word immediately following it (12b) and remember them as a NG:

Of what-NG

Since the next word - had - exceeds the two-letter length (operation No 7), we proceed with it to operation No 31, but we cannot identify it till we reach operation No 38. Operation No 39 checks the immediate surroundings of had, and if we had listed once with the other Adverbs in 39b, we would have ended our quest now. But since once is not in this list, the algorithm proceeds to the next step (39d) and qualifies had as a VG:

Now we proceed further, starting with operation No 1, to analyse the next word, once. Being a long word once jumps the analysis destined for the shorter (two- and three-letter) words and we arrive with it at operation No 55. Operations No 55 and 57 ascertain that once does not coincide with either of the alternatives offered there. Through operation No 59 the computer program finds once listed in List No 6 and makes a correct decision - to attribute it to the NG:

Once=NG

Now we (and the program) have reached the word been in the text. The procedures dealing with the shorter words are similarly ignored, up to operation No 61, where been is identified as an Irregular Verb from List No 7 and attributed (No 62b) to the VG:

Been=VG

Next we have the word a (an Indefinite Article) which leads us to operations No 11 and 12 (where it is identified as such), and with operation No 12b the program reaches a decision to attribute a and the word following it to the NG: a single - NG Next in turn is dwelling. It is somewhat difficult to tag, because it can be either a Verb or a Noun. We go with it through all the initial operations, without significant success, until we get to operation No 69 and receive the instruction to follow routines No 246-303. Since dwelling does not coincide with the words listed in operation No 246, is not preceded by the syntactical construction defined in No 248 and does not have the word surroundings specified by operations No 250, 254, 256, 258, 260, 262, 264, 266, 268, 270, 272. 274, 276, 278 and 280, its tagging, so far, is unsuccessful. Finally, operation No 282 finds the right surrounding - to its left there is, up to two words to the left, an Article (a) - and attributes dwelling to the NG:

Dwelling~NG

However, in this case dwelling is recognized as a Gerund, not as a Noun. If we were to use this result in another program this might lead to problems. Therefore, perhaps, here we can add an extra sieve in order to be able to always make the right choice. At the same time, we must be very careful when we do so, because the algorithms arc made so compact that any further interference (e.g. adding new instructions, changing the order of the instructions) might well lead to much bigger errors than this one. Now, in operation No 3, we come to the first Punctuation Mark since we started our analysis. The Punctuation Mark acts as a dividing line and instructs the program to print what was stored in the buffer up to this moment. Next in line is the word but. Being a three-letter word it is sent to operation No 31 and then consecutively to Nos 34, 36, 38 and 40. It is identified in No 42 and sent by No 43 to the NG as a Conjunction:

But=NG

Next, we continue with the analysis of the word which, starting as usual from the very beginning (No 1 ) and gradually reaching No 55, where the real identification for long words starts. The word which is not listed in No 55 or No 57. We find it in List No 6 of operation 59 and as a result attribute it to the NG:

whuh- NG

The word long follows, and in exactly the same way we reach operation No 55 and continue further comparing it with other words and exploring its surroundings, until we exhaust all possibilities and reach a final verdict in No 89:

long-= NG

Next in turn is the word ago. As a three-letter word it is analysed in operation No 31 and the next operations to follow, until it is found by operation No 46 in List No 1, and identified as a NG (No 47): Following is the word was, which is recognized as such for the first time in operation No 38. After some brief exploration of its surroundings the program decides that was belongs to the VG: ext in sequence is the word divided. Step by step, the algorithmic procedures pass it on to operation No 55, because it is a long word. Again, as in all previous cases, operations No 55, 56, 57, 59, 61 and 63 try to identify it with a word from a List, but unsuccessfully until, finally, instruction No 65 identifies part of its ending with -ded from List No 8 and sends the word to instructions No 128-164 for further analysis. Here it does not take long to see that divided is preceded by the Auxiliary Verb was (No 130) and that it should be attributed to the VG as Participle 2nd (No 131):

divided= VG

The Preposition into comes next and since it is not located in one of the Lists examined by the instructions and none of its surroundings correspond to those listed, it is assumed that it belongs to the NG (No 89):

Into=NG

Next, the ending -ly of the Adverb separately is found in List No 9 and this gives enough reason to send it to the NG (No 64):

Separately=NG

Now we come to a difficult word again, because rented can be either a Verb or an Adjective, or even Participle 1st. Since its ending -ted is found in List No 8, rented is sent to instructions No 128-164 for further analysis as a special case. With instructions No 144 and

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