Agriculture in the USA
Семестровая работа за III семестр на тему: “USA”
источник: Headway, Учебное пособие для ВУЗов (2-й курс)
Выполнила: студентка группы Э 255
Волгоградский государственный технический университет, Кафедра иностранных языков
Almost 21mln.people or about 17 % of all population works in the agriculture of USA. Nearly 3 millions independent farms deliver feed products to the American consumers. The area of an average farm in the USA makes about 400 acres. In 1984 there were more than 2.3 million farms in the country. However, the very large farms -those with 1000 acres and more account for more than 40% of farm acreage. The largest manufacturers of grains making up 2,3% of total of farms, produce about 50 % of wheat in the country. Similarly, the largest 2 % of the manufacturers of chickens - broilers own 70 % of market sales.
Number of firms producing selected products in the USA. 1980es.
ProductNumbers of firms producing
this productWheat446075Corn937704Rice11445Soy-bean511229Tobacco179141Pea-nuts23046Dairy products197269Cattle1354309 There are therefore some concentrations of agricultural production in hands of the largest manufacturers in the USA. But even largest agricultural manufacturers accept the established prices for production. For example, 27000 independent firms represent 2 % of the manufacturers of grain, which make up 50 % of grain production in the USA. The new firms can also penetrate into the majority of agricultural branches with relative ease. There are special branches - exceptions. For example, there have been state regulation that have limited for many years the number of tobacco producers. However, even domestic manufacturer, who are protected against entry must compete for sales to the foreign manufacturers in the export markets.
State tax regulation plays important roll in encouraging of farm development in USA. Since 1988 the tax rates on profit in agriculture have been established at a rate of 15 and 28% whereas earlier they ranged from 11 up to 50 % with the intermediate rates. Farms with the income up to 50000 dollars pay tax at the 15 % rate, and every next 25000 dollars at - 28% rate. Since 1989 the size of the tax-free profit has increased up to 2000, and since 1990 - up to 5000 dollars.
Calculation of surtax in USA agro industrial complex has a number of peculiarities, each of which can represent a tax privilege. The USA tax laws gives the farmers the right to subtract the costs connected with some works in agriculture and cattle breeding from the tax paid. Work on soil preservation, water resources protection, soil preparation for farming are of thus kind. The tax discounts works for the incomes and losses suffered by the farmers in connection with the sale of cattle or forages. These losses are subtracted from the farmer's charges and the more favorable taxation mode is used for profit, than for income taxation. The farmers, who are engaged in cattle feeding use a tax privilege as a delay of income getting, that is all expenses are estimated per one year, and all incomes on his (its) realization the next year. Besides the farmers have the right to apply methods of accelerated amortization of agricultural machines and equipment on higher rates. It allows them to considerably reduce the sizes of the taxed income, which is to pay the taxes on the lower rates. As a result, the more machines, equipment, the farmer gets, the less taxes he pays this year and in the following period of amortization. The farmers are given alternative to use new amortization rules to reduce the taxed income or to make allocation by equal shares for 3-45 years depending on the kind of property.
The tax rules for corporations limit the sizes of the allowed allocation from the taxed income connected with expenses for fodder, seeds and fertilizer. The farmer corporation can receive the right for discounts only after actual complete consumption of materials.
The special tax privileges are given to farmer cooperative societies. Thus, fruit growing cooperative societies, marketing, and also those purchasing farm machines are released from surtax payment.
One of major functions of tax privileges in agriculture is to stimulate scientific and technical development, accelerate realization of technical novelties, which, as a rule, require large additional capital investments. To stimulate investments of the farmer capital in technical innovations the special conditions of the taxation are provided these tax laws:
Establishment of the tax discounts on the investments gain;
Budget compensation for tax payments on investment gain;
Prolongation of tax payments and capital investment gain for the period of end of investment process completion.
Farmer has the right to take advantage of one of the favorable taxation terms, if he introduces innovations, which are found in the state or regional agrarian programs. The farmers participating in the state agrarian programs have the right to detain tax payment capital investments gain as long as the investment process is completed. The tax volume decreases by inflation, and the sum of the tax is distributed per years in regular intervals.
The state tax regulation in the USA enables the farmers of the advanced countries to change the size tax volume at the expense of use of various tax privileges and discounts. The numerous tax privileges reduce fiscal functions of taxation system in agrarian sector to a minimum level.
The main role in belongs to the agrarian legislation. The acts determine the basic forms and methods of state influence on agriculture. In recent years the role of budget assignments for support of the prices on agricultural production and incomes of the farmers, as well for regulation of market structure of agricultural production and foodstuffs has increased. Organization of Economic Assistance to Development (ОEAD) estimates that the USA farmers received 22 milliards dollars for financial support.
Specific feature of financing of USA economy is that the means from the federal budget are primary allocated for the target programs having national importance. So, two programs work in agroindustrial complex at the federal level: "Stabilization of the Incomes" and "science and scientific service". Besides more than 10 interbranch target programs of national importance providing interests of an agriculture and farmers work at a federal level. There are soil conservation and land withdrawal program, food help to needy population, marketing and inspection, social development of rural areas. The budget means distributed according with these programs are summarized and allocated to the branch federal budget of the USA agriculture. Its basic part (more than 80 %) is supervised by the US Ministry of agriculture through good-credit corporation (GCC) and other financial-credit bodies. The rest of 20 % of means are distributed through state and local management bodies. Of all US budget charges about 60 % is necessary for realization of farmer income stabilization program and social - charitable support of needy farmers, almost 10 % is distributed for the programs development village at the state and regional level, about 5 % for scientific researches and scientific service, 25 % for social and native-protective purposes. Thus, 3/4 of budget assignments allocated to US agriculture are spent for farm production regulation and 1/4 for social purposes.
This system of federal budget distribution allow to regulate farm production, through the prices, loans, credits and grants. The target program "Stabilization Of the Incomes " is subdivided into 3 large programs: " Prices and Incomes Support ", " Crop Insurance ". " The Farm Credit ".
The direct gratuitous payments from the federal budget are very important and have great influence over the farmers. The grants are powerful economic stimulus of involving farmers in realization of the state programs of farm regulation. The farmers, who carry out the taken obligations on realization of the state agrarian programs have right to get them, as well as loans. The grants use stimulates farmers to intensify farm production in case the sowing areas are reduced permanent income even due to the system of compensatory payments from the federal budget farmers are ensured in permanent income even if the situation is not favorable.
The US agricultural policies provide minimal and steady prices for agricultural products. The price support frequently results in huge surpluses of agricultural products, which authorities are compelled to buy and to keep prices from sharp fall. Agricultural price support, alongside with other policies inducing farmers to keep their land idle have also brought contributed in the prices paid by the American consumers to subsidize the farmers.
Почти 21миллион людей, что составляет 17 % всего населения, работает в сельском хозяйстве США. Почти 3 миллиона независимых ферм поставляют продукты питания Американским потребителям. Область, занимаемая средней фермой в США, составляет приблизительно 400 акров. В 1984 в стране находилось свыше 2.3 миллионов ферм. Однако более 40% земель принадлежало крупным фирмам с площадью равной 1000 акрам. Самые крупные изготовители зерна, составляющие 2,3 % от общего количества ферм, производят около 50 % всей пшеницы в стране. Точно так же наибольшие фермы поставляющие цыплят бройлеров, составляют 2 % от общего числа ферм и владеют 70 % рыночных продаж.
Количество фирм, производящих наиболее потребляемые изделия в США в 1980-е гг.
ИзделиеКоличество фирм, производящих это изделиеПшеница446075Зерно937704Рис 11445Соя511229Табак179141