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Курсовой проект - Компьютеры, программирование

Другие курсовые по предмету Компьютеры, программирование

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р і зберігти в R4.

Додати старші цифри + перенос. Зберігти суму старших цифр в R5.

000130Store R0

000214Load #4

000331Store R1

000419Load #9

000532Store R2

000612Load #2

000733Store R3

000800Clear C

000940Load R0

000a52Add R2

000b34Store R4

000c41Load R1

000d53Add R3

000e35Store R5

Loop:

000f44Load R4Показати мол. цифру.

Показати старшу цифру.

Показувати безперервно.

001045Load R5

00118fJump #loop

Ясна річ, машинні коди тестової програми мають фіксуватися в VHDL моделі памяті програм. Зауважимо, що для виконуваних пар інструкцій з кодами 0х53/0x35 та 0x44/0x8F часовим симулюванням отримано і проаналізовано подані нижче часові діаграми виконання тестової програми.

Розробка VHDL моделі процесора

Виконаємо розробку VHDL моделі процесора на основі прототипної моделі процесора “Gnome”, що подана роботою [1] мовою ABEL. На відміну від прототипа ми задамо цільову ПЛІС Віртекс-2 з вбудованими елементами RAM і ROM. При цьому обєднаємо CPU, RAM і ROM до єдиного компютера внутрішньо кристальними шинами, одна з яких є двонаправленою. Розглянемо VHDL текст моделі.

-- GNOME micro processor unit

LIBRARY IEEE;

USE IEEE.std_logic_1164.all;

USE IEEE.std_logic_unsigned.all;

-- interface

ENTITY gnome IS

PORT (

clk: IN STD_LOGIC;-- clock

reset: IN STD_LOGIC;-- reset control input

address: OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (6 DOWNTO 0); -- external RAM address

data: INOUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0); -- system bus

web: OUT STD_LOGIC; -- external RAM active-low write-enable

oeb: OUT STD_LOGIC; -- external RAM active-low output-enable

sel_ram: out std_logic;

carry_out : out std_logic;

pc_out: OUT STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (6 DOWNTO 0);

ir_out: out std_logic_vector (7 downto 0);

acc_out: out std_logic_vector (3 downto 0));

END gnome;

-- GNOME processor architecture behavioral description

ARCHITECTURE gnome_arch OF gnome IS

-- current and next GNOME state-machine state

SIGNAL curr_st, next_st: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (1 DOWNTO 0);

-- possible GNOME state-machine states and their definitions

CONSTANT FETCH: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (1 DOWNTO 0) := "00"; -- fetch instruction

CONSTANT DECODE: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (1 DOWNTO 0) := "01"; -- decode

CONSTANT EXECUTE: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (1 DOWNTO 0) := "11"; -- execute

-- current and next program counter value

SIGNAL curr_pc, next_pc: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (6 DOWNTO 0);

-- current and next accumulator value

SIGNAL curr_acc, next_acc: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0);

-- current and next carry flag value

SIGNAL curr_carry, next_carry: STD_LOGIC;

-- current and next zero flag value

SIGNAL curr_zero, next_zero: STD_LOGIC;

-- sum vector for holding adder output

SIGNAL sum: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (4 DOWNTO 0);

SIGNAL read: STD_LOGIC; -- 1 when reading RAM

SIGNAL write: STD_LOGIC; -- 1 when writing RAM

SIGNAL sel_data_ram: STD_LOGIC;-- 1 when accessing R0-R15

SIGNAL jump_pc: STD_LOGIC; -- 1 when overwriting PC

SIGNAL inc_pc: STD_LOGIC; -- 1 when incrementing PC

SIGNAL ld_ir: STD_LOGIC; -- 1 when loading IR

SIGNAL ld_ir_lsn: STD_LOGIC;-- 1 when loading LSN of IR

-- ALU operation code possible ALU opcodes

SIGNAL alu_op: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 DOWNTO 0);

--pass input to output

CONSTANT PASS_OP: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 DOWNTO 0):= "001";

CONSTANT ADD_OP: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 DOWNTO 0):= "010"; -- add inputs

CONSTANT XOR_OP: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 DOWNTO 0):= "011"; -- XOR inputs

CONSTANT AND_OP: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 DOWNTO 0):= "100"; -- test input for 0

CONSTANT SET_CARRY_OP: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 DOWNTO 0) := "101"; --set carry

CONSTANT CLR_CARRY_OP: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 DOWNTO 0) := "110"; --clear carry

-- current and next instruction register

SIGNAL curr_ir, next_ir: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0);

-- possible instruction opcodes

CONSTANT CLEAR_C: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0) := "00000000";

CONSTANT SET_C: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0) := "00000001";

CONSTANT SKIP_C: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0) := "00000010";

CONSTANT SKIP_Z: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (7 DOWNTO 0) := "00000011";

CONSTANT LOAD_IMM: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) := "0001";

CONSTANT ADD_IMM: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) := "0010";

CONSTANT STORE_DIR:STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) := "0011";

CONSTANT LOAD_DIR: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) := "0100";

CONSTANT ADD_DIR: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) := "0101";

CONSTANT XOR_DIR: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) := "0110";

CONSTANT TEST_DIR: STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (3 DOWNTO 0) := "0111";

CONSTANT JUMP: STD_LOGIC := 1;

BEGIN

carry_out <= curr_carry;

pc_out <= curr_pc;

acc_out <= curr_acc;

ir_out <= curr_ir;

sel_ram <= sel_data_ram;

-- external RAM control signals

oeb <= NOT(read);-- enable RAM drivers during RAM read operations

web <= NOT(write);-- RAM write line (in last half of clock)

-- address either the data or program sections of the external RAM

address <= "000" &amp; curr_ir(3 DOWNTO 0) WHEN sel_data_ram=1 ELSE

curr_pc;

-- drive the accumulator contents into the RAM during write operations

-- but disable the drivers into high-impedance state at all other times

data <= "0000" &amp; curr_acc WHEN write=1 ELSE "ZZZZZZZZ";

-- load the instruction register with a new opcode

next_ir <= data WHEN ld_ir=1 ELSE

-- or load only the lower 4 bits of the IR with data

curr_ir(7 DOWNTO 4) &amp; data(3 DOWNTO 0) WHEN ld_ir_lsn=1 ELSE

-- or else dont change the IR

curr_ir;

-- load the PC with an address to jump to

next_pc <= curr_ir(6 DOWNTO 0) WHEN jump_pc=1 ELSE

-- or increment the PC

curr_pc+1 WHEN inc_pc=1 ELSE

-- or else dont change the PC

curr_pc;

-- this process describes the operations of the ALU

PROCESS (alu_op,curr_zero,curr_carry,curr_acc,curr_ir,sum)

BEGIN

-- set the default values for these signals to avoid synthesis of

-- implied latches

sum <= "00000";

next_acc <= "0000";

next_carry <= 0;

next_zero <= 0;

CASE alu_op IS

WHEN ADD_OP =>

-- add the accumulator with the lower 4 bits of the IR and the carry

sum <= (0 &amp; curr_acc) + (0 &amp; curr_ir(3 DOWNTO 0))

+ ("0000" &amp; curr_carry);

next_acc <= sum(3 DOWNTO 0);-- ACC gets lower 4 bits of the sum

next_carry <= sum(4);-- carry is the most significant bit of the sum

next_zero <= curr_zero;-- zero flag is not changed

WHEN XOR_OP =>

-- XOR the accumulator with the lower 4 bits of the IR

next_acc <= curr_acc XOR curr_ir(3 DOWNTO 0);

next_carry <= curr_carry; -- carry flag is not changed

next_zero <= curr_zero; -- zero flag is not changed

WHEN PASS_OP =>

-- pass lower 4 bits of IR into ACC

next_acc <= curr_ir(3 DOWNTO 0);

next_carry <= curr_carry; -- carry flag is not changed

next_zero <= curr_zero; -- zero flag is not changed

WHEN AND_OP =>

-- test the ACC for zeroes in unmasked bit positions

next_acc <= curr_acc; -- ACC is not changed

next_carry <= curr_carry;-- carry is not changed

-- zero flag is set if ACC has zeroes where IR has ones

next_zero <= NOT( (curr_acc(3) AND curr_ir(3))

OR (curr_acc(2) AND curr_ir(2))

OR (curr_acc(1) AND curr_ir(1))

OR (curr_acc(0) AND curr_ir(0)));

WHEN SET_CARRY_OP =>

-- set the carry bit

next_acc <= curr_acc;-- ACC is not changed

next_carry <= 1;

next_zero <= curr_zero;-- zero flag is not changed

WHEN CLR_CARRY_OP =>

-- clear the carry bit

next_acc <= curr_acc;-- ACC is not changed

next_carry <= 0;

next_zero <= curr_zero;-- zero flag is not changed

WHEN OTHERS =>

-- dont do anything for undefined ALU opcodes

next_acc <= curr_acc;

next_carry <= curr_carry;

next_zero <= curr_zero;

END CASE;

END PROCESS;

-- this process describes the transitions of the GNOME state machine

-- and sets the control signals that are activated in each state

PROCESS(curr_st,cu

s