An excellent example of the revolt could be the marching of the ladies of Paris to Versaille and taking the king, queen, and prince back to Paris with them during the French revolution. They had done it after hearing a rumour of a stockpile of bread that was being held by the king at Versaille7. In this case these women were not engaged in a revolution, but more in a revolt. So, there is a vast difference between the action of creative revolution, and the action of revolt within society.
Thus, the assessment of the Fronde is not fair, as revolution is certainly better, as it is born of understanding of the whole structure. Its action produces waves, which are able to create quite a different civilisation. And even if they fail, we can't dismiss the prospect of revolution and the reasons of failure until we carefully examine the movements. Individual revolts are bound to fail and it is hardly surprising that these revolts did not go farther they don't have the support of the majority, besides they are often badly thought over. And revolutions usually are of a great standard, expressing the wish of the masses and including a large number of forces. Every new revolution take new and unpredictable forms, leading to positive changes or establishing new forms of ruling.
In short, a revolution breaks down the social constraints, which underlie so much of what is considered "mental illness", freeing people to discover their own meanings, methods of thinking and feeling. In fact, it gives people freedom. And freedom belongs to the individual, and as such it certainly resides in individual responsibility to oneself and in free association with others. Thus, there can be no obligations, no debts, only choices of how to act. Revolution remains a better choice for improvements and changes.
1. Wendy Gibson. A Tragic Farce: the Fronde (1648-1653), 1998. pp. 27-38.
2. Moote A.L. The Revolt of the Judges: The Parliament of Paris and the Fronde, 1643-1652. (1972), pp. 2-7.
4. Commonweal, Volume 2, Number 21, 5 June 1886, p. 77.
5. Roger Chartier (trans. Lydia Cochrane), The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution (Durham, 1991), pp. 124-8.
6. Ibid, pp. 127-128.
1. Burke P., The Fabrication of Louis XIV. New Haven and London, 1992.
2. Commonweal, Volume 2, Number 21, 5 June 1886, p. 77.
3. Chartier R. (trans. Lydia Cochrane), The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution (Durham, 1991), pp. 124-8.
4. Gibson W. A Tragic Farce: The Fronde (1648-1653), 1998, pp. 23-148.
5. Hanley S., The Lit de Justice of the Kings of France: Constitutional Ideology in Legend, Ritual, and Discourse. Princeton, 1983.
6. Kantorowicz E., The King's Two Bodies: A Study in Medireview Political Theology. Princeton, 1957.
7. Knabb K. (ed. and trans.), Situationist International Anthology. Bureau of Public Secrets, 1981, p. 81.
8. Marin L. (trans. Martha M. Houle), Portrait of the King. Minneapolis, 1988.
9. Maza S., Private Lives and Public Affairs: the Causes Celebres of Prerevolutionary France. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1993, pp. 167-211.