Государственное образовательное учреждение
Высшего профессионального образования
«Челябинская государственная медицинская академия федерального агентства по здравоохранению и социальному развитию»
Кафедра иностранных языков
Перевод с английского на русский язык статьи
Рестрикция по главному комплексу гистосовместимости в чувствительности к туберкулезу
More than one mechanism may contribute to disease susceptibility in tuberculosis, major histocompatability complex (MHC) restriction phenomenon, spectrum of immune reactivity/cytokine profile and epidemiology induced anergy. Experiments from our laboratories revealed that human leucocyte antigen D-related allele 2 (HLA DR2) predispose for a more severe form of pulmonary tuberculosis encoding a high responder status. The results suggested that MHC class II restriction play a role in peptide recognition and the immune response. Nonetheless the outcome and specificity of the immune reactivity and the resultant disease pathogenesis may depend on the promiscuity of peptide recognition and cytokine profiles.
The mechanism of association of HLA with diseases is still an enigma: this is more so with mycobacterioses, other chronic infections and parasitic diseases. In recent times, there is evidence for a stronger association of HLA DR2 with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Many earlier studies showed associations with different HLA alleles in both class I and class H loci. One study on northern Indian population showed a nominal association with HLA DR2. Genome scan analysis of affected sib-pairs of diabetes using microsatellite markers revealed that, HLA alleles contribute to 54% of disease pathogenesis and the rest is accounted by three other genes. A similar kind of approach is warranted in mycobacterioses. Nonetheless one need to understand the immunological mechanisms that predispose for mycobacterioses for a better therapy and prevention.
There are many studies that evaluated both the HLA and immunological mechanisms in tuberculosis and leprosy. Our study showed a strong HLA DR2 association with far advanced PTB. Further, the existence of a spectrum of immune reactivity in healthy individuals has also been described by us for the first time. This has now been confirmed in Indonesian and Brazilian populations. However, the HLA association and spectrum of reactivity may be two independent mechanisms.
Materials and methods
Patients attending Govt. Rajaji Hospital, were enrolled, informed consent obtained and studied. Controls were drawn from hospital staff, students and staff of our university. Serological typing of HLA was done by conventional two stage microlymphocytotoxicity assay. Allelic typing of HLA was done by (PCR-SSP) polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers and sequence specific oligoprobes (SSOP) techniques. Lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) assays and T-cell cloning was done following standard procedures. Monoclonal antibodies employed were commercial ones and peptides were synthesized based on the known sequences of 16 and 38 kDa antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Standard statistical methods were employed to analyse the data, employing the software developed for immunogenetic studies.
Results and discussion HLA DR2 association
Figure 1 presents the data on the distribution of HLA DR2, a high risk allele, in various subgroups of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. While % frequency of HLA DR2 was 27 in controls, it was 41 in PTB patients. On further stratification of patient samples, in sputum positive it was 57%, and in far advanced among them, it was 76. This suggested that if a person is infected and if that individual posses HLA DR2, his/her chances of developing a more severe, sputum positive ( + + + ), culture positive ( + + +) and radiologically far-advanced PTB is greater than other alleles. Further patients with HLA DR2 showed higher antibody levels than non-DR2 particularly in anti-HSP70 (figure 2) and in anti-PPD. There are two other studies confirming the HLA DR2 association (table 1): all these studies suggested that HLA DR2 correlates to a high responder status irrespective of mycobacterial antigen preparation used. Further, our study and Russian study confirmed that the HLA DR2 association transcend ethnic barriers (table 1).
Spectrum of immune reactivity
We provide evidence that the spectrum of immune reactivity [two types of immunity viz., cell mediated (CMI) and humoral (HI)], demonstrable in patients with leprosy and tuberculosis, exists in healthy hospital contacts. This has now been confirmed and extended to healthy populations in Indonesia and Brazil. This inverse correlation (of CM1 and HI) was observed in both sputum positive and negative patients as well. Nonetheless there was a quantitative and qualitative difference between these two patient groups (figure 3). This spectrum of immune reactivity correlated to the recovery of patients by chemotherapy and to the drug resistant statuses. The early converters possessed a good CMI but low antibody levels and the patients with drug resistant bacilli possessed a poor CMI and an elevated antibody level. In other words patients with a good CMI have a better prognosis. One may need to examine whether the good HI in poor prognostic groups are related to antibodies against drug resistant organisms: our study however has not answered this question directly. Nonetheless it is possible that the drug resistant organisms induce a higher levels of antibody leading to a more severe damage and persistence and therefore the delay in recovery by chemotherapy.
In recent times immunity against mycobacterial infections is thought to depend on HLA class II restricted Thl cells. Both type one (Thl cells) and type two (Th2 cells) cytokines have been reported in many tuberculosis and leprosy patients. Cytokine profile of PBL and cells in the lesions of leprosy patients from India has revealed the presence of both indiscriminate (Th0) and polarized (Thl or Th2) T-cell subsets, in both tuberculoid leprosy (TL) and lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients. Further, no difference in the pattern of cytokine secretions between peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and lesional lymphocytes and various mycobacteria antigens have been identified. Though the skewing of T-cell subsets and their cytokine profile may be an important mechanism in the pathology of mycobacterial diseases, their role in susceptibility to the disease needs to be evaluated. It is possible that the spectrum of immune reactivity observed in healthy individual from endemic areas is the outcome of their cytokine profile (i.e., their Thl/Th2 status to the antigen in question) and this might decide the course of the resulting susceptibility, immunity and pathology. The proposition raises another interesting question whether the Th 1 or Th2 response to a given antigen/epitope is inherent (innate), and whether it can be skewed in an endemic area.
High and low responder status to peptides
In order to study the role of MHC restriction in disease pathogenesis, lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) responses of patients and controls to selected mycobacterial peptides were studied and correlated to their MHC class II (HLA DRB1, DRB5, DQA and DQB) haplotypes, assigned by PCR-SSP typing. There was no correlation between any given haplotype and allele to either high or low response to any particular peptide studied. Rather a high responder to a peptide irrespective of DR2 status, always responded high to many peptides, studied (figure 4) but not to PPD. The study revealed that in response to a single peptide 16-3 in vitro, many clones can be generated (recall/memory response), each clone is restricted by one or the other MHC class II alleles of the host, the HLA DR restricted clones were the predominant one, presumably easily inducible by the mycobacterial antigen in question; many HLA DR restricted clones were promiscuous in nature. Thus the disease may be the outcome of the interactions of all these clones in vivo, and the genetics of the host may play a predominant role in deciding whether the disease will manifest and progress in an infected (sub-clinically) host.
The mechanism of association of HLA DR2 and the spectrum of immune reactivity in tuberculosis might be two parallel but independent mechanisms. During an immune response (in vitro), clones restricted by various MHC loci with different cytokine profile can be generated. The existence of high or low responder status to many mycobacterial peptides but not to PPD suggests that MHC diversity, mycobacterial peptides generated in a given milieu genetic, T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, epidemiology and cytokine profile, all may decide the disease susceptibility. Identifying the combinations of these factors leading to disease/protection is a challenging problem to immunologists.
Больше чем один механизм может внести вклад в восприимчивость к туберкулезу: феномен рестрикции главного комплекса гистосовместимости (MHC), цитокиновый профиль и эпидемиологическая анергия. Эксперименты наших лабораторий показали, что гены HLA DR2 предрасполагают к более серьезной форме легочного туберкулеза. В результате предположено, что MHC класс II играет