ОСОБЕННОСТИ РАБОТЫ С АНТОНИМАММИ В ШКОЛЕ

Here are some approaches that may be helpful in answering antonym questions: Remember that you are looking for the word

ОСОБЕННОСТИ РАБОТЫ С АНТОНИМАММИ В ШКОЛЕ

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g and pupils are involved in the very process of learning, that is in the acquisition of information about a new word, its form, meaning and usage; in drill and transformation to form lexical habits; in making use of the lexical habits in hearing, speaking and reading, or in language skills. Various techniques are used to attain the goal- to fix the words in pupils memory ready to be used whenever they need them.

Presentation of new words. Since every word has its form, meaning and usage to present a word means to introduce to pupils its forms (phonetic, graphic, structural and grammatical) and to explain its meaning and usage.

The techniques of teaching pupils the punctuation and spelling of a word are as follows:

  1. pure orcoscious imitation;
  2. analogy;
  3. transcription;
  4. rules of reading.

Since a word consists of sounds if heard or spoken and letters if read or written the teacher shows the pupils how to pronounce, to read and write it. However the approach may vary depending on the task set (the latter depends on the age of pupils, their progress in the language, the type of words, etc.). For example, if the teacher wants his pupils to learn the word orally first, he instructs them to recognize it when hearing and to articulate the word as an isolated element (a book) and in a sentence pattern or sentence patterns alongside with other words. (This is a book. Give me the book. Take the book. Put the book on the table.).

As far as the form concerned the pupils have but two difficulties to overcome: to lean how to pronounce the word both separately and in the speech; and to recognize it in sentence patterns pronounced by the teacher, by his classmates, or by a speaker in case the tape- recorder is used.

If the teacher wants his pupils to learn the word during the same lesson not only for hearing and speaking but for reading and writing as well, he shows them how to write and read it after they perform oral exercises and can recognize and pronounce the word. The teacher writes down the word on the blackboard (let it be spoon) and invites some pupils to read it (they already know all the letters and the rule of reading). The pupils read the word and put it down in their notebooks. In this case the pupils have two more difficulties to overcome: to learn how to write and to read the word; the letter is connected with their ability to associate letters with sounds in a proper way.

There are two ways of conveying the meaning of words: direct way and translation. The direct way of presenting the words of a foreign language brings the learner into direct contact with them, the mother tongue does not come in between, and it establishes links between a foreign word and the thing or the concept directly. The direct way of conveying the meaning of foreign words is usually used when the words denote things, objects, their qualities, sometimes gestures and movements, which can be shown to and seen by pupils, for example: a book, a table, red, big, take, stand up, etc.

The teacher should connect the English word he presents with the objects, the notion it denotes directly, without the use of pupils mother tongue.

The teacher uses various techniques for this purpose.

It is possible to group them into (1) visual and (2) verbal. The first group involves the use of visual aids to convey the meaning of unfamiliar words. These may be: besides, the teacher may use movements and gestures.

E. g., the teacher uses objects. He takes a pencil and looking at it says: a pencil. This is a pencil. What is this? It is a pencil. Is it a pencil? Yes, it is. Is it a pen? No, it is not. Is it a pen or a pencil? It is a pencil. The pupils do not only grasp the meaning of the word pencil, but they observe the use of the word in familiar sentence patterns.

 

GUIDELINES ON GIVING EFFACTIVE EXPLANATIONS

  1. Prepare

You may feel perfectly clear in your own mind about what needs clarifying, and therefore think that you can improvise a clear explanation. But experience shows that teachers explanations are often not as clear to their pupils as they are to themselves! It is worth preparing: thinking for a while about the words you will use, the illustrations you will provide, and so on; possibly even writing these out.

  1. Make sure you have the classs attention

One of the implications of this when giving the instructions for a group-working task is that it is advisable to give the instructions before you divide the class into groups or give out materials, not after!

  1. Present the information more than once

A repetition of the necessary information may make all the difference: learners attention wanders occasionally, and it is important to give them more than one chance to understand what they have to do. Also, it helps to represent the information in a different mode: foe example, say it and also write it up on the board.

  1. Be brief

Learners-in fact, all of us-have only a limited attention span; they cannot listen to you for along time with maximum concentration. Make your explanation as brief as you can, compatible with clarity. In some situations it may also mean using the learners mother tongue, as a more accessible and cost-effective alternative to the sometimes lengthy and difficult target- language explanation.

  1. Illustrate with examples

You may explain, for instance, the meaning of a word, illustrating your explanation with examples of its use in various contexts, relating these as far as possible to the learners own lives and experiences.

  1. Get feedback

When you have finished explaining, check what they have understood. It is not just enough to ask “Do you understand?” ; learners will sometimes say they did even if they did not, out of politeness or unwillingness to lose face, or because they think they know what they have to do, but in fact completely misunderstood! It is better to ask them to do something that will show their understanding: to paraphrase in their own words, provide further illustration of their own.

 

WHAT IS ANTONYMY

Traditionally antonyms are defined as words that have opposite meaning. This definition is open to criticism. The latest linguistic investigations emphasize that antonyms are similar as words belonging to the same part of speech and the same semantic field, having the same grammatical meaning and functions, as well as similar collocations. Like synonyms antonyms are interchangeable at least at some contexts (hot in its figurative meaning “angry, excited” is chiefly combined with the names of unpleasant emotions: hot resentment, hot scorn; its antonym cold occurs with the same words). Unlike synonyms antonyms do not differ in style, or emotional colouring (they express, as a rule, emotional characteristics of the same intensity).

So antonyms are two or more words belonging to the same pat of speech, contradictory or contrary in meaning, and interchangeable at least at some contexts.

Almost every word can have one or more synonyms; comparatively few have antonyms because not all notions can be opposed to one another. Antonyms are primarily found in adjectives, nouns expressing quality and state.

It should be noted, that as words are polysemantic ones and the same words may have different antonyms (light bag-heavy bag; light wind-strong wind; light colors-dark colors).

Generally we may divide antonyms into 2 groups: absolute and derivational.

Absolute antonyms are subdivided into antonyms proper where opposition is gradual (cold (cool)-(warm) hot; large-little or small), complementaries having a binary opposition (dead-alive, single-married), conversives denoting one and the same referent from different points of view (to sell-to buy, to give to receive).

Derivational antonyms may be affixal (happy-unhappy, logical-illogical) or suffixal (hopeful-hopeless).

It is not always possible to replace a word by its opposite. Where it is possible you may notice that some words have several opposites depending on the context.

The opposite of “old”, for example, can be “new” or “young” depending on the situation.

 

WORDS THAT ARE THEIR OWN OPPOSITES

There are some antonyms that are called auto-antonyms - words that have two opposite meanings. For example, to "clip" may mean to cut a little piece off, or to put a little piece on. To "look over" may mean careful scrutiny or that you missed an important detail. Sometimes the antonymy may be historical: "nice" used to denote an unpleasant quality. There is a discussion of whether any generalities could be made about such pairs. Are they regularly motivated, or always a coincidence? Meanwhile, here are more auto-antonyms that got left out of last post: One auto-antonym is "moot", which at once means "suitable for debate" and "not worth discussing".

Impregnable: able to impregnated or inable to be pregnated, cope(s)mate: used to mean antagonist and now means partner or comrade, It turns out that they were having a week celebrating "fence-setters", evidently another term for what is calling auto-antonyms. BRUCE NEVIN reminds us of an intercontinental auto-antonym pair: "public school" in Britain is "private school" in the USA and vice versa.

Infer: historically (a

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