Методическое пособие

  • 1. "Восток и Запад: общее и особенное" (На материале истории Древнего мира и Европейского средневековья...
    История добавлен 09.12.2008

    6.Картина мира. Покажите то общее, что было свойственно сознанию древневосточного и античного человека. Чтобы объяснить, в чем причина особенностей мировосприятия, обратите внимание на то, что в рассматриваемых цивилизациях человек всегда был членом какой-либо общности, вне которой его существование было немыслимо. Отметьте принципиальную разницу картины мира древневосточного и античного человека. Чтобы объяснить причины этой разницы вспомните о степени развития товарно-денежных отношений, степени насыщенности жизни политическими событиями, о роли отдельного человека в достижении благополучия общности, к которой он принадлежал. Покажите, в чем заключалось сходство мировосприятия древневосточного человека и человека средневековой Европы. Для обоснования причин этого подобия привлеките знания об указанных выше процессах применительно к Древнему Востоку и европейскому средневековью. Отметьте, в чем, тем не менее, заключалась принципиальная разница картины мира древневосточного и средневекового человека, обеспечившая способность к самопроизвольной перестройке европейской средневековой цивилизации. Чтобы объяснить причину этой разницы, обратите внимание на тот факт, что восточное государство в отличие от европейского полностью подавляло человека, а это требовало значительно более мощного компенсаторного механизма.

  • 2. "Государство" Платона Том 3, гл. 8
    Философия добавлен 09.12.2008

    В первые дни тиран приветливо улыбается всем, кто бы ему не встретился, а о себе утверждает, что он вовсе не тиран, он дает много обещаний частным лицам и обществу, он освобождает людей от долгов и раздает землю народу и своей свите. Так притворяется он милостивым ко всем и кротким. Когда же он примирится кое с кем из своих врагов, то будет постоянно вовлекать граждан в какие-то войны, что бы народ испытывал нужду в предводители, чтобы из-за налогов люди обедняли и перебивались со дня на день меньше, злоумышляя против него. А если он заподозрит кого-нибудь в вольных мыслях и в отрицании его правления, то таких людей он уничтожит под предлогом, будто они предались неприятелю. Ради этого тирану необходимо постоянно будоражить всех посредством войны.

  • 3. "Отелло" как трагедия обманутого доверия
    Литература добавлен 26.05.2012

    И тем не менее это произведение не оставляет убежденности в том, что добро изначально и неизбежно обречено на поражение со злом. Перед своей смертью Отелло прозревает, к нему вновь возвращается вера в высокие идеалы, в преданность, честность, самоотверженность, любовь. Истинный триумфатор в этой пьесе - Дездемона, которая изначально, напротив всех жизненных взглядов и устоев, царивших в мире Яго, была честна и предана, которая опровергала их лишь своим существом. Шекспир показывает, что идеалы правды и благородства - это реальность, однако, ей сложно выжить в условиях венецианской цивилизации. Так проблема оптимизма перерастает в проблему утопии, в которой представителем высших ценностей является чернокожий воин, и по складу души, и по происхождению чуждый такому обществу, где главный принцип выражен словами Яго: «Насыпь денег в кошелек». А единственным верным союзником мавра выступает женщина, порвавшая с венецианским обществом. Их счастье, гармония их правдивых, честных отношений возможны. Но сфера такого счастья и их высоких идеалов не цивилизованная Венеция, а утопическая среда «естественного человека». Трагедия Шекспира вызывает у читателей (зрителей) ненависть к обществу, где царит Яго, но и вселяет гордость за человечество, способное породить людей, подобных Отелло и Дездемоне. В этом и заключается великая сила трагедии Шекспира, открывшая перед ней многовековой триумфальный путь по сценам всего мира.

  • 4. "Соленое тесто" на уроках лепки отделения общей эстетики
    Педагогика добавлен 09.11.2011

    Труд по изготовлению игрушек из теста способствует развитию личности ребенка, воспитанию его характера. Ведь изготовление любого рельефа непросто, требует определенных волевых усилий. Когда ребенок самостоятельно встречается с трудностью, он пытается самостоятельно разрешить её. Под руководством взрослого ребенок пытается установить причины неудачи, преодолеть и постепенно у него формируются такие качества, как целеустремленность, настойчивость, умение доводить начатое дело до конца.

  • 5. "Электронное правительство"
    Политология добавлен 09.12.2008

    4) в шестимесячный срок:

    1. представить на рассмотрение Верховной Рады Украины проект Закона Украины "О защите информации в информационно-телекоммуникационных системах", предусмотрев в нем, в частности:
    2. требования и правила защиты в электронных сетях информации, являющейся собственностью государства, или информации с ограниченным доступом, защита которой гарантируется государством;
    3. обязательные условия защиты информации в государственных информационно-телекоммуникационных системах при предоставлении услуг передачи данных, в том числе с использованием сети Интернет;
    4. механизмы проведения мониторинга сетей передачи данных исключительно на основах национального законодательства и международного права, в частности положений резолюции Совета Европы ENFOPOL 98;
    5. сохранение Интернет-провайдерами сведений об Интернет-трафике на протяжении шести месяцев;
    6. разработать предложения относительно кодификации законодательства в области информационных отношений и проект Стратегии внедрения национальной информационной политики, уделив внимание таким проблемам как:
    7. создание и внедрение действующих механизмов реализации информационных прав и свобод гражданина, общества и государства, закрепленных в Конституции и законах Украины;
    8. дальнейшее усовершенствование законодательства Украины в информационной сфере;
    9. развитие на основе современных информационных технологий национальной информационной инфраструктуры, усовершенствование системы информационно-аналитического обеспечения Президента Украины и органов государственной власти, повышение конкурентоспособности национальных производителей информационного продукта, видов информационного производства;
    10. определение порядка функционирования и механизмов государственного контроля за спутниковыми, кабельными и компьютерными системами передачи информации;
    11. формирование единой государственной системы связей с общественностью;
    12. дальнейшая либерализация украинского рынка телекоммуникаций при условии гарантирования реализации национальных интересов и недопущения монополизации информационных рынков;
    13. развитие научно-технического и кадрового обеспечения информационной области;
    14. обеспечение информационного суверенитета Украины и усовершенствование системы защиты национальных информационных ресурсов;
    15. утвердить программу развития и переоснащения передающего оборудования Концерна радиосвязи, радиовещания и телевидения на основе современных технических средств, предусмотрев финансирование строительства и ремонта ретрансляторов в пограничных районах Украины;
    16. разработать проект Национальной программы развития отечественной теле- и радиоиндустрии с учетом долгосрочных потребностей развития телекоммуникационных сетей, средств связи, национального сегмента сети Интернет, спутниковых систем передачи информации, спутникового и кабельного телевидения, и решить в установленном порядке вопрос о его утверждении;
    17. предпринять шаги относительно создания и обеспечения функционирования на постоянной основе, начиная с 1 января 2002 года, национального спутникового канала иновещания с использованием имеющейся технической базы аппаратно-студийного комплекса Национальной телекомпании Украины и центральной передающей спутниковой станции государственного предприятия "Укркосмос" или других систем;
  • 6. "Чтобы душа была жива…" (по страницам романа Ф.М. Достоевского "Преступление и наказание")
    Литература добавлен 18.05.2010

    Учитель. А я вам предложу вашему вниманию еще несколько деталей, связанных с главной героиней романа. Кто она? Что символизирует собой деталь? (показываю зеленый платок, свечу, текст Библии). (ответы учащихся) Да, ребята, это образ Сонечки, «вечной Сонечки, пока мир стоит». (В словаре В. Даля находим о драдедаме: "легкое суконце, полусукно". Впервые об этом платке мы узнаем из рассказа Мармеладова о жертвенности Сони: "Пришла, и прямо к Катерине Ивановне, и на стол перед ней тридцать целковых молча положила. Ни словечка при этом не вымолвила, хоть бы взглянула, а взяла только наш большой драдедамовый зеленый платок (общий такой у нас платок есть, драдедамовый), накрыла им совсем голову и лицо и легла на кровать, лицом к стенке, только плечики да тело вздрагивают..." Тридцать целковых здесь, видимо, тоже не случайно: Иуда предал Христа за тридцать сребреников. Большим драдедамовым зеленым платком укрываются дети. В этом платке, возмущенная подлостью Лужина, как бы с надеждой на защиту и справедливость выбегает Катерина Ивановна на улицу. В этом платке Раскольников оставляет Соню, уходя признаваться в преступлении. Что же может символизировать зеленый драдедамовый платок? Драдедам говорит о тепле, характеристики "большой и общий" - сами за себя. А по поводу цвета в "Энциклопедии символов" получаем разъяснение: "Крест Христов как символ надежды и Спасения часто представляется зеленым".)

  • 7. 30 экзаменационных билетов по географии
    География добавлен 09.12.2008

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность. Состав, значение в хозяйстве, особенности размещения. Энергетическая проблема человечества и пути ее решения. Проблемы охраны окружающей среды.

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность состоит из топливной промышленности и энергетики. Топливная промышленность комплекс отраслей, занимающихся добычей и переработкой топливно-энергетического сырья. Включает угольную, газовую, нефтяную, торфяную, сланцевую и уранодобы-вающую промышленность. В условиях НТР роль топливной промышленность возрастает в связи с развитием электрификации и теплофикации производств, обусловливающих интенсивный рост потребления энергии.

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность прошла в своем развитии несколько этапов: угольный (до середины XX в.), нефтяной и газовый (до 80-х гг. XX в.); в настоящее время мировая энергетика вступила в переходный этап этап постепенного перехода от использования минерального топлива к возобновимым и неисчерпаемым энергоресурсам.

    Нефтяная промышленность. Нефть добывают примерно в 80 странах, но географию этой отрасли определяют страны «первой десятки». Основная особенность более 4/5 запасов и около 1/2 добычи нефти приходится на развивающиеся страны, которые и являются главными экспортерами нефти, особенно страны ОПЕК. В результате образовался огромный территориальный разрыв между основными районами добычи нефти и районами ее потребления. Крупнейшими экспортерами нефти являются страны Персидского залива. Большими запасами обладают Россия, США, Китай, Иран и др.

    Газовая промышленность. Крупнейшие производители Россия, США, Канада, Нидерланды. В последнее время добыча газа растет в некоторых развивающихся странах. Алжир, Малайзия, Индонезия, ОАЭ продают сжиженный природный газ в страны Европы и Японию.

    Угольная промышленность. Уголь добывают примерно в 60 странах мира, но географию отрасли, как и у нефтяной промышленности, определяют страны «первой десятки». Китай, США, Россия дают больше половины всей мировой добычи. Уголь добывают в основном в экономически развитых странах: ФРГ, Великобритания, Польша, Австралия, ЮАР и др.

    Электроэнергетика. В структуре производства электроэнергии преобладают тепловые электростанции (63% всей выработки), затем гидроэлектростанции (20%) и атомные (17%). Эти данные характерны для мирового производства. В разных регионах и странах электроэнергетика имеет свои особенности: в ЮАР почти вся электроэнергия вырабатывается на ТЭС, в Норвегии на ГЭС, во Франции большинство энергии дают АЭС (76%). Франция, Япония, Республика Корея продолжают, в отличие от многих других стран, наращивать мощности атомной энергетики и после Чернобыльской катастрофы. Странами, выделяющимися по количеству производимой электроэнергии, являются США, Россия, Япония, ФРГ, Канада.

    Растет интерес к использованию нетрадиционных ресурсов для выработки электроэнергии: геотермальная энергетика, сооружение приливных, солнечных электростанций, использование энергии ветра.

    Энергетическая проблема связана с сырьевой. Это проблемы обеспечения человечества топливом и сырьем. Решение проблемы заключается в использовании достижений НТР для уменьшения потери топлива и сырья, использование альтернативных источников энергии, вовлечение в эксплуатацию новых месторождений.

    Топливно-энергетическая промышленность оказывает влияние на окружающую среду: при добыче полезных ископаемых нарушается почвенный

    покров, «съедаются» целые природные ландшафты, при добыче и транспортировке нефти и газа происходит загрязнение Мирового океана и т. п. Мировая тепловая энергетика выбрасывает в окружающую среду вредные вещества, изменяется состав атмосферы, происходит ее тепловое загрязнение. При строительстве ГЭС изменяется микроклимат территории, ее гидрологический режим и т. п. Атомная энергетика породила проблему захоронения радиоактивных отходов (не говоря о Чернобыле). Пути решения экологических проблем, связанных с топливно-энергетической промышленностью, создание очистных сооружений, внедрение малоотходных и безотходных технологий, продуманное размещение производств.

  • 8. American Literature books summary
    Разное добавлен 09.12.2008

    In America in the early years of the 18th century, some writers, such as Cotton Mather, carried on the older traditions. His huge history and biography of Puritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in 1702, and his vigorous Manuductio ad Ministerium, or introduction to the ministry, in 1726, were defenses of ancient Puritan convictions. Jonathan Edwards, initiator of the Great Awakening, a religious revival that stirred the eastern seacoast for many years, eloquently defended his burning belief in Calvinistic doctrine--of the concept that man, born totally depraved, could attain virtue and salvation only through God's grace--in his powerful sermons and most notably in the philosophical treatise Freedom of Will (1754). He supported his claims by relating them to a complex metaphysical system and by reasoning brilliantly in clear and often beautiful prose.But Mather and Edwards were defending a doomed cause. Liberal New England ministers such as John Wise and Jonathan Mayhew moved toward a less rigid religion. Samuel Sewall heralded other changes in his amusing Diary, covering the years 1673-1729. Though sincerely religious, he showed in daily records how commercial life in New England replaced rigid Puritanism with more worldly attitudes. The Journal of Mme Sara Knight comically detailed a journey that lady took to New York in 1704. She wrote vividly of what she saw and commented upon it from the standpoint of an orthodox believer, but a quality of levity in her witty writings showed that she was much less fervent than the Pilgrim founders had been. In the South, William Byrd of Virginia, an aristocratic plantation owner, contrasted sharply with gloomier predecessors. His record of a surveying trip in 1728, The History of the Dividing Line, and his account of a visit to his frontier properties in 1733, A Journey to the Land of Eden, were his chief works. Years in England, on the Continent, and among the gentry of the South had created gaiety and grace of expression, and, although a devout Anglican, Byrd was as playful as the Restoration wits whose works he clearly admired.The wrench of the American Revolution emphasized differences that had been growing between American and British political concepts. As the colonists moved to the belief that rebellion was inevitable, fought the bitter war, and worked to found the new nation's government, they were influenced by a number of very effective political writers, such as Samuel Adams and John Dickinson, both of whom favoured the colonists, and Loyalist Joseph Galloway. But two figures loomed above these--Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine.Franklin, born in 1706, had started to publish his writings in his brother's newspaper, the New England Courant, as early as 1722. This newspaper championed the cause of the "Leather Apron" man and the farmer and appealed by using easily understood language and practical arguments. The idea that common sense was a good guide was clear in both the popular Poor Richard's almanac, which Franklin edited between 1732 and 1757 and filled with prudent and witty aphorisms purportedly written by uneducated but experienced Richard Saunders, and in the author's Autobiography, written between 1771 and 1788, a record of his rise from humble circumstances that offered worldly wise suggestions for future success.Franklin's self-attained culture, deep and wide, gave substance and skill to varied articles, pamphlets, and reports that he wrote concerning the dispute with Great Britain, many of them extremely effective in stating and shaping the colonists' cause.Thomas Paine went from his native England to Philadelphia and became a magazine editor and then, about 14 months later, the most effective propagandist for the colonial cause. His pamphlet "Common Sense" (January 1776) did much to influence the colonists to declare their independence. "The American Crisis" papers (December 1776-December 1783) spurred Americans to fight on through the blackest years of the war. Based upon Paine's simple deistic beliefs, they showed the conflict as a stirring melodrama with the angelic colonists against the forces of evil. Such white and black picturings were highly effective propaganda. Another reason for Paine's success was his poetic fervour, which found expression in impassioned words and phrases long to be remembered and quoted.

  • 9. AVR микроконтроллер AT90S2333 фирмы Atmel
    Радиоэлектроника добавлен 09.12.2008

    МнемоникаОперандыОписаниеДействиеФлагиЦклАрифметические командыADDRd, RrСложить два регистраRd<Rd+RrZ,C,N,V,H1ADCRd, Rr Сложить с переносомRd<Rd+Rr+C Z,C,N,V,H1ADIWRdl,K Сложить слово с константойRdh,l<Rdh,l+K Z,C,N,V,S2SUBRd, RrВычесть два регистраRd<Rd-Rr SUBIRd, KВычесть константуRd<Rd-KSBIWRdl,KВычесть слово с константойRdh,l<Rdh,l-KSBCRd, RrВычесть с переносомRd<Rd-Rr-CSBCIRd, KВычесть с переносомRd<Rd-K-CANDRd, RrЛогическое ИRd<Rd AND RrANDIRd, KЛогическое ИRd<Rd AND KORRd, RrЛогическое ИЛИRd<Rd OR RrORIRd, K Логическое ИЛИRd<Rd OR K Z,N,V 1EORRd, RrИсключающее ИЛИRd<Rd XOR Rr Z,N,V 1COMRdДополнение до 1Rd<$FF - Rd Z,C,N,V1NEGRdДополнение до 2Rd<$00 - Rd Z,C,N,V,H1SBRRd,KУстанов. бита в регистреRd<Rd OR K Z,N,V 1CBRRd,KСброс. бита в регистреRd<RdAND(FFh-K) Z,N,V 1INCRdУвеличить на 1Rd<Rd+1Z,N,V 1DECRdУменьшить на 1Rd<Rd-1Z,N,V 1TSTRdПроверить на 0 или 1Rd<Rd AND RdZ,N,V1CLRRdОчистить регистрRd<Rd XOR RdZ,N,V1SERRdУстановить регистрRd<$FF None1КОМАНДЫ ВЕТВЛЕНИЯRJMP kОтносительный переходPC<PC+k+1 None2LJMPПереход по адресу (Z)PC<Z None2RCALL kОтносительный вызов подпрогрограммыPC<PC+k+1 None3ICALLВызов подпр по адресу (Z)PC<ZNone3RETВыход из подпрограммыPC<STACKNone4RETIВыход из прерыванияPC<STACKI4CPSERd,RrСравнить , пропуск если Rd=Rrif(Rd=Rr) PC<PC+2 или 3None1/2CPRd,RrСравнитьRd-RrZ,N,V,C,H1CPCRd,RrСравнить с переносомRd-Rr-CZ,N,V,C,H1CPIRd,KСравнить с константой Rd-KSBRCRr,bПропуск если бит в регистре сброшенif(Rr(b)=0)None1/2SBRSRr,bПропуск если бит в регистре установлен if(Rr(b)=1)None1/2SBICP, bПропуск если бит в регистре I\O сброшенif(P(b)=0)None1/2SBIS P, bПропуск если бит в регистре I\O установленif(P(b)=1)None1/2BRBS s, kПереход если установл флаг sif(SREG(s)=1)None1/2BRBC s, kПереход если сброшен флаг sif(SREG(s)=0)None1/2BREQkПереход если равно Z=1if(Z=1)None1/2BRNEkПереход если неравно if(Z=0) if(Z=0)None1/2BRCSkПереход если установл переносif(C=1)None1/2BRCCkПереход если сброшен переносif(C=0)None1/2BRSHkПереход если равно или большеif(C=0)None1/2BRLOkПереход если меньшеif(C=1) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRMIkПереход если минусif(N=1) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRPLkПереход если плюсif(N=0) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRGEkПереход если больше или равно,со знакомif(N XOR V=0) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRLTkПереход если меньше нуля, со знакомif(N XOR V=1) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRHSkПереход если установл флаг Hif (H=1) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRHCkПереход если сброшен флаг Hif (H=0) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRTSkПереход если установл флаг Tif (H=1) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRTCkПереход если сброшен флаг Tif (H=0) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRVSkПереход если установл флаг Vif (H=1) PC<PC+k+1 None1/2BRVCkПереход если сброшен флаг Vif (H=0) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRIEkПереход если разрешены прерыванияif(I=1) PC<PC+k+1None1/2BRIDkПереход если запрещены прерыванияif(I=1) PC<PC+k+1None1/2КОМАНДЫ ПЕРЕСЫЛКИMOVRd,RrПересылка между рег.Rd<RrNone1LDIRd,KЗагрузить константуRd<KNone1LDRd,XЗагрузить регистр непосредственноRd<(X)None2LDRd,X+Загрузить регистр непосредст. c постинкремRd<(X),X<X+1None 2LDRd,-XЗагрузить регистр непоср. с предв.декремX<X-1,Rd<(X)None2LDRd,YЗагрузить регистр непосредственноRd<(Y)None2LDRd,Y+Загрузить регистр непоср. c пост инкремRd<(Y),Y<Y+1None2LDRd,-YЗагрузить регистр непоср. с предв.декремY<Y-1,Rd<(Y)None2LDDRd,Y+qЗагрузить регистр непоср. со смещениемRd<(Y+q)None2LDRd,ZЗагрузить регистр непосредственноRd<(Z)None2LDRd,Z+Загрузить регистр непоср. c пост инкремRd<(Z),Z<Z+1None2LDRd,-ZЗагрузить регистр непоср. с предв.декремZ<Z-1,Rd<(Z)None2LDDRd,Z+qЗагрузить регистр непоср. со смещениемRd<(Z+q)None2LDSRd,kЗагрузить из ОЗУRd<(k)None3STX,RrЗаписать регистр непосредственно(X)<RrNone2ST-X,RrЗаписать регистр непоср.c пред.декрем.X<X-1,(X)<RrSTY,RrЗаписать регистр непосредственно(Y)<RrSTY+,RrЗаписать регистр непоср.c пост инкр(X)<Rr,X<X+1ST-Y,RrЗаписать регистр непоср.c пред.декремY<Y-1,(Y)<RrNone2STDY+q,RrЗапис.рег.непоср.сосмещением (Y+q)<RrNone2STZ,RrЗаписать регистр непосредственно(Y)<RrNone2STZ+,RrЗаписать регистр непоср.c пост инкр(Y)<Rr,Y<Y+1None2ST-Z,RrЗаписать регистр непоср.c пред.декремZ<Z-1,(Z)<RrNone2STDY+q,RrЗапис.рег.непоср.сосмещением(Y+q)<RrNone2STSk,RrЗаписать в ОЗУ(k)<RrNone3LPMЗагр.из памяти программR0<(Z)None3INRd, PВвод из портаRd<PNone1OUTP, RrВывод в портP<RrNone1PUSHRrЗаписать в стекSTACK<RrNone2POPRrПрочитать из стекаRr<STACKNone 2КОМАНДЫ РАБОТЫ С БИТАМИSBIP,bУстановить бит в регистре ввода/выводаI/O(P,b)<1None2CBIP,bСбросить бит в регистре ввода/выводаI/O(P,b)<0None2LSLRdЛогический сдвиг влевоRd(n+1)<Rd(n), Rd(0)<0 Z,C,N,V1LSRRdЛогичский сдвиг вправоRd(n)<Rd(n+1), Rd(7)<0Z,C,N,V1ROLRdсдвиг влево через CRd(0)<C,Rd(n+1)<Rd(n), C<Rd(7)Z,C,N,V1RORRdсдвиг вправо через C Rd(7)<C,Rd(n)<Rd(n+1), C<Rd(0)Z,C,N,V1ASRRdАрифметический сдвиг вправоRd(n)<Rd(n+1), n=0..6Z,C,N,V 1SWAPRdОбмен тетрадRd(3-0)<Rd(7-4)

  • 10. Basic English
    Иностранные языки добавлен 29.03.2010

    Abilities and powers of man are increasing now. Technological progress allowed to use nuclear, chemical, laser, biological, and other machines and technologies instead of hand-operated and mechanical techniques. However, scientific and technological progress, as a rule, was separated from social progress. Such approach has let a man use the means negative consequences of which are globally destructive. 100 billion tons of minerals are mined annually, and more than 90% of them go in waste. Amount of oxygen, consumed by certain countries, already exceeds its manufacture by the plants of these countries. Tropical forests-main lungs of the Earth-is more than 40% felled. The speed of its felling is more than 20 hectares per minute. Almost one thousand of species of animals and 25 thousand species of plants are now under the threat of extinction. Recently medicine has aced the problems of worsening natural ecological conditions, chronic stresses, reduction of immunity, change of nutrition ration, and many other factors, unknown by now. Felling forests, pollution of environment by industrial waste and automobiles have already caused global warmth on the planet. Misuse of pesticides, mineral fertilizers, water pollution, impact of Chernobyl accident on the people-this is not a complete list of the factors determining dangerous changes in human organism and growth of diseases and death rate. Man is now using permissive principle and its trying to take everything from his life today. Mankind has driven itself into a dead-end… However, we still have an exit from it. The quality of mans life is impossible without solving ecological problems: preservation of genetic fund of flora and fauna, preservation of clean and productive natural environments (atmosphere, hydrosphere, soils, and forests), preservation of ozone. Only having realized that the reason of the ecological crisis which burst in the 20 century was lack of unity of Man and Nature, civilization can achieve progress.

    1. Language work:
    2. Translate from Ukrainian into English using the infinitive:
    3. Вона не чекала, що її син повернеться так рано.
    4. Вони хотіли, щоб я взяла участь у дискусії.
    5. Я не можу уявити тебе одягнутою в таку сукню.
    6. Ми не хочемо примушувати тебе жити тут.
    7. Ви винайдете новий метод.
    8. Постарайтесь примусити його пояснити, що відбувається в домі.
    9. Чарльз чекав, щоб двері відчинились.
    10. Ми бачили, що шторм наближається дуже швидко.
    11. Я чув, хтось грав на фортепіано в сусідній кімнаті.
    12. Я не можу дозволити, щоб таке сталось.
    13. Finish the sentences using the infinitive and translate the sentences into English:
    14. Dick is always the first (жалітися) when anything goes wrong.
    15. The captain was the last person (покидати) the sinking ship.
    16. Who was the last (пішов з) the building on Friday?
    17. Douglas isnt the man (залякати) easily.
    18. There is some packing (зробити).
    19. There was nothing (видно) in the passage.
    20. There is nothing (боятися).
    21. Ive got kids (турбуватися).
    22. He had no home (піти).
    23. Here is the problem for you (вирішити).
  • 11. Becoming of Great Britain
    Иностранные языки добавлен 27.10.2011

    Realising that he could not control Parliament, Charles next failed in his attempt to arrest Parliamentary leaders in the House of Commons itself. Because of this episode, the monarch was in future prohibited from entering the Commons. Today Black Rod, who is a royal ceremonial appointment, is a reminder of these constitutional changes. He knocks on the door of the Commons after it has been closed against him, in order to summon members of the Commons to the State Opening of Parliament. This is normally performed each autumn by the monarch in the House of Lords. 's rejection of developing political ideals provoked anger against the Crown, and eventually a Civil War broke out in 1642. The mainly Protestant Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell won the military struggle against the largely Catholic Royalists. Charles I was beheaded in 1649, the monarchy was abolished, and England was made a republic under the Cromwells (1649-59). During this republican period, Parliament consisted only of the House of Commons, which met every three years. , Cromwellian military rule was harsh and increasingly unpopular, so that most people wanted the restoration of the monarchy. The two Houses of Parliament were re-established, and in 1660 they restored the Stuart CharIes II to the throne. Initially Charles co-operated with Parliament, but eventually his financial needs, his belief in the divine right of kings to rule without opposition, and his support of the Catholic cause lost him popular and parliamentary backing. Parliament then ended his expensive wars; forced him to sign the Test Act of 1673, which excluded Catholics and Protestant dissenters from holding public office; and passed the Habeas Corpus Act in 1769, which stipulated that no citizen could be imprisoned without a fair and speedy trial.addition to this growing power of Parliament against the monarch, the seventeenth century also saw the beginning of more organized political parties. These derived largely from the ideological and religious conflicts of the Civil War. Two groups became dominant, and this feature was to characterize future British two-party politics, in which political power has shifted between two main parties. The Whigs were mainly Cromwellian Protestants and gentry, who refused to accept the Catholic James II as successor to Charles II, and who wanted religious freedom for all Protestants. The Tries generally supported royalist beliefs, and helped Charles II to secure James's right to succeed him.James's subsequent behaviour resulted in a further reduction of royal influence. He attempted to rule without Parliament, ignored its laws, and tried to repeal the Test Act. His manipulations eventually forced the Tories to join the Whigs in inviting the Protestant William of Orange to intervene. Supported by Dutch military help, William arrived in England in 1688, James fled to France, and William succeeded to the throne. Since no force was involved, this event has been called the Bloodless or Glorious Revolution. The 1688 changes considerably affected the British constitution and politics. William III became Britain's first constitutional monarch and, because of conditions imposed upon him, it was in future practically impossible for the monarch to reign without the consent of Parliament.series of Acts at this time laid the foundations for later political and constitutional developments. The Declaration of Rights in 1689 tried to establish basic civil liberties, and prevented the monarch from making laws or raising an army without Parliament's approval. The Act of Settlement in 1701 gave religious freedom to all Protestants, and stipulated that all future English monarchs had to be Protestant. A Triennial Act established that Parliament was to be called every three years.Glorious Revolution effectively abolished the monarch's claim to divine right. It also attempted to arrange a division of powers between an executive branch (the monarch through the government of the Privy Council); a legislative branch (both Houses of Parliament and formally the monarch); and the judiciary (a legal body independent of monarch and Parliament). This division, in which the legislature was supposed to control the executive, evolved slowly into its modern counterparts.power continued to grow gradually in the early eighteenth century, initially because the German-born George I lacked interest in English affairs of state. He also mistrusted the Tories with their Catholic sympathies, and appointed Whig ministers such as Robert Walpole to his Privy Council. Eventually Walpole became Chief Minister, Leader of the Whig Party and head of the Whig majority in the House of Commons, which was now mainly composed of wealthy land and property owners. Walpole's resulting control of political power enabled him to increase parliamentary influence, and he has been called Britain's first Prime Minister. But such parliamentary authority was by no means absolute, and later monarchs sought a return to royal dominance. However, George III eventually lost much of his own and royal authority after the loss of the American colonies with their Revolution against Britain in 1775. He was obliged to appoint William Pitt the Younger as his Tory Chief Minister, and it was under Pitt that the office of Prime Minister really developed.although parliamentary control continued to grow in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, there was still no widespread democracy in Britain. Political authority was now in the hands of landowners and merchants in Parliament, and the vast majority of the people did not possess the vote. Bribery and corruption were common in this political atmosphere, with the buying of those votes which did exist and the giving away or sale of public offices. The Tories were against electoral reform, as were the Whigs initially. But the country was now rapidly increasing its population and developing industrially and economically, so that pressures for political reform became irresistible. The Whigs extended voting rights to the expanding middle class in the First Reform Act of 1832. The Tory Disraeli later gave the vote to men with property and a certain income. However, the large majority of the working class were still unrepresented in Parliament because they had no votes. It was only in 1884 that the Whig Gladstone gave the franchise to all male adults. But most women had to wait until 1928 for full voting rights to be established in Britain.main elements of modern British government developed somewhat haphazardly in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and were based on the 1688 revolution and its division of powers. Government ministers gradually became responsible to the House of Commons rather than to the monarch, and were mainly members of the Commons. A growing collective responsibility meant that they all shared joint responsibility for the policies and acts of government, in addition to their individual responsibility owed to Parliament for the organization of their ministries. The prime ministership developed from the monarch's Chief Minister to 'first among equals' and eventually to the leadership of all ministers. The central force of government was now the parliamentary Cabinet of senior ministers, which had grown out of the Privy Council and the monarch's Cabinet. The ministers and the government belonged to the majority party in the House of Commons. The largest minority party became the Official Opposition, striving by its party manifesto and its performance in the Commons and the country to become the next government chosen by the people.constitutional developments were aided by the growth of more sophisticated and organized political parties, in the nineteenth century, which were conditioned by changing social and economic factors. These produced the modern struggle between opposing ideologies as represented by the various political parties. The Tories, who also became known as the Conservatives I around 1830, had been a dominant force in British politics since the eighteenth century. They believed in established values and the preservation of traditions; supported business and commerce; had strong links with the Church of England and the professions; and were opposed to what they saw as radical ideas. The Whigs, however, were developing into a more progressive force. They wanted social reform and economic freedom without government restrictions. In the period following the parliamentary reforms of 1832, the Whigs were changing into what later became the Liberal Party. They were to create an enlightened programme of liberalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Liberal Party was a mixture of people and ideas, often held together by the principle of utilitarian reform (or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people).a significant feature of the early inter-war years after 1918 was the decline of the Liberal Party, from which it was unable to recover. The new Labour Party, formed in 1906, gradually became the main opposition party to the Conservatives, and continued the traditional two-party system in British politics. It grew rapidly and was supported by the trade unions, the majority of the working class, and some middle-class voters. The first Labour government was formed in 1924 under Ramsay MacDonald, but only achieved real majority power in 1945 under Clement Attlee. It then embarked on a radical programme of social and economic reforms, which were to lay the foundations of the modern corporate and welfare state. , in this lengthy period of changing political fortunes and the triumph of the House of Commons in the parliamentary sytem, gradual reforms had been made to the House of Lords. The Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, eventually removed much of the Lords' political authority, leaving them with only a slight delaying and amending power over parliamentary bills. They could no longer interfere with financial legislation. These reforms finally demonstrated that political and taxation matters were now decided by the members of the Commons as elected representatives of the people. Other subsequent Acts have allowed the creation of non-hereditary titles, which supplement the old arrangement in which most peerages were hereditary.new challenge to parliamentary sovereignty and the political tradition in Britain has arisen due to membership of the European Community (1973). Some legal powers have already been lost to Community institutions, so that Parliament is no longer the sole legislative body in Britain. Further functions will probably be transferred to the Community as it becomes more economically and politically integrated.constitutional frameworkhave been no revolutionary upheavals in the British system of government over the centuries, despite the Civil War and the 1688 changes. Rather, existing institutions have been pragmatically adapted to new conditions. There has likewise been no deliberate attempt to establish a rigidly defined constitution, so that Britain, unlike many other countries, has no written constitution contained in any one document. Instead, the British employ a mixture of statute law (Acts of Parliament); common law (ancient judge-made law); and conventions (or principles and practices of government which, although not legally binding, are generally accepted as having the force of law).Parliament is for most purposes still the supreme legislative authority, save for some European Community legislation law and institutions can be created or changed by a simple Act of Parliament relatively quickly. The common law can be extended by the judges in the legal process, and conventions can be altered, formed or abolished by general agreement. Once a problem has been solved satisfactorily in the British system, that solution tends to be used again in similar situations, and becomes a precedent to govern future actions. Precedents are vital devices in the operation of Parliament, the administrative bodies and the courts of law. These elements, which together with some ancient documents make up the British constitutional framework, arc said to be flexible and simple enough to respond quickly to new conditions should that be necessary.somewhat haphazard constitutional system, which is largely dependent upon conventions and observing the rules of the game, has been admired in the past. The arrangements were said to combine stability and adaptability, so that a successful balance of authority and toleration was achieved. Most British governments tended to govern pragmatically when in power, in spite of very ideological party manifestos at election time. The emphasis was on whether a particular policy worked and was generally acceptable. Governments were conscious of how far they could go before displeasing their own followers and the electorate, to whom they were accountable at the next general election.the system has been increasingly criticized in recent years. Governments have become more radical in their policies, and have been able to implement them because of strong majorities in the Commons. There has been concern at the apparent absence of constitutional safeguards for the individual citizen against state power, especially since there are few legal definitions of civil liberties in Britain. There also appear to be few effective parliamentary restraints upon a strong government which is intent upon carrying out its policies.lack of adequate constitutional definitions in the British system has been seen as potentially dangerous, particularly when governments and their administrative bodies have a reputation for being too secretive. There have consequently been campaigns for more effective civil protection in the forms of a bill of rights; a written constitution; greater judicial scrutiny of the merits of parliamentary legislation; a Freedom of Information Act; and the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into British domestic law. But none of these suggested reforms has been achieved, and there is considerable opposition to the various proposals. critics argue that the British political system no longer works satisfactorily. They maintain that its institutions are too centralized, and that the traditional bases are no longer adequate for the organization of a complex, mass society. It is felt that political policies have become too conditioned by party politics at the expense of consensus. Questions have consequently been raised about the democratic and representative basis of national programmes. It is argued that there must be a fundamental reform of the existing political institutions if they are to reflect a contemporary diversity. However, changes do continue to be made to the present apparatus, and it may be that the old evolutionary principles will be successfully adapted to new demands and conditions.governmental model that operates in Britain today is usually described as a constitutional monarchy, or parliamentary system. While the monarch still has a role to play on some executive and legislative levels, it is Parliament which possesses the essential legislative power, and the government of the day which governs by initiating and controlling political policy and legislation. The correct constitutional definition of Parliament is the 'Queen-in-Parliament', and all state and governmental business is therefore carried out in the name of the monarch by the politicians and officials of the system. In constitutional theory, the British people hold the political sovereignty to choose their government, while Parliament, consisting partly of their elected representatives in the Commons, possesses the legal sovereignty to make laws.various branches of this political system, although easily distinguishable from each other, are not entirely separate. The monarch is formally head of the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. A Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons and a member of the House of Lords may both be in the government of the day. A Law Lord in the House of Lords also serves the House of Lords as the highest appeal court.legislature, which consists of both Houses of Parliament and formally the monarch, is for most purposes the supreme law-making body. The executive comprises the sitting government and its Cabinet, together with government ministries or departments headed by ministers or secretaries of state, who all act formally in the name of the monarch. The judiciary is composed mainly of the judges of the higher courts, who determine the common law and interpret Acts of Parliament. The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the legislative and executive branches of government.monarchycontinuity of the English monarchy has been interrupted only by the Cromwell republic of 1649-59 although there have been different lines of descent, such as the Stuarts, the Tudors and the Hanoverians. The Crown, as distinct from any particular monarch, is thus one of the oldest secular institutions in Britain. Succession to the throne is still hereditary, but only for Protestants in the direct line of descent.monarch has a number of roles, and serves formally as head of state head of the executive head of the judiciary head of the legislature commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and supreme governor of the Church of England. It follows that all ministers and officials of the central government are the monarch's servants, and judges, military officers, peers, and bishops of the Church of England swear allegiance to the Crown. In holding these and other positions, the monarch is said to personify the British state.spite of these roles, there are difficulties in defining the precise powers of the monarch, who is supposed to reign but not rule. The monarch is also expected to be politically neutral, and should not be seen to be making political decisions. In order to avoid potential constitutional crises, proposals have often been made that rules concerning the real powers of the monarch should be established. Ideally they would clarify the uncertain elements in the monarch's position, and avoid the dangers of involving the Crown in political controversy., for all practical purposes and since the old executive royal authority has been virtually abolished, the monarch acts only on the advice of political ministers, which cannot be ignored. The monarch cannot make laws, impose taxes, spend public money or act unilaterally. In this sense, contemporary Britain is governed by Her Majesty's Government in the name of the Queen., the monarch still performs some important executive and legislative duties, which are essential to the smooth running of government. These include the summoning, opening, Proroguing (or adjourning), and dissolving of Parliament; giving the Royal Assent (or signature) to bills which have been passed by both Houses of Parliament; appointing government ministers and other public figures; granting honours; holding audiences with the Prime Ministers; convening meetings of the Privy Council; giving pardons to some convicted criminals; and fulfilling international duties as head of state. In practice, most of these functions are performed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister or other ministers.central power still possessed by the monarch is the choice and appointment of the Prime Minister. Normally and by convention, this person would be the leader of the political party which has a majority in the House of Commons. However, if there is no clear majority or if the political situation is unclear, the monarch could in theory make a free choice. In practice, it appears that advice would be given by the monarch's advisers and leading politicians in order to present a suitable candidate who would be generally acceptable.constitutional conventions stipulate that the monarch has the right to be informed of and advised on all aspects of national life by receiving government documents and meeting with the Prime Minister. The monarch also has the right to encourage, warn and advise ministers. This latter role could be a source of potential power not only in Britain, but also in the Commonwealth of which the monarch is head. It is difficult to know to what extent monarchical advice on formal and informal levels is influential. Some critics suggest that it could be substantial.monarch is a permanent fixture in the British political system, unlike temporary politicians, and often has a greater knowledge of domestic and international politics. It seems that the monarchy still has a considerable part to play in the operation of government at various levels. Its practical and constitutional importance is stressed by provisions for the appointment of counsellors of state (or a regent in exceptional cases) to perform royal duties, should the monarch be absent from Britain or unable to carry out public tasks.of the costs of the royal family's official duties are met from public funds. This finance is granted from the Civil List - money which previously had to be debated and approved by Parliament each year, but which from 1990 has been frozen at current levels for a 10-year period. The monarch's private expenses as sovereign come from the Privy Purse - finance which is gathered from the revenues of some royal estates. Any other costs incurred by the monarch as a private individual must come from the Crown's own resources, which are very considerable.against the monarchy as a continuing institution in British life maintain that it is out-of-date, non-democratic, too expensive, too exclusive and too closely associated with aristocratic privilege and establishment thinking. It is argued that the monarchy's alleged aloofness from ordinary daily life contributes to class divisions in society and sustains a hierarchical structure. It is also suggested that, if the monarch's functions today are merely ceremonial and lack power or essential point, the office should be abolished and replaced by a cheaper figurehead presidency.in favour of the monarchy suggest that it has developed and adapted to modern requirements, and is not remote. It is argued that it serves as a symbol or personification of the state; demonstrates stability and continuity; has a higher prestige than politicians; is not subject to political manipulations; plays a worthwhile role in political institutions; possesses a neutrality with which people can feel secure; and performs an important ambassadorial function in Britain and overseas. The monarchy is also said to reflect family values, and has a certain glamour (some would say soap-opera quality) about it, which is attractive to many people. The British public shows considerable affection for the royal family beyond its representative role. Public opinion polls from time to time demonstrate majority support for the institution of monarchy as against a republican alternative. But the polls also suggest that the monarchy should adapt more to changes in society; that less public money should be spent on it; and that its income should be subject to income tax.Privy CouncilPrivy Council developed from a small group of royal advisers at court into the chief source of executive authority. But its powerful position was weakened in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as more of its functions were transferred to a developing parliamentary Cabinet. Its work was later devolved to newly created ministries, which were needed to cope with a rapidly changing society.its main role is to advise the monarch on a range of matters, like the resolution of constitutional issues and the approval of Orders in Council, such as the granting of Royal Charters to public bodies. Its members can be appointed to advisory and problem-solving committees and, because of its international membership and continuing constitutional character, it can be influential.ministers automatically become members on taking government office. Life membership of the council is also given by the monarch, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, to eminent people in Britain and in independent monarchical countries of the Commonwealth. There are about 380 Privy Councillors at present, but the organization tends to work for practical purposes mostly through small groups. A full council is usually only summoned on the death of a monarch; when there are serious constitutional issues at stake; or occasionally when a Commonwealth Heads of State Conference is held in London. In the case of any indisposition of the monarch, counsellors of state or an appointed regent would work partly through the Privy Council.from its practical duties and its role as a constitutional forum for experienced people, perhaps the most important task of the Privy Council today is performed by its Judicial Committee. This serves as the final court of appeal from those dependencies and Commonwealth countries which have retained this avenue of appeal. It may also be used as an arbiter for a wide range of courts and committees in Britain and overseas, and its rulings can be influential.is the supreme legislative authority in Britain and, since it is not controlled by a written constitution, it has legal sovereignty in virtually all matters, subject only to some European Community decisions. This means that it can create, abolish or amend laws for all or any part(s) of Britain on any topic. The main functions of Parliament today are to pass laws; to vote on financial bills so that government can carry on its legitimate business; to examine government policies and administration; and to scrutinize European Community legislation.pursuing these powers, Parliament is supposed to legislate according to the rule of law, precedent and tradition. Politicians are generally sensitive to these conventions and to public opinion. A set of formal and informal checks and balances - such as party discipline, the OfficiaI Opposition, public reaction and pressure groups - normally ensures that Parliament legislates according to its legal responsibilities. A government with a strong majority in the House of Commons may bow to public pressure, face rebellion from its own MPs and suffer attack by the opposition parties if the proposed laws are not widely accepted.consists of the House of Lords, the House of Commons and formally the monarch. It assembles as a unified body only on ceremonial occasions, such as the State Opening of Parliament by the monarch in the House of Lords. Here it listens to the monarch's speech from the throne, which outlines the government's broad legislative programme for the coming session. All three parts of Parliament must normally pass a bill before it can become an Act of Parliament and therefore law. A correctly created Act cannot be challenged in the law courts on its merits.Parliament has a maximum duration of five years, but it is often dissolved and a general election called before the end of this term. The maximum has sometimes been prolonged by special parliamentary legislation on occasions of national emergency like the two World Wars. A dissolution of Parliament and the issue of writs for the ensuing general election are ordered by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. If an individual MP dies, resigns or is given a peerage, a by-election is called only for that member's seat, and Parliament as a whole is not dissolved.contemporary House of Lords consists of the Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of York and Canterbury, together with twenty-four senior diocesan bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of (1) hereditary peers and peeresses who have kept their titles; (2) life peers and peeresses, who have usually been created by political parties; and (3) the Lords of Appeal (Law Lords), who become life peers on their judicial appointments. The latter serve the House of Lords as the ultimate court of appeal for most purposes from most parts of Britain. This appeal court does not consist of the whole House of Lords, but only some nine Law Lords who have held senior judicial office, who are under the chairmanship of the Lord Chancellor, and who form a quorum of three to five when they hear appeal cases.are some 1,200 members of the House of Lords, but the active daily attendance varies from a handful to a few hundred. Peers receive no salary for their parliamentary work, but are eligible for attendance and travelling expenses should they wish to claim them. The House is presided over by the Lord Chancellor, who is a political appointee of the sitting government, who sits on the Woolsack (or stuffed woollen sofa) as Speaker (Chairman) of the House, and who controls the procedure and meetings of the House.are frequent demands that the unrepresentative, unelected House of Lords should be abolished and replaced by a second democratically elected chamber. The problem consists of which alternative model to adopt, and there is little agreement on this point. Meanwhile, the House of Lords does its job well as an experienced and less partisan corrective to the House of Commons. It retains an important revising, amending and delaying function. This may be used either to block government legislation for a time, or to persuade governments to have a second look at bills. In this sense, it is a safeguard, against over-hasty legislation by the Commons, and fulfils a considerable constitutional role at times when governments may be very powerful. This function is possible because members of the Lords tend to be more independently minded than MPs in the Commons, and do not suffer such rigid party discipline. Indeed, the House has a considerable number of Independents (or crossbenchers) who do not belong to any political party, although there appears to be a nominal Conservative majority in the total membership.to reform the House of Lords were made several times in the course of the 20th century.Parliament Act of 1911 removed from the House of Lords the power of veto a bill, except one to prolong the lifetime of a parliament. Instead, the Lords could delay a bill by up to two years. The Parliament Act of 1949 further reduced the Lord's delaying powers to one year.Labour government came tp power in 1997 on a manifesto which stated that the House of Lords must be reformed. As an initial, self-contained reform, the right of hereditary peers to sit and vote in the House of Lords will be ended by statute. This will be the first stage in process of reform to make the House of Lords more democratic and representative. The legislative powers of the House of Lords will remain unaltered.

  • 12. BIOS: назначение и настройка
    Компьютеры, программирование добавлен 09.12.2008

    Поскольку содержимое ROM BIOS фирмы IBM было защищено авторским правом, то есть его нельзя подвергать копированию, то большинство других производителей компьютеров вынуждены были использовать микросхемы BIOS независимых фирм, системы BIOS которых, разумеется, были практически полностью совместимы с оригиналом. Наиболее известные из этих фирм три: American Megatrends Inc. (AMI), Award Software и Phoenix Technologies. Заметим, что конкретные версии BIOS неразрывно связаны с набором микросхем (chipset), используемым на системной плате. Кстати, компания Phoenix Technologies считается пионером в производстве лицензионно-чистых BIOS. Именно в них впервые были реализованы такие функции, как задание типа жесткого диска, поддержка привода флоппи-дисков емкостью 1,44 Мбайта и т.д. Более того, считается, что процедура POST этих BIOS имеет самую мощную диагностику. Справедливости ради надо отметить, что BIOS компании AMI наиболее распространены. По некоторым данным, AMI занимает около 60% этого сегмента рынка. Кроме того, из программы Setup AMI BIOS можно вызвать несколько утилит для тестирования основных компонентов системы и работы с накопителями. Однако при их использовании особое внимание следует обратить на тип интерфейса, который использует привод накопителя.

  • 13. Brief course on lexicology
    Иностранные языки добавлен 15.11.2001

    Phraseological units might also be shared to:

    1. phrasemes two-member word-groups in which one of the members has specialized meaning dependent on the second component: “small hours”.
    2. Idioms the idiomaticity of the whole word-group; unusualness of collocability or logical incompability of member-words; usually homonymous with corresponding variable word-groups: red tape, to let the cat out of the bag.
  • 14. C++ Builder. Введение в структурное программирование
    Компьютеры, программирование добавлен 30.12.2010

    ОператорОписаниеПримерАрифметические операторы+СложениеХ = Х + Z;-ВычитаниеХ = у - 2;*Умножениех = у * х;/Делениех = у / z;%Остаток от деления целых чиселх=х%у;Операторы присваивания=Присваиваниех = 10;+=Сложение с присваиваниемх += 10; (то же, что и х = х + 10;)-=Вычитание с присваиваниемх -= 10;*=Умножение с присваиваниемх *= 10;/=Деление с присваиваниемх /= 10;&=Поразрядное И с присваиваниемх &= 10;|=Поразрядное ИЛИ с присваиваниемх |= 10;Логические операторы&&Логическое Иif (х && OxFF) {...}||Логическое ИЛИif (х || OxFF) {...}Операторы отношения= =Равноif (x = = 10) {…}!=Не равноif (x != 10) {...}<Меньшеif (x< 10) {...}>Большеif (x > 10) (...)<=Меньше или равноif (x<=10) {...}>=Больше или равноif (x >= 10) {...}Унарные операторы*Косвенная адресация int х = *у;&Взятие адресаint* х = &у;Поразрядное НЕх &= 0х02;!Логическое НЕif (!valid) {...}+Инкрементx++; (то же, что и х = х + 1;)--Декрементх--:Операторы классов и структур%d0%9a%d0%be%d1%81%d0%b2%d0%b5%d0%bd%d0%bd%d1%8b%d0%b9%20%d0%b4%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d1%83%d0%bfMyClass->SomeFunction();.%d0%9f%d1%80%d1%8f%d0%bc%d0%be%d0%b9%20%d0%b4%d0%be%d1%81%d1%82%d1%83%d0%bfMyClass.SomeFunction();">::Разрешение области видимостиMyClass::SomeFunction();->Косвенный доступMyClass->SomeFunction();.Прямой доступMyClass.SomeFunction();

  • 15. Der Fruhling bluhtet in Mykolajiw - виховний захід з німецької мови
    Педагогика добавлен 16.06.2010

    Мета: активізувати вживання лексики теми „Die Natur"; вчити учнів орфографічно вірному письму, тренувати учнів в аудіюванні, удосконалювати навички іншомовного мовлення, розвивати фонетичний слух, память мислення, увагу, спостережливість, вміння та навички перекладу з української мови німецькою та навпаки, навички виразного читання та декламування віршів, виховувати любов до тварин, турботливість, працьовитість, інтерес до вивчення німецької мови.

  • 16. English in business
    Иностранные языки добавлен 31.01.2010

    a) Directive decision makers. These people are task-oriented and have a strong need for power, wanting to feel they are in control of others. They also have a low tolerance for ambiguity and prefer to keep things pragmatic and simple. They tend to take decisions on the basis of less information, using fewer alternatives. They need to feel that the decision is theirs to make and no one else's.

    1. Analytic decision makers. These people are also task-oriented. They need to achieve things and are highly motivated when dealing with a challenge. They are more tolerant of ambiguity than directive decision makers, and can tolerate higher information loads. They take time to analyze in more detail the various possible courses of action.
    2. Conceptual decision makers. Such individuals also have a strong need for achievement. But they are people-oriented and less analytical. They are comfortable with high information loads but their data collection methods may be through talking to people, especially experts. They tend to be more creative than the more analytical decision makers and think about what can produce the best results in the long term.
    3. Behavioural decision makers. These individuals have a strong people orientation. They tend to communicate easily, using simple and understandable messages(with low cognitive complexity). They consult with others, are open to suggestions and happy to compromise. They prefer a looser sense of leadership control. "I prefer everyone to "own" the decisions that are mine".
  • 17. English language for technical colleges
    Иностранные языки добавлен 24.10.2009

    2 форма3 форма4 формаПереводto bewas/werebeenbeingбыть, находитьсяto bearborebornbearingнестиto beatbeatbeatenbeatingбитьto beginbeganbegunbeginningначинать(ся)to bendbentbentbendingгнутьto bindboundboundbindingпереплетатьto bitebitbitten/bitbitingкусатьto blowblewblownblowingдутьto breakbrokebrokenbreakingломатьto bringbroughtbroughtbringingприноситьto buildbuiltbuiltbuildingстроитьto burstburstburstburstingгореть, жечьto buyboughtboughtbuyingпокупатьto catchcaughtcaughtcatchingловитьto choosechosechosenchoosingвыбиратьto cutcutcutcuttingрезать, рубитьto divedived/dovediveddivingнырятьto dodiddonedoingделатьto drawdrewdrawndrawingрисовать, тащитьto drinkdrankdrunkdrinkingпитьto drivedrovedrivendrivingвестиto eatateeateneatingесть, кушатьto fallfellfallenfallingпадатьto feelfeltfeltfeelingчувствоватьto feedfedfedfeedingкормитьto fightfoughtfoughtfightingбороться, дратьсяto flyflewflownflyingлетатьto forbidforbadeforbiddenforbiddingзапрещатьto forgetforgotforgottenforgettingзабыватьto forgiveforgaveforgivenforgivingпрощатьto freezefrozefrozenfreezingзамораживатьto getgotgotgettingполучать, становитьсяto givegavegivengivingдаватьto gowentgonegoingидти, ехатьto growgrewgrowngrowingрасти, выращиватьto hanghunghunghangingвисеть, вешатьto havehadhadhavingиметьto hearheardheardhearingслышатьto hithithithittingударятьto holdheldheldholdingдержатьto hurthurthurthurtingповредитьto knowknewknownknowingзнатьto laylaidlaidlayingнакрыватьto leadleadleadleadingвестиto leapleapt/leapedleapt/leapedleapingпрыгать, скакатьto leaveleftleftleavingпокидать, оставлятьto lendlentlentlendingдавать взаймыto letletletlettingпозволятьto lielaylainlyingлежатьto lightlitlitlightingзажигатьto loselostlostlosingтерятьto makemademademakingделатьto meetmetmetmeetingвстречать (ся)to paypaidpaidpayingплатитьto putputputputtingкласть, ставитьto readreadreadreadingчитатьto rideroderiddenridingехать (верхом)to ringrangrungringingзвонить, звенетьto riseroserisenrisingподниматьto runranrunrunningбежатьto saysaidsaidsayingговорить, сказатьto seesawseenseeingвидетьto sellsoldsoldsellingпродаватьto sendsentsentsendingпосещать, отправлятьto shakeshookshakenshakingтрястиto shineshoneshoneshiningсветить, сиятьto shootshotshotshootingстрелять, сниматьto showshowedshownshowingпоказыватьto singsangsungsingingпетьto sinksanksunksinkingтонутьto sitsatsatsittingсидетьto sleepsleptsleptsleepingспатьto speakspokespokenspeakingговорить, разговариватьto spendspentspentspendingтратить, проводить времяto standstoodstoodstandingстоятьto stealstolestolenstealingворовать, украстьto stickstuckstuckstickingприлипатьto strikestruckstruckstrikingбить, ударятьto swearsworeswornswearingклястьсяto sweepsweptsweptsweepingмести, подметатьto swimswamswumswimmingплаватьto taketooktakentakingвзять, братьto teachtaughttaughtteachingучить, обучатьto teartoretorntearingрватьto telltoldtoldtellingсказать, сообщатьto thinkthoughtthoughtthinkingдуматьto throwthrewthrownthrowingбросать,

  • 18. English Literature books summary
    Разное добавлен 09.12.2008
  • 19. English Theoretical Grammar
    Иностранные языки добавлен 22.01.2011

    3. It is doubtful whether the grammatical category of gender exists in Modern English for it is hardly ever expressed by means of grammatical forms. There is practically one gender-forming suffix in Modern English, the suffix ess, expressing feminine gender. It is not widely used (heir heiress, poet poetess, actor actress).

    1. The basic meaning of the category of number is the opposition of the singularity and the plurality of objects. The plurality implies an amount exceeding one. The singular number is conveyed by the basic form, i.e. by the form which has no endings and which coincides with the stem. The plural number is graphically conveyed by the s formant that materializes itself as a number of allomorphs (/s/, /z/, /iz/) depending on the character of the final sound of the stem (books, cats, dogs, potatoes, classes, bushes). However, there are other, unproductive means of forming the plural form (children, nuclei, phenomena, feet, mice). And finally, there are some nouns that do not possess the formal features of either plural or singular number (sheep, deer, swine, news, scissors, trousers).
    2. Of the two number forms, the singular number is compulsory for all nouns, except for pluralia tantum. The reason for this fact is that the singular number is capable of conveying not only the availability of quantity (one) but also the absence of quantitative measurements for uncountables. The plural form always conveys some quantitative relationship; it is due to this fact that the plural number is capable of conveying the concretion of an abstract notion: a noun denoting a generalized feature (a quality or a feeling) may also convey manifestations which are occasional (attentions, joys).
  • 20. Examination Topics
    Разное добавлен 09.12.2008

    8. What famous people from Russia would you tell your foreign friends about? Which famous British and American people do you admire? What made/makes them famous?Each country is proud of its famous people, and Russia is among them. Id like to tell you about Russian famous writers, poets and musicians, because Im fond of literature and music. A. Pushkin is the most important Russian writer and poet of all time. He is like Shakespeare in England. He provided the standards for Russian arts and literature in the 19th century. In 1823 Pushkin began writing his masterpiece “Eugene Onegin”. It became his linguistic and literary standard. It is a commentary on the life of early 19th century Russia. Pushkin also wrote a lot of other poems and created masterpieces in drama and prose. All Russian people know Pushkin. Galleries and museums were named after him. In the centre of Moscow there is a monument to Pushkin built by the famous Russian architect Opekunshin in 1880. Pushkins memorial museums in different cities attract many visitors. One of the other famous poets and writers in Russia was M.Lermontov. He won fame as a poet after his poem on Pushkins death had been published. Lermontovs poems “Demon”, “Mtsyri”, his great novel A Hero of Our Time and his play “Masquerade” are masterpieces of Russian literature.As for me I like reading F.Dostoevsky and L.Tolstoy. They are famous Russian writers. I like M. Bulgakov; Master and Margarita is one of the worlds masterpieces. I often go to Patriarchs Pond where the book begins. It has a special atmosphere even now. I go there to be inspired. I like reading poetry, and Anna Ahmatova is my favourite. Russians famous musicians and composers such as Sergei Rachmaninov and Peter Tchaikovsky are recognized all over the world. Tchaikovsky composed a lot of symphonies and created beautiful music for operas and ballets. His famous operas “Eugene Onegin”, and “Iolanta” and his famous ballets “The Swan Lake”, “The Sleeping Beauty” are masterpieces. His memorial museum was opened in 1894 in Klin not far from Moscow. And the international Tchaikovsky Music Competition started in 1958 in Moscow. S. Rachmaninov was an outstanding Russian composer and pianist. He became famous with audiences around the world for his piano performances.Great Britain is also proud of its famous people. And Id like to tell you about one of its famous writers A. Conan Doyle. He invented Sherlock Holmes, one of the most famous characters and detectives. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Scotland. He was a doctor. In 1882 he moved to England to set up a practice. One of the doctors he worked for, was the model for Dr. Watson. Conan Doyles medical knowledge was a great help in his detective stories. He started the fashion of the detective stories. Nowadays I dont know a person who doesnt like detective stories. We know a lot about Sherlock Holmes. We even know his address 221 “B” Baker Street in London. If you go to London, you wont find 221 “B” Baker Street. But instead, you can go to a pub called “The Sherlock Holmes” in Northumberland Street (near Trafalgar Square). In that pub there is a room like his room at 221 “B” Baker Street, as described in Conan Doyles stories. There is also the stuffed head of a hound. It is said to be the original “hound of the Baskervilles”. A lot of tourists visit this pub. When Conan Doyle began to get tired of writing detective stories, he “killed” Holmes in one of his stories. But the public didnt like it. Conan Doyle had to write another story in which Holmes came back. So we can say that Conan Doyle was a famous British writer. He became popular because of his love for people.I also admire American famous people. Id like to tell you about Walt Disney, the pioneer of animated cartoons. He is famous for creating such cartoon characters as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Pluto, Goofy and others. He was born in 1901 in Chicago. His father was a carpenter, farmer and building contractor. So the family changed homes several times. In 1917 Walt entered a Higher School in Chicago, where he took photographs, made drawings for the school paper and studied cartooning, for he wanted to get a job as a newspaper cartoonist. After World War 1, in which he participated as a truck driver for the American Red Cross in France and Germany, he returned to Kansas City. There he met Ub Iverk who turned into his partner for life. They started a small studio of their own and began making short animated advertising films. In 1927 Mickey Mouse appeared. Disney himself provided the voice for Mickey. Then the other cartoons appeared. Gradually, the Disney studio turned into a big enterprise and began to produce a variety of cartoons for children. And it was he, who initiated plans for a huge amusement park, which is known as Disneyland. A lot of grown-ups and children visit this park and remember the person who founded it, Walt Disney. And, of course, they remember Walt Disney because of his remarkable cartoons.