Статьи по предмету политология
Можно ли назвать демократию лучшим политическим режимом?
Статья пополнение в коллекции 23.12.2011Подробнее
The Demise of Democracy
Статья пополнение в коллекции 25.11.2011
This was a great step in the history and political culture of mankind. In the long run even the most successful political systems, those of Great Britain and the United States, for example, could not remain wholly immune from it (ibid.). in Decline only two centuries on from the dawn of the age of democracy, this great step in history-this force that empowered the governments of Britain, the U.S. and the British dominions to endorse, underwrite and succor the most inventive age of man, this great Anglo-American democratic movement-has faded most significantly from the vigor and vitality of its original vision. To quote Roberts, To many in the West, their civilization appears to have gone wrong. Much that is unique about it has seemed to turn out to be weakness, or worse. Cultural self-criticism and self-questioning have seemed to lead to cultural self-destruction (ibid.). problem, spawned a century ago with the birth of modernism, has more recently led to the current fashion for revisionist history, particularly in Britain, with many from the intelligentsia and the chatterati decrying their great and ancient British heritage, even to the point of becoming profoundly ashamed of it, having no concept of the reason for it! , Freudianism, Leninism and Marxism combined to throw doubt on traditional Western mores, culture and standards of behavior. This challenge to the old way profoundly impacted politics. According to Roberts, In politics, the decline of confidence in the absolute values of liberalism was rapid and spectacular. It ran away at best into an easy pragmatism and at worst into the outright irrationality which fed fascism. Appropriately, the Nazis consciously adopted the symbols of a pre-Christian, and therefore a pre-Western, pagan past (ibid.). In other words, God was left out of the picture. Western culture, which had developed to its peak prior to World War i, began its descent into the shoddy mess it is today, with the tenets of classic Western democracy becoming increasingly corrupted in its wake. combined effects of the warped thinking of modernists such as Freud, Darwin, Hegel and Nietzsche (with the German rationalist thought underpinning the modernists credo from the early 20th century on) consummated in the 1960s and 70s to rock the very system of virtues upon which Western democracy had been founded. The result has been the production of a generation-now in positions of leadership within corporate, bureaucratic and political circles in the Anglo-American democracies-that has the minds of immature children (Isa. 3:4). all post-war governments, it was the Clinton administration that brought to bear, on both domestic and international politics, some of the worst aspects of the moral relativism. This administration was overpopulated with children of the 60s and 70s who had their minds closed to reality (in the terms of professor Alan Bloom in his masterful work The Closing of the American Mind) via the brainwashing received from liberal-socialist professors at their universities and colleges during those two sad decades. the U.S., in particular during the Clinton administration, moral sickness in the White House skewed the perspective of the governing elite away from the old moral absolutes and tore at the fabric of true democracy that had underpinned America in its greatest era of growth and development. The result has been a warping of the national perception of just what it is that American democracy stands for. Prof. Wesley McDonald of Elizabethtown College, Penn., comments, The American political culture has changed so dramatically during the Clinton era that it is now reasonable to conclude that the social, moral and cultural basis necessary for the prevalence of genuinely conservative ideas no longer exists (Salisbury Review, Winter 2000). simply cannot be a genuine democracy without a strong representation of the genuine conservative ideas upon which it was founded. Unless those fundamental democratic virtues are given a strong voice of support, the moral relativism of the left will overwhelm society and work to destroy its democratic foundations. the Word back over the past century, what is of greatest significance that Western democracy has gifted to the rest of the world? terrible legacy of left-wing, liberal-socialist revisionism is that the baby has been thrown out with the bathwater. In their self-righteous attempts to decry their own rich heritage, Anglo-American revisionist historians, media merchants and their ilk simply try to bury the facts of history in their overt attempts to be politically correct. more objective analysis of the legacy of the Western democracies comes from the pen of J.M. Roberts: [I]f we are seriously concerned about our own sensitivity to ethical nuance, we ought also to recognize that administrators, missionaries, teachers were often right in thinking that they brought valuable gifts to non-Europeans. Those gifts included gentler standards of behavior toward the weak, the ideal of a more objective justice, the intellectual rigor of science, its fruits in better health and technology, and many other good things. They spread progressive, humane aspirations about the world. In some places, the mere bringing of settled order was by itself an unquestionable good. They could also point, as time went by, to economic changes which brought new opportunities, longer lives, more comfort (op. cit.). deepest roots of the missionary zeal that has promoted liberal democracy worldwide are anchored in America. Eric Bjornlund, former director of Asia programs at the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, explained, From the time of President Woodrow Wilsons crusade to make the world safe for democracy to the era of the Cold War, Americans of virtually all political persuasions shared an ideological commitment to advancing the democratic cause in the world. … Washington now devotes some $700 million annually to democracy promotion (Wilson Quarterly, Summer 2001). problem is that this effort to spread the gospel of democracy is predicated on one erroneous assumption-that all peoples think and act like Americans. They dont! Hence, when the U.S. naively tries to force foreign nations into the mold of its style of liberal democracy, it is nonplussed when it finds out that not all of the industrys players share the same commitment to democracy, and some are willing to sacrifice its pursuit to other foreign-policy goals (ibid.). the 1970s, the democratization of many of the worlds nations has been a priority in U.S. policy. Samuel Huntington has observed that in the late 1970s, a third wave of democratization commenced with transitions of forms of government in Spain and Portugal. This spread to the Hispanic countries of Latin America and leaped across the Pacific to parts of Asia. fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 catalyzed the spread of democratic government throughout Eastern and southern Europe. During the 1990s, parts of Africa and Asia jumped on the democratic bandwagon. All told, 50 countries have transitioned from other forms of government to democratized administrations since 1988. the question is, why? Why this wave of democracy sweeping across the world over the past 30 years, and in particular the past decade and a half? How legitimate is this change, and what has motivated it? tenuous nature of much of this process is highlighted by Eric Bjornlund: In the last decades of the 20th century, democracy established itself as the worlds dominant political ideal. Yet much of the worlds population has yet to enjoy democratic rights, and the commitment of many ostensibly democratic countries remains questionable (ibid.). this process has coincided with the massive export of American-produced television programs, music and other entertainment is more than coincidental. Human beings are generally not moved by logic or reason. It is imagination, emotion, feelings that motivate the masses of mankind. The appeal of the good life-typed by everything from its subculture of entertainment and national laid-back uniform of jeans, sweatshirt and sneakers to its voracious American-style consumerism and promotion of free and unmitigated choice within an economy of plenty-has been a powerful magnet to those in foreign lands. The simple equation in most minds is, Democracy equals all of this. is a problem in this idea, however. As America has dumbed down its culture-its taste in all things from food to dress, from music to sitcoms-the quality of life and the fruits thereof are painting a very different picture of the results of democracy to the rest of the world from that which our Founding Fathers envisioned. Family breakdown, a huge drug subculture, rampant sexual perversion, violent crime-all these bitter fruits now being reaped by an Anglo-American society in decline are being perceived by undemocratic, religiously zealous, reactionary regimes as dramatic proof of the failure of the great Western dream. perception has contributed to the Islamic backlash. It is, right now, exacerbating relationships between the U.S. and Europe. It is destined to have a horrific effect, ultimately, on the U.S. and Britain and its dominions. Already, comparisons between the benefits of old-style autocratic rule and Western-style democracy are being made, even by some in the West. Without Responsibility journalist Katie Grant recently visited the autocratically ruled country of Turkmenistan. Her summation? Turkmenistan may not be a free country, but there is no trash culture, no graffiti, and the people are happy. This country has no tradition of democracy. Yet, as Grant observes, [T]he rule of an autocrat does have an up side. We extol democracy, which allows societies to operate on the level of the lowest common denominator, as the best way to function. But when you compare our filthy streets and yob culture with the dignity of the Turkmen, democracy seems a shoddy affair. We havent risen to Bach; we have sunk to Marilyn Manson (Spectator, June 29). Grants message to those who seek to impose, with such zeal, the Wests form of liberal democracy on foreign countries is bitingly accurate, given the massive evidence of the systems current failures. [T]hose who try to export Western democratic values should remember that for many of the Turkmen people there are a good many things that are right. When we export democracy, we export Big Brother. When we insist on the supremacy of individual rights, we export family breakdown and the culture of whinge and litigation (ibid.). perceived by the Founding Fathers, democracy was to offer the citizenry freedom under the law. But if the citizenry lose their fear of breaking the law because those responsible for legalization and the upholding of the law remove its sting, the process simply breaks down. It is well known that, in some Arabian countries, you may leave your Mercedes Benz at curbside with the keys in the ignition. Why is this so? The fear of having a hand chopped off for thievery simply diminishes drastically the motive of any would-be car thief. Tough justice-but it works! idea of Western-style democracy contained, from its beginnings, the seeds of its own destruction. By stressing that human beings possessed certain inalienable rights, the Founding Fathers opened the way for a far-less-democratic liberal-socialist generation to elevate the concept of human rights above the obligation of human responsibility. managing editor of The New Criterion, Roger Kimball, puts it this way: In our own time, a time when everyone is clamoring for his or her rights-when new rights pop up like mushrooms-it is worth remembering that every right carries with it a corresponding duty. Some rights may be inalienable, but none is without price (National Interest, Spring 2002). of Excellence additional price that failing Western democracy is now paying is in a particular form of the dumbing down of society-a move away from the old desire to be the best and toward a desire to blur all distinctions between peoples unique abilities. expresses this phenomenon thus: Radical egalitarianism-egalitarianism uncorrected by the aspirations of excellence-would have us pretend that there are no important distinctions among people; where the pretense is impossible, it would have us enact compensatory programs to minimize, or at least to paper over, the differences. The results are a vast increase in self-deception, cultural degradation and bureaucratic meddlesomeness (ibid.). standards of excellence which were the aspirations of previous generations-in times when the British benignly ruled the greatest empire and the U.S. became the mightiest single nation on Earth-are buried in a mire of mediocrity. The false premise that we all must dumb down into a gray, amorphous mass of equality threatens to overwhelm the impulse to achieve and to excel (ibid.). insidious trend saps the nations political will. Such is certainly in evidence over the present debate on Iraq. The U.S., rather than show the courage for immediate retaliation against a crazed, petty despot rattling his bio-chemical and pending nuclear weaponry in the Middle East, is spending months in fruitless debate seeking the approbation of the world, including its enemies, before it deigns to strike with any force to wipe such a pestilential threat from off the face of the map! Government Tried democracy has had its day. civilization is in crisis and decline. It has been so since the First World War shattered the hope that Western culture was on the road to continuous progress toward a more rational and enlightened age. The Second World War shook Western democracy to its foundations. The cradle of democracy, the continent of Europe, came to realize at that point that the savagery of the civilized man had far outdone that of the barbarians who had preceded him. reflection, there appears to be no other forms of government left for man to try. Having experimented with all forms over millennia of time, the major shift over the past two centuries has been from aristocracy to democracy-from being governed by a small, privileged elite to government by the masses. Anglo-American democracies lost more of their own precious nationals fighting in defense of this democratic system over the past century than any other campaigns in the history of humankind. Has it been worth it? A most provocative view has been put forward in reflection on this question by Mark Malvasi, history teacher at Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Va. Reflecting on 100 years of democracy, Malvasi muses, To the extent that we have mastered nature and won our freedom, we have rejected the limitations of the human condition. No longer compelled to beseech God, we are confident that we are gods unto ourselves. Yet every day we witness the terrible consequences that follow when men, who no longer see the virtue of imitating Christ, arrogate to themselves the role of God (Intercollegiate Review, Fall/Spring 2000-2001; emphasis mine). intriguing! The system that shopped God around the world, that publicized the life of Jesus Christ to millions of pagans in far-off lands, no longer see[s] the virtue of imitating Christ. enlightened historian John Lukacs maintains that The historicity of Jesus Christ … is incontestable (A Students Guide to the Study of History), other members of the intelligentsia seek to bury this fact as an irrelevance in terms of the heritage of Western democracy!
Статья пополнение в коллекции 08.09.2011
Технократия не ущемляет прав граждан - технократами при желании могут быть все. С введением всеобщего бесплатного обязательного высшего образования стартовые условия для всех будут равны гарантированно. Дальше только конкуренция, соревнование способностей без ущемления их реализации, что закреплено должно быть конституционно. Конкурсные экзамены рационально будет заменить конкуренцией на протяжении всего процесса обучения. Самые трудолюбивые и самые умные помимо институтского диплома будут иметь характеристики, в которых отразятся все их достижения. Но отбор учащихся на лучшую память и объём запоминаемого материала крайне нерационален уже потому, что в процессе естественного отбора ни животные, ни вид Homo sapiens не пошли по пути достижения феноменальной памяти. Увлечённость ученика каким-либо предметом и результаты по нему должны стоить выше общих баллов. Нельзя закрывать глаза на то, что открытия делают не вундеркинды. И это очевидно. Старая школа прогнила, чем больше впихивают в учеников предметов, тем хуже результаты образовательного процесса, исчезают индивидуальности (сегодня пушкины, эйнштейны и биллгейтсы бесплатно не получат высшее образование). Информационный бум отупляет, излишне большое количество информации вытесняет из сознания творческую активность. И не случайно мы видим крен общего интеллекта в техногенную сторону (менталитет техногенного общества) в ущерб духовной культуры: все шедевры в этой области остались уже в прошлом. Жизнь превращается в тейлоровский конвеер. И это более, чем серьёзно: усиливается тенденция глобальной деградации человека и биосферы, мир приближается к экотехнологической земной катастрофе (см.: Дергачёва Е.А. Техногенное общество: новые грани исследования [Сайт «Диалог XXI век»]).
Исламский мир и Запад: противостояние цивилизаций
Статья пополнение в коллекции 17.05.2011
Вообще, отношение к нефти, как к важнейшему энергоресурсу, может быть, за всю историю человечества, породило своеобразный подход в политологии и публицистике. Пожалуй, апологетом подобного «ресурсного» подхода можно назвать А.Паршева, написавшего работы «Почему Россия не Америка?» и «Почему Америка наступает?». В них автор показывает, что нефть, прочие энергоресурсы и ресурсы вообще (труд, технологии, техника и т.д.) - это, выражаясь фигурально, «игла», на которой сидит западная вообще и, в частности, американская экономика. Дело в том, что развитое общество потребления, основа западного либерал-капитализма, потребляет примерно половину всех производимых на Земле ресурсов. Журнал «Эксперт» №32 за 2002 г., описывая конференцию мировых политических лидеров и глав ТНК в Йоханнесбурге, называет ещё более радикальные цифры - 10% мирового населения потребляет 75% мировых ресурсов. Бразильский экономист Сельсо Фуртадо ещё в начале 1970-х гг. подсчитал, что если весь мир «подтянуть» по уровню жизни до среднего уровня американцев, то ничто не спасёт мир от мгновенного экономического коллапса. К аналогичному выводу пришли исследования Форрестера-Медоузы в рамках Римского клуба 1971-1972 гг. Другими словами, ограниченные ресурсы не позволят мировому сообществу повсеместно достигнуть уровня «счастливой американской мечты».
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