Сочинение, эссе по предмету иностранные языки
Реформы русского языка
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 06.04.2012
Вывод. При Петре была расширительная реформа, она легко вошла в практику. Не было никаких протестов. Русская графика обогатилась, она получила гражданский вариант. Академики под началом Ф.Ф. Фортунатова задумали реформу, которая отвечала тогдашним лингвистическим законам (младограмматическим). Они обожествляли стихийные изменения в языке, говорили, что устный язык - стихиен. А письменный язык - дополнение, лишь отражение устного языка в письменном. Письменность носила ограниченный характер, только малая часть общества пользовалась письмом. Это была образованная часть, интеллектуальное общество. Эта реформа носила реакционный характер, она была направлена против интеллектуалов. Она бы никогда не прошла, если бы дело не было поставлено на самотек. После войны к власти пришло необразованное или малообразованное меньшинство. Для проведения реформы понадобились война и революция. Только в такой форме можно проводить реформы. Все это подтверждает примат языка над наукой о языке и над лингвистом. Лингвист не имеет права изменять язык (хотя Будэн де Куртенэ считал иначе). Но нужно сказать, что человек имеет право лишь сохранять язык, принимать те изменения, которые происходят в нем стихийно.Подробнее
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 31.03.2012
Apple 3 computer had a better design and improved features which was more sufficient for the market, Jobs had made a decision to not assemble a cooling fan into the computer case box thinking that the chips and the computer board would circulate the heat itself. This assumption was wrong and caused the company thousands of computers to be returned from not satisfied customers due to heating problems. That failure forced Apple to dedicate a separate group to design a new computer which could change the world. Also to try to make up the great loss they had by the Apple 3 computers. So they came out with LISA computer, 1978-1982. LISA computer was the first computer to introduce the mouse, the Icon and the desktop, which at that time was a revolutionary innovation from apple to the computer world. But LISA was very expensive to be buying by wide range of customers. And because of its high price it has failed to penetrate the market.that Apple came up with a new computer (an upgrade of LISA) in 1984 and bundled it under the name Macintosh. Macintosh was introduced to the world with a better design, fancy writing and painting software. That was introduced to the world through a huge multimillion marketing campaign however it has not penetrated the market as expected since it was not empowering the command line users which was the main strength point of Apple before that.though the marketing difficulties Apple suffered, the Macintosh name was still in power especially after the partnership with Adobe Systems which supported apple to provide software for desktop publishing and computer animation. That made apple position stronger as a Technology provider in the media, advertisement and publishing business.adapted to changes when they came out with LISA, They found out that the market is changing and new companies like Xerox, IBM and Adobe are pioneering the market with there new innovations and ideas. The way LISA was designed was based on deep analysis for the market needs. However that creation of such a new idea was not sufficient due to the pricing problems apple had.Подробнее
Post-structuralism in France
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 28.03.2012
Barthes was a prominent post-structuralist who believed that there are two orders of signification: iconic and connotative. According to him, the idea of second-order signification is a myth. In myth there are two semiological systems, one of which is staggered in relation to the other: a linguistic system, the language, which Barthes calls language-object, because it is the language which myth gets hold of in order to build its own system; and myth itself, which Barthes calls metalanguage, because it is a second language in which one speaks about the first. When he reflects on a metalanguage, the semiologist no longer needs to ask himself questions about the composition of the language-object, he no longer has to take into account the details of the linguistic schema; he will only need to know its total term, or global sign, and only as this term lends itself to myth. This is why the semiologist is entitled to treat in the same way writing and pictures: what he retains from them is the fact that they are both signs and they constitute a language-object. He believes that a sign has a signifier and a signified which are related to each other through an unending chain of signifiers because there is not one signifier for a signified but many.1968 Barthes wrote what is largely considered to be his best-known work, the essay The Death of the Author. Barthes saw the notion of the author, or authorial authority, in the criticism of literary text as the forced projection of an ultimate meaning of the text. By imagining an ultimate intended meaning of a piece of literature one could infer an ultimate explanation for it. But Barthes points out that the great proliferation of meaning in language and the unknowable state of the authors mind makes any such ultimate realization impossible .his essay, Barthes criticizes the method of reading and criticism that relies on aspects of the author's identity - his or her political views, historical context, religion, ethnicity, psychology, or other biographical or personal attributes - to distill meaning from the author's work. In this type of criticism, the experiences and biases of the author serve as a definitive explanation of the text. Readers must thus separate a literary work from its creator in order to liberate the text from interpretive tyranny. Each piece of writing contains multiple layers and meanings. In a well-known quotation, Barthes draws an analogy between text and textiles, declaring that a text is a tissue (or fabric) of quotations, drawn from innumerable centers of culture, rather than from one, individual experience. The essential meaning of a work depends on the impressions of the reader, rather than the passions or tastes of the writer; a text's unity lies not in its origins, or its creator, but in its destination, or its audience ., in his essay, The Death of The Author, states: …writing is the destruction of every voice, of every point of origin. Writing is that neutral, composite, oblique space where our subject slips away, the negative where all identity is lost, starting with the very identity of the body of writing [8, p.120].all the post-structuralists and the Deconstructionists, Barthes gives importance to the context of which the text is a product. At the end of his essay, The Death of The Author, he says: …it is necessary to overthrow the myth: the birth of reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author [8, p.123].Author is always in the past of the text; whereas the Writer is simultaneous with it. Writing always occurs now, in the act of reading it, enunciating it, unpacking its structure. There is no single theological meaning but a multidimensional space in which a variety of writings blend and clash. Assigning the text an author is equal to imposing a limit on this mesh. In the multiplicity of writing - everything is to be disentangled rather than deciphered. The structure is to be followed at every point, rather than reduced to a single angle. The unity of a text is in its destination - the reader; though the reader too is inscribed, not personal. Hence, the birth of reader begins with the death of the author .and scriptor are terms Barthes uses to describe different ways of thinking about the creators of texts. The author is our traditional concept of the lone genius creating a work of literature or other piece of writing by the powers of their original imagination. For Barthes, such a figure is no longer viable. The insights offered by an array of modern thought, including the insights of Surrealism, have rendered the term obsolete. In place of the author, the modern world presents us with a figure Barthes calls the scriptor, whose only power is to combine pre-existing texts in new ways. Barthes believes that all writing draws on previous texts, norms, and conventions, and that these are the things to which we must turn to understand a text. As a way of asserting the relative unimportance of the writer's biography compared to these textual and generic conventions, Barthes says that the scriptor has no past, but is born with the text. He also argues that, in the absence of the idea of an author-God to control the meaning of a work, interpretive horizons are opened up considerably for the active reader, because according to Barthes the death of the author is the birth of the reader .Подробнее
The constitution the Kazakhstan and Czech Republic
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 09.03.2012
Kazakhstan has legislative power like Czech Republic. Parliaments of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Czech Republic are the highest representative body of the Republic performing legislative functions. The Parliament shall have two chambers which shall be the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate in Czech Republic and the Senate and the Majilis in Kazakhstan. Also in my country the Senate shall be composed of deputies elected in twos from each oblast, major city and the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan, at a joint session of the deputies of all representative bodies of the respective oblast, major city and the capital of the Republic. Seven deputies of the Senate shall be appointed by the President of the Republic for the term of the Senate. The Majilis shall consist of seventy-seven deputies. Sixty-seven deputies shall be elected in constituencies having one mandate and formed according to the administrative-territorial division of the Republic with an approximately equal number of constituents. Ten deputies shall be elected on the basis of the Party Lists according to the system of proportional representation and in the territory of a unified national constituency. In the Czech Republic the Chamber of Deputies shall have 200 Deputies who shall be elected for a term of four years. The Senate shall have 81 Senators who shall be elected for a term of six years. One third of the Senators shall be elected every two years. Elections in countries shall be carried out on the basis of the universal, equal and direct right under secret ballot. Every citizen of the Republics who has attained the age of eighteen years shall have the right to vote.in this section: in Czech Republic on the day when a Deputy or Senator assumes the office of President of the Republic or on the day when he or she assumes the office of judge or another office incompatible with the office of Deputy or Senator, his or her mandate as Deputy or Senator shall cease. In Kazakhstan half of the elected deputies of the Senate shall be re-elected every three years. In this case, their regular elections shall be held no later than two months before the end of their term in office. The main difference it is age of electors who has reached thirty years of age in Kazakhstan and every citizen of the Czech Republic who has the right to vote and who has attained the age of forty years may be elected to the Senate. A deputy of the Majilis may be a citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan who has reached twenty-five years of age and in Czech Republic citizen who has the right to vote and who has attained the age of twenty-one years may be elected to the Chamber of Deputies.Подробнее
Риторический портрет Владимира Владимировича Путина
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 21.11.2011
Паравербальная коммуникация: скорость речи скорее средняя, чем медленная. Но в речи Путина есть одна важная особенность - это частые паузы между фразами. Они не обременяют речь, а кажутся осознанным и весомым осмыслением проговариваемой темы. Громкость средне-стабильная, голосом же выделяются те фразы, на которые непременно нужно сделать акцент: «особые слова, сердечно поблагодарить вас за всё, без вашей постоянной поддержки, без вашего доверия, без вашего прямого участия, почувствовали себя единым народом, мы вместе работали, наша великая история, колоссальные ресурсы, мужество, трудолюбие и интеллектуальный потенциал, любовь к близким, тепло домашнего очага, надежда и вера, что всё сложится, что мы будем жить лучше, что дети наши будут счастливы, что старшие будут здоровы и благополучны, наша страна наша будет крепнуть и процветать, новых успехов, за здоровье и счастье наших родных и близких, за тех, кого ценим и бережём. Сама речь последовательно: есть тема, предмет, тезис, аргументы, которые плавно выходят один из другого.Подробнее
Hamlet by William Shakespeare
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 05.07.2011
Hamlet is a play written by William Shakespeare that very closely follows the dramatic conventions of revenge in Elizabethan theater. All revenge tragedies originally stemmed from the Greeks, who wrote and performed the first plays. After the Greeks came Seneca who was very influential to all Elizabethan tragedy writers. Seneca who was Roman, basically set all of the ideas and the norms for all revenge play writers in the Renaissance era including William Shakespeare. The two most famous English revenge tragedies written in the Elizabethan era were Hamlet, written by Shakespeare and The Spanish Tragedy, written by Thomas Kyd. These two plays used mostly all of the Elizabethan conventions for revenge tragedies in their plays. Hamlet especially incorporated all revenge conventions in one way or another, which truly made Hamlet a typical revenge play. "Shakespeares Hamlet is one of many heroes of the Elizabethan and Jacobean stage who finds himself grievously wronged by a powerful figure, with no recourse to the law, and with a crime against his family to avenge." Seneca was among the greatest authors of classical tragedies and there was not one educated Elizabethan who was unaware of him or his plays. There were certain stylistic and different strategically thought out devices that Elizabethan playwrights including Shakespeare learned and used from Senecas great tragedies. The five act structure, the appearance of some kind of ghost, the one line exchanges known as stichomythia, and Senecas use of long rhetorical speeches were all later used in tragedies by Elizabethan playwrights. Some of Senecas ideas were originally taken from the Greeks when the Romans conquered Greece, and with it they took home many Greek theatrical ideas. Some of Senecas stories that originated from the Greeks like Agamemnon and Thyestes which dealt with bloody family histories and revenge captivated the Elizabethans. Senecas stories werent really written for performance purposes, so if English playwrights liked his ideas, they had to figure out a way to make the story theatrically workable, relevant and exciting to the Elizabethan audience who were very demanding. Senecas influence formed part of a developing tradition of tragedies whose plots hinge on political power, forbidden sexuality, family honor and private revenge. "There was no author who exercised a wider or deeper influence upon the Elizabethan mind or upon the Elizabethan form of tragedy than did Seneca." For the dramatists of Renaissance Italy, France and England, classical tragedy meant only the ten Latin plays of Seneca and not Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles. "Hamlet is certainly not much like any play of Senecas one can name, but Seneca is undoubtedly one of the effective ingredients in the emotional charge of Hamlet. Hamlet without Seneca is inconceivable."the time of Elizabethan theater, plays about tragedy and revenge were very common and a regular convention seemed to be formed on what aspects should be put into a typical revenge tragedy. In all revenge tragedies first and foremost, a crime is committed and for various reasons laws and justice cannot punish the crime so the individual who is the main character, goes through with the revenge in spite of everything. The main character then usually had a period of doubt , where he tries to decide whether or not to go through with the revenge, which usually involves tough and complex planning. Other features that were typical were the appearance of a ghost, to get the revenger to go through with the deed. The revenger also usually had a very close relationship with the audience through soliloquies and asides. The original crime that will eventually be avenged is nearly always sexual or violent or both. The crime has been committed against a family member of the revenger. " The revenger places himself outside the normal moral order of things, and often becomes more isolated as the play progresses-an isolation which at its most extreme becomes madness." The revenge must be the cause of a catastrophe and the beginning of the revenge must start immediately after the crisis. After the ghost persuades the revenger to commit his deed, a hesitation first occurs and then a delay by the avenger before killing the murderer, and his actual or acted out madness. The revenge must be taken out by the revenger or his trusted accomplices. The revenger and his accomplices may also die at the moment of success or even during the course of revenge. It should not be assumed that revenge plays parallel the moral expectations of the Elizabethan audience. Church, State and the regular morals of people in that age did not accept revenge, instead they thought that revenge would simply not under any circumstances be tolerated no matter what the original deed was. " It is repugnant on theological grounds, since Christian orthodoxy posits a world ordered by Divine Providence, in which revenge is a sin and a blasphemy, endangering the soul of the revenger." The revenger by taking law into his own hands was in turn completely going against the total political authority of the state.should therefore never think that revenge was expected by Elizabethan society. Although they loved to see it in plays, it was considered sinful and it was utterly condemned. The Spanish Tragedy written by Thomas Kyd was an excellent example of a revenge tragedy. With this play, Elizabethan theater received its first great revenge tragedy, and because of the success of this play, the dramatic form had to be imitated. The play was performed from 1587 to 1589 and it gave people an everlasting remembrance of the story of a father who avenges the murder of his son. In this story, a man named Andrea is killed by Balthazar in the heat of battle. The death was considered by Elizabethan people as a fair one, therefore a problem occurred when Andreas ghost appeared to seek vengeance on its killer. Kyd seemed to have used this to parallel a ghost named Achilles in Senecas play Troades. Andreas ghost comes and tells his father, Hieronimo that he must seek revenge. Hieronimo does not know who killed his son but he goes to find out. During his investigation, he receives a letter saying that Lorenzo killed his son, but he doubts this so he runs to the king for justice. Hieronimo importantly secures his legal rights before taking justice into his own hands. The madness scene comes into effect when Hieronimos wife, Usable goes mad, and Hieronimo is so stunned that his mind becomes once again unsettled. Finally Hieronimo decides to go through with the revenge, so he seeks out to murder Balthazar and Lorenzo, which he successfully does. Hieronimo becomes a blood thirsty maniac and when the king calls for his arrest, he commits suicide. As well as the fact that Elizabethan theater had its rules about how a revenge tragedy had to be, so did Thomas Kyd. He came up with the Kydian Formula to distinguish revenge tragedies from other plays. His first point was that the fundamental motive was revenge, and the revenge is aided by an accomplice who both commit suicide after the revenge is achieved. The ghost of the slain watches the revenge on the person who killed him. The revenger goes through justifiable hesitation before committing to revenge as a solution. Madness occurs due to the grieve of a loss. Intrigue is used against and by the revenger. There is bloody action and many deaths that occur throughout the entire play. The accomplices on both sides are killed. The villain is full of villainous devices. The revenge is accomplished terribly and fittingly. The final point that Thomas Kyd made about his play was that minor characters are left to deal with the situation at the end of the play. The Spanish Tragedy follows these rules made by Kyd very closely, simply because Kyd developed these rules from the play. The fundamental motive was revenge because that was the central theme of the play. The ghost of Andrea sees his father kill the men who murdered Andrea originally. Hieronimo hesitates first because he goes to the king and then he is faced with Isabellas madness which is caused by Andreas death.play is filled with all kinds of bloody action and many people die throughout the course of the play. The accomplices in the play also all end up dead. Lorenzo who is the true villain, is full of all kinds of evil villainous devices. The revenge works out perfectly, in that both Lorenzo and Balthazar get murdered in the end by Hieronimo. The minor characters were left to clean up the mess of all of the deaths that occurred during the play. The Spanish Tragedy also follows the conventions of Elizabethan theater very closely. The murder was committed and Hieronimo had to take justice into his own hands, because true justice just simply wasnt available. Hieronimo then delays his revenge for many different reasons that occur in the play. The ghost of Andrea appeared and guided Hieronimo to the direction of his killer. Also at the end of the play, both Hieronimo and his accomplices die after they were successful in committing the revenge. In Hamlet, Shakespeare follows regular convention for a large part of the play. In the beginning, Shakespeare sets up the scene, having a ghost on a dark night. Everyone is working and something strange is happening in Denmark. It is as if Shakespeare is saying that some kind of foul play has been committed. This sets up for the major theme in the play which is of course revenge. The ghost appears to talk to Hamlet. It is quite obvious that the play had a gruesome, violent death and the sexual aspect of the play was clearly introduced when Claudius married Hamlets mother Gertrude. The ghost tells Hamlet that he has been given the role of the person who will take revenge upon Claudius. Hamlet must now think of how to take revenge on Claudius, although he doesnt know what to do about it. He ponders his thoughts for a long period of time, expecting to do the deed immediately, but instead he drags it on until the end of the play. Although what was important to note was that all tragic heroes of plays at that time delayed their actual revenge until the end of the play. In most revenge plays, the revenger was often anonymous and well disguised, stalking the enemy about to be killed, but Hamlet started a battle of wits with Claudius by acting mad and calling it his "antic disposition", although the whole thing was a ploy to get closer to Claudius to be able to avenge his fathers death more easily. The tactic was a disadvantage in that it drew all attention upon himself. More importantly though it was an advantage that his "antic disposition", isolated him from the rest of the court because of the people not paying attention to what he thought or did because of his craziness.important part of all revenge plays is that after the revenge is finally decided upon, the tragic hero delays the actual revenge until the end of the play. Hamlets delay of killing Claudius takes on three distinct stages. Firstly he had to prove that the ghost was actually telling the truth, and he did this by staging the play "The Mousetrap" at court. When Claudius stormed out in rage, Hamlet knew that he was guilty. The second stage was when Hamlet could have killed Claudius while he was confessing to god. If Hamlet had done it here then Claudius would have gone to heaven because he confessed while Hamlets father was in purgatory because he did not get the opportunity to confess. So Hamlet therefore decided not to murder Claudius at this point in the play. The third delay was the fact that he got side tracked. He accidentally killed Polonius which created a whole new problem with the fact that Laertes now wanted Hamlet dead. After he commit this murder he was also sent off and unable to see the king for another few weeks until he could finally do the job. "What makes Hamlet stand out from many other revenge plays of the period is not that it rejects the conventions of its genre but that it both enacts and analyses them." It can be easily understood that Hamlet very closely follows the regular conventions for all Elizabethan tragedies.Hamlet is faced with the fact that he has to avenge the murder of his father and since there is no fair justice available, he must take the law into his own hands. The ghost of his father appears to guide Hamlet to Claudius and inform Hamlet of the evil that Claudius has committed. Then Hamlet constantly delays his revenge and always finds a way to put it off until he finally does it in Act V, Scene 2. Hamlet at the same time continues to keep a close relationship with the audience with his seven main soliloquies including the famous, "To be, or not to be..."(Act 3 Scene 1). The play also consists of a mad scene where Ophelia has gone mad because her father Polonius had been killed and because Hamlet was sent off to England. The sexual aspect of the play was brought in when Claudius married Gertrude after he had dreadfully killed Old Hamlet and taken his throne. Hamlet also follows almost every aspect of Thomas Kyds formula for a revenge tragedy. The only point that can be argued is that the accomplices on both sides were not killed because at the end of the play, Horatio was the only one to survive, although if it wasnt for Hamlet, Horatio would have commit suicide when he said, " I am more an antique Roman than a Dane. Heres some liquor left."(Act V Scene 2, 346-347). If Horatio had killed himself, then Hamlet would have followed the Kydian formula as well as the regular conventions for Elizabethan revenge tragedy. Hamlet is definitely a great example of a typical revenge tragedy of the Elizabethan theater era. It followed every convention required to classify it as a revenge play quite perfectly. Hamlet is definitely one of the greatest revenge stories ever written and it was all influenced first by Sophocles, Euripides and other Greeks, and then more importantly by Seneca. Hamlet as well as The Spanish Tragedy tackled and conquered all areas that were required for the consummation of a great revenge tragedy. Revenge although thought to be unlawful and against the Church was absolutely adored by all Elizabethan people. " The Elizabethan audience always insisted on seeing eventual justice, and one who stained his hands with blood had to pay the penalty. That no revenger, no matter how just, ever wholly escapes the penalty for shedding blood, even in error." This was also a very important point that was also dealt with brilliantly by Shakespeare in finding a way to kill Hamlet justly even though he was required to kill Claudius. Hamlet was written with the mighty pen of Shakespeare who once again shows people that he can conjure up any play and make it one of the greatest of all time. Hamlet was one of the greatest of all time.Подробнее
Renewable resources in Ukraine
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 27.03.2011
In terms of energy consumption per dollar of GDP, Ukraine ranks as one of the most energy-intensive countries in the world because of its inefficient, Soviet-era industries. Ukraine's energy intensity in 1999 at 101.3 thousand Btu/$1990 was more than 8 times that of the United States (12.6 thousand Btu/$1990) and more than 15 times that of Japan (6.5 thousand Btu/$1990). Even more telling is the fact that Ukraine's energy intensity is considerably higher than any of its fellow transition neighbours--including Russia. In 1999, Poland's energy intensity was 28.6 thousand Btu/$1990, Turkey's 14.9 thousand Btu/$1990, Romania's 55.1 Btu/$1990, and Russia's 72.1 thousand Btu/$1990.On the per capita level, Ukraine is more comparable to other countries in transition. Ukraine's per capita energy consumption in 1999 was 127.0 million Btu--substantially lower than the U.S. value of 288.9 million Btu, but closer to Russia (176.7 million Btu) and above Poland (99.3 million Btu), Romania (73.1 million Btu), and Turkey (45.9 million Btu). Similarly, per capita carbon emissions in Ukraine were 2.1 metric tons of carbon per person in 1999; this figure is again lower than both the United States (4.4 metric tons) and Russia (2.7 metric tons) while higher than Romania (1.1) and Turkey (0.8)The Ukrainian government has taken several concrete actions to promote lower energy consumption and better energy efficiency. The National Energy Conservation Information Network was set up to disseminate energy conservation information to the general public, and an international program with the Alliance to Save Energy is helping strengthen the role of Ukraine's nongovernmental organizations and the private sector in raising public awareness of the benefits of energy efficiency. In addition, the United States Agency for International Development, in conjunction with the World Environment сenter, is supporting 18 waste minimization/energy conservation demonstration projects at 10 enterprises located in the Donetsk and Dnipropetrovsk regions of Ukraine. The use of renewable energy in Ukraine was one of the principal goals of the 1996 National Power Energy Program. In 1999, however, renewable energy sources represented only 8.6% of electricity generation, a figure that includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, and industrial and municipal wastes. This figure appears low, but it can partially be explained by the fact that the development of renewable resources in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union remains limited primarily to expansion or refurbishment of existing hydroelectric units. Indeed, the National Power Energy Program called for completion of new hydropower utilities--such as the Dnеstrovskaja hydro pumping storage station--to reduce dependence on imported energy sources. Yet, renewable energy sources are beginning to find a market in Ukraine. In the Carpathian region of the country, the Environmentally Sound Business Development project is focusing on small business development in wood processing industry to increase the efficiency of the production process by reducing timber use, waste products, and energy consumption. In addition, as part of an alternative energy source program, the Ukrainian State Geology Committee and the Ministry of Coal--along with the United States Agency for International Development, Ukrainian coal companies, and the U.S. coal bed methane industry--are working to identify opportunities to develop coal bed methane as a commercially viable alternative energy source in Ukraine. In addition, the Ukrainian parliament passed a bill in July 2001 that aims to develop alternative energy sources such as solar, and geothermal. Additionally, through the Wind Power Development Project, Ukraine seeks to establish wind power as a significant source of electricity generation by 2020. Of the renewable energy sources, only hydro power makes a significant contribution to Ukraine's electricity supply at present. About 8.7% of total installed capacity is accounted for by hydro plants, but this generates 14.3 bln kWh or about 8% of the country' electricity, table 3. Part of the reason for this low utilisation factor is the fact that most of the major hydro stations are located on the Dnipro River, on which the flow is highly seasonable. However, some of the hydro plant is used at least partly to provide much-needed peaking capacity, to maintain system stability.Подробнее
Эстетическая функция слова в художественном тексте по роману М.А. Булгакова "Мастер и Маргарита"
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 07.02.2011
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My Favorite Book Characters in Native and Foreign Literature
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 17.01.2011
As every creative person, who enjoys reading, I adore some extraordinary book characters, but that doesnt mean my personality becomes influenced too much by them, as the times of childish fanaticism had gone away. Ill start with Terry Pratchett's "Discworld". Its a comedic fantasy book series set on a flat world balanced on the backs of four elephants which, in turn, stand on the back of a giant turtle. The books frequently parody, or at least take inspiration from, J. R. R. Tolkien, Robert E. Howard, H. P. Lovecraft and William Shakespeare, as well as mythology, folklore and fairy tales, often using them for satirical parallels with current cultural, political and scientific issues. The main characters can be changed, but one person is immortally constant. His name is Death, he is a black-robed skeleton carrying a scythe. He does not appear to be Death in the universal sense; his jurisdiction appears to be only the Discworld itself. Death is not invisible. Most people's brains refuse to acknowledge him for who he is, unless he insists. Under normal circumstances, only witches, wizards, children and cats can see him, or allow themselves to see him. Due to his eternal nature, Death can ignore such things as walls or magic spells; he exists through all time, and therefore things lasting merely centuries are not as real as he is. Death is efficient but not cruel, and sees his job as a necessary public service. His task is not to kill, but to collect. He harvests the old, worn-out souls of the dead. Death is intrigued by humans and their cultures, and attempts to imitate their lives by adopting a daughter and building a house. But without the emotions and biological needs that motivate humans, he is unable truly to understand why humans do the things that they do and his imitative actions often have fundamental flaws. Death is fascinated by humanity. His interest is coupled with bafflement: it's a favorite point of Pratchett's that the habits and beliefs that are grown into instead of being rationally acquired are an essential part of being human. This fascination with humanity extends to the point of sympathy towards them, and he often sides with humans against greater threats.Подробнее
The Development of the Germanic Script
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 15.01.2011
- 'Kilroy was here' type inscriptions on cliff walls, large rocks and buildings
- grave stone inscriptions, often with who carved the runes and who was buried, and also who made sure the stone was raised. (Later grave slabs or stone coffins were sometimes inscribed with Christian texts carved in runes)
- religious/magic inscriptions: prayers and curses, formulas on charms, etc.
- inscriptions related to trade and politics: There are many examples of trade communication: stock orders and descriptions, excuses for not having payed on time, trade name tags for bags or cases of produce, etc. The trade inscriptions are often carved on wooden rune sticks. Political inscriptions are to do with matters of the law, historical figures state that they were somewhere hiding from the enemy, secret messages to do with the fighting of wars, etc.
- personal letters: love letters, greetings between friends, proposals, etc.
- rude messages, similar to modern graffiti or sms today
- Art and craft-signatures: Goldsmiths, blacksmiths, wood carvers, church builders, etc., often put their name on what they made. Objects also somtimes had names carved onto them either the name of the object itself, or the name of the person who owned it.
How to be happy in your family life
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 08.12.2010
Good evening Ladies! Today we speak about relationships between man and woman. I tell you why you have conflicts in your family and give advice how can avoid this conflicts. Men and women are different creatures. They approach things differently and it is the root of some of the problems. Conflicts occur between men and women very often and prohibit mutually fulfilling loving relationships. Men and women cope with stress and problems differently. Women actually differ from men in that they prefer to talk about problems and vent their feelings; men think its far more efficient to sort things out on their own. While men value power, efficiency, competency and achievement women value love, communication, beauty and relationships. Men experience fulfillment through success and accomplishment but women experience fulfillment through sharing, relating and nurturing. Men are interested in the news, weather and sports, in «object» and «things» rather than people and feelings as for women are interested in romance, shopping and self help-books. We are concerned with living in harmony, community and loving cooperation but men are concerned with outdoor activities, like hunting, fishing and racing cars. Men really take pride in being able to do things and achieve things actually without help, totally on their own, as for women pride themselves in being considerate of the needs and feelings of others. Men fantasize about powerful cars, faster computers, gadgets, gizmos and new technology. But women fantasize about romance and family. I made many examples, which come between the sexes. And now, I give you some advice. The best thing to do is be aware that were different. Realize that men and women have a different style of approaching things and then learn to put up with it. We must respect and accept differences between us. We can counteract these differences in communication styles, emotional needs, and modes of behavior, promote a greater understanding between individual partners.Подробнее
Мова і культура в житті суспільства
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 22.11.2010
На наш погляд, цій проблемі приділяється невиправдано мала увага як в освітньо-виховних закладах, так і в державі в цілому. Засоби масової інформації, маючи величезні можливості формувати у людини смак до справжньої високої культури взаємостосунків між людьми, нехтують цією можливістю і використовують дане їм державою право впливу на суспільство, часто в протилежному напрямку, потураючи розвитку масової антикультури. Кіноекрани і екрани телевізорів заполонили третьосортні бойовики і на глядача ллються брутальні слова, огидні вирази. Це не може не турбувати суспільство. Адже, якщо людина продукт соціалізації, то величезний сенс для становлення особистості у тому, який саме досвід (традиції, звичаї, норми) передає суспільство своїм поколінням. Традиції, звичаї українського народу високі і духовно багаті. Однак, якщо не давати належної оцінки розгулу антикультури, то вона починає сприйматись як норма. Саме так сприймається сьогодні низька культура спілкування між людьми у громадських місцях, в сімях. Грубість, відсутність поваги і уваги до людини порушує принцип людяності як найбільш бажаної норми взаємостосунків між людьми, викликає загальний негативізм і руйнує духовну сферу людських взаємовідносин. Ця проблема є актуальною не лише для нашого суспільства. Однак, на приклад, в Сполучених Штатах Америки до культури народу ставлення далеко не байдуже. Так, в 1991 році у вузах США запроваджено курс «Мистецтво спілкування», розрахований на два роки, який включає в себе переважно питання культури спілкування. При підготовці робітників в училищах типу ПТУ введено однорічний курс «Мистецтво спілкування». У наших вузах, в кращих випадках, по цій важливій проблемі читаються короткі спецкурси, розраховані на декілька годин.Подробнее
Acoustic emission (Акустическая эмиссия) , Post-graduate (аспирант))
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 29.09.2010Подробнее
Россия начинается с тебя
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 23.08.2010
Прекрасного будущего нет без прошлого и настоящего. Человек рождается для жизни. И я горжусь вечно живыми, не уходящими в прошлое. КнязьП.А.Вяземский остроумно заметил: «Как наша участь странна. Русский силился сделать из нас немцев, немка хотела переделать нас в русских». Так он сказал про ПетраI и Екатерину II. Пётр Великий создал в России людей, Екатерина вложила в них души. Екатерина II «кротко и спокойно закончила то, что Пётр Великий принуждён был учреждать насильственно» в целях «европеизации» страны. Она развивала систему образования, освободила дворян от обязательной службы согласно Табели о рангах, подписав жалованную грамоту на права и вольности дворянства, благодаря ей Санкт Петербург украсился лучшими образцами русского классицизма. В период её правления территория России увеличилась весьма существенно, население страны увеличилось почти вдвое, а государственный бюджет вчетверо! При ней были построены 144 новых города.Подробнее
Все важче знаходити квіти мед яких обіцяє бути цілющим
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 13.07.2010
Чому телебачення не можна назвати квіткою цілющою, яка б не отруювала життя людей? Та тому що достатньо лише подивитися, які показують фільми по телевізору (хоча навряд чи нам це вдасться тому що, кожні двадцять хвилин фільму транслюють двадцяти пяти хвилинну рекламу) можна зрозуміти, що «мед» телебачення ніколи не буде цілющим. Наситивши наші очі, ми ніколи не наситимо цим нашу душу чи наш розум. По радіо ми вже не чуємо гарних, красивих пісень, не кажучи вже про пісні українською мовою. Часто ми чуємо пісні виконані наполовину російською, наполовину українською мовами, тобто суржиком. Я просто не уявляю як відчувають себе вчителі української мови, коли чують ці пісні. Я не проти музики та пісень, і деякі мені подобаються, але знову ж таки ця «квітка» не прикрасить нашої душі.Подробнее
Mass migration in Australia
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 02.07.2010
(f) A very proactive attitude to refugees. The current crises in Timor and Fiji and the crisis in Kosovo underline the importance of allowing refugee migration on the widest possible scale when crises arise. Much of the immigration history of Australia since the Second World War and, indeed, since the Irish Famine in the 1850s, has been based on providing safe haven for refugees. This is appropriate for a new country such as Australia, and people who come to Australia in these circumstances usually make a considerable effort to make a life in Australia.This migration program should be backed up by a considerable commitment to appropriate national infrastructure and agricultural development etc, at the same time as a vast public program to remediate the Australian environment.I believe that is the kind of policy on which both the labour movement, and possibly Australian society as a whole, will settle, and quite soon. The reason that this will be so is the effect of the already established cultural diversity and ethnic mix in the new Australia, and the obvious political implications of our location in the world.The current crisis in relations with Indonesia, produced by the necessity of defending the right of national self-determination of the East Timorese people, heavily underlines the need for nailing down such a general policy on migration.Подробнее
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 01.07.2010
While paleontology is largely seen as an interesting academic exercise by much of the public, as well as a source of fascinating facts for dinosaur-loving children, it may also offer lessons about humanitys current relationship to its environment. The current period in paleontological history, known as the Quaternary, which began roughly 1.8 million years ago, has been marked by the rise to dominance of a species from the hominid family of the primate order of mammals, known as homo sapiens. With its great intelligence this species has come to control and change its environment to an unprecedented degree and, in paleontological terms, in a very short period of time. Like the cataclysmic events of the past, human-wrought change to the environment may be occurring too fast for other species to adapt. Scholars of the environment estimate that species extinctions in the past century have occurred at a rate anywhere between 100 to 1,000 times above the average, or “background,” rate of extinction--a result of hunting, pollution, habitat loss and, most recently, climate change. Thus, some paleontologists hypothesize that the planet may be undergoing a new extinction event, known as Holocene extinction event, after the current epoch, which began about 10,000 years ago, produced not by asteroids or great geological forces but by the very species that had unraveled the story of Earths long history.Подробнее
Marxism and women’s movement
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 01.07.2010
Thе fаіlurе оf rеvоlutіоns іn thе аdvаncеd cоuntrіеs sеаlеd thе fаtе оf thе wоrkеrs stаtе аnd оf Russіаn wоmеn. Іn а dеspеrаtе аttеmpt tо buy tіmе, thе Nеw Еcоnоmіc Pоlіcy wаs іntrоducеd іn 1921, аnd thіs bаdly аffеctеd wоmеn, whо wеrе mаіnly unskіllеd wоrkеrs аnd thеrеfоrе suffеrеd mоst frоm unеmplоymеnt, dеspіtе gоvеrnmеnt аttеmpts tо prоtеct thеm. By thе еnd оf thе 1920s, а nеw rulіng clаss hаd аrіsеn undеr Stаlіn аnd cоnsоlіdаtеd а fоrm оf burеаucrаtіc stаtе cаpіtаlіsm. Іt іs frоm thіs pоіnt thаt wе sее а quаlіtаtіvе chаngе: thе gаіns mаdе by wоmеn stаrt tо bе rоllеd bаck аs а mаttеr оf dеlіbеrаtе gоvеrnmеnt pоlіcy rаthеr thаn undеr thе fоrcе оf cіrcumstаncеs. Thе prіоrіty оf thе nеw rulіng clаss wаs cаpіtаl аccumulаtіоn tо cаtch up wіth thе wеst. Thіs mеаnt mаssіvе іndustrіаlіsаtіоn аnd thе dіvеrsіоn оf rеsоurcеs аwаy frоm cоnsumptіоn tоwаrds prоductіоn. Іt аlsо mеаnt thе supеr-еxplоіtаtіоn оf thе wоrkіng clаss. Wоmеn wеrе brоught bаck іntо thе wоrkfоrcе, but thеy lоst prоtеctіvе lеgіslаtіоn, mеchаnіsms such аs pіеcеwоrk rаtеs mаdе іt іmpоssіblе fоr thеm tо еаrn аs much аs mеn, аnd mаtеrnіty bеnеfіts wеrе slаshеd. Chіldcаrе cоntіnuеd tо еxіst, nоt tо lіbеrаtе wоmеn frоm thе fаmіly, but tо fаcіlіtаtе thеіr еxplоіtаtіоn. Іndееd, аn еssеntіаl prоjеct оf thе Stаlіnіst cоuntеr-rеvоlutіоn wаs thе strеngthеnіng оf thе fаmіly, fоrcіng bаck оntо wоmеn thе rеspоnsіbіlіty fоr hоusеwоrk аnd chіldcаrе. Thеrе wаs а sustаіnеd аttаck оn Kоllоntаіs іdеаs аbоut sеxuаl frееdоm, whіch еvеntuаlly іntіmіdаtеd hеr іntо sіlеncе. Kоllоntаіs аdvаncеd іdеаs hаd оftеn mеt wіth crіtіcіsm wіthіn thе pаrty, pаrtіculаrly frоm оldеr mеmbеrs, іncludіng Lеnіn, whоsе аttіtudе tо sеx wаs undоubtеdly purіtаnіcаl by tоdаys stаndаrds. But іt іs nеcеssаry tо drаw а dіstіnctіоn bеtwееn thе pеrsоnаl prеjudіcеs оf іndіvіduаls аnd pаrty pоlіcy, whіch wаs unаmbіguоusly fоr sеxuаl frееdоm. Аs thе Bоlshеvіk Grіgоrіі Bаkkіs wrоtе іn 1923:Подробнее
Переводческие трансформации. Опыт собственного перевода стихотворений английских авторов
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 30.06.2010
Несомненно, художественный перевод стихотворного произведения требует от переводчика больших усилий, нежели перевод прозы, ведь здесь необходима скрупулезная работа над формой. А это, в свою очередь, приводит к обилию лексических и синтаксических переводческих трансформаций, основные из которых, конечно, будут модуляция (смысловое развитие) и грамматические замены всех уровней. В переводе « Красота» слово «torch» («факел») заменен синонимами « пламя», « свеча» и даже « уголек». Такого рода трансформация не искажает образа, а даже придает ему некую камерность, интимность, что способствует, в свою очередь, раскрытию основной идеи произведения. Переводчик применил также прием генерализации (« men», «мужчины», переведены как « те люди», и просто « люди»; «knight», дословно «рыцари» ( имеются ввиду троянские воины) заменены наиболее широким « герои». Прием модуляции помогает русскому читателю понять смысл строк «The world has been my mirror, time has been \ my breath upon the glass… age after age…» ( дословно « Мир был моим зеркалом, время было моим дыханием… возраст после возраста…»). В переводе этим строкам соответствует « А годы проходили..» и « вы умирали, я - жила, вбирая поклоненье..».Подробнее
Future of aboriginal Australians
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 27.06.2010
Problems such as alcoholism and drugs are proportionately higher among Aboriginal youth. The health problems of Aboriginal communities are worse than those of whites, and the life expectancy of Aboriginals is lower than that of whites. In addition to this, and for all the above reasons, the proportion of Aboriginals in the prison system is far higher than the proportion in the community. (This has been the case for the last 30 or 40 years. Before that, for the whole of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, the Irish Catholics numerically dominated the prison system, out of all proportion to their numbers in society at large, much to the mock horror of upper-class British Australia, which got very worked up about the criminal propensities of Catholics. The reason for this over-representation of Catholics in the prisons was exactly the same as the current over-representation of Aboriginals. At that stage Irish Catholics were the poorest of the population, at the bottom of the social heap. In Paul Sheehan's book, he also makes great chauvinist mileage from the proposition that Vietnamese, Arabs, Turks and Maoris (Sheehan's codeword for Maoris is "New Zealanders"), recent immigrants from poor countries or poor circumstances, are somewhat over-represented in the prison system. So what's new?)Подробнее