Информация по предмету Иностранные языки

  • 1. "Great expectation" by Charles Dickens
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 13.12.2011

    of the most important and common tools that authors use to illustrate the themes of their works is a character that undergoes several major changes throughout the story. In Great Expectations, Charles Dickens introduces the reader to many intriguing and memorable characters, including the eccentric recluse, Miss Havisham, the shrewd and careful lawyer, Mr. Jaggers, and the benevolent convict, Abel Magwitch. However, without a doubt, Great Expectations is the story of Pip and his initial dreams and resulting disappointments that eventually lead to him becoming a genuinely good man. The significant changes that Pip's character goes through are very important to one of the novel's many themes. Dickens uses Pip's deterioration from an innocent boy into an arrogant gentleman and his redemption as a good-natured person to illustrate the idea that unrealistic hopes and expectations can lead to undesirable traits. the beginning of the novel, Pip is characterized as a harmless, caring boy, who draws much sympathy from the reader even though he is at that point content with his common life. The reader most likely develops warm and sympathetic feelings toward Pip after only the first two pages of the novel, which introduce the fact that Pip's parents are "dead and buried" and that the orphan has never seen "any likeness of either of them" .Pip's confrontation with the convict presents his harmless, innocent nature. As Magwitch first seizes the young boy, Pip simply responds, "Oh! Don't cut my throat, sir, Ö Pray don't do it sir" (p. 2). Then, Pip is forced into submitting to the convict's demands, mainly due to his naive fear of Magwitch's fictitious companion who "has a secret way peculiar to himself of getting at a boy, and at his heart, and at his liver". Even though he aids the convict, the reader's sympathy for Pip soon increases, as his robbery of his own home weighs greatly on his conscience. He seems to sincerely regret his actions and the fact that he "had been too cowardly to avoid doing what I knew to be wrong". Approximately one year after his encounter with the convict, Pip is still shown to be an innocent, caring boy. One night, when Pip and Joe are alone at the forge, Joe explains his various reasons for enduring Mrs. Joe's constant abuse. After their conversation, Pip realizes that he cares deeply for Joe and appreciates everything that the blacksmith does for him. Also, he develops "a new admiration of Joe from that night" and "a new sensation of feeling conscious that I was looking up to Joe in my heart". Unfortunately, as Pip develops unrealistic hopes and expectations for his life, these positive characteristics are replaced by undesirable ones. expectations that cause Pip's character to become less likable are those that he develops after being introduced to Miss Havisham and Estella. During his first visit to the Satis House, Estella, who considers herself much too refined and well-bred to associate with a common boy, scorns Pip. On the other hand, Pip seems to fall in love with Estella during that first meeting. He even admits to Miss Havisham that he thinks her adopted daughter is not only "very proud" and "very insulting," but also "very pretty" and that he should "like to see her again". After just one afternoon at the Satis House, Pip develops a desire to become more acceptable to Estella, in hopes that her callous attitude toward him would change. As a result, while walking back to the forge, Pip begins to feel ashamed of his life. His mind is filled with regretful thoughts such as "that I was a common laboring-boy; that my hands were coarse; that my boots were thick; and generally that I was in a low-lived bad way". Pip realizes that his personality and outlook on his life is changing. his visits to the Satis House cease and he is apprenticed to Joe, Pip becomes even more deeply ashamed of his position in society because he believes that it will ruin his hopes of Estella loving him. He constantly worries that Estella will see him at the "unlucky hour" when he is at his "grimiest and commonest", but he endures his shame with an irrational hope, "that perhaps Miss Havisham was going to make my fortune when my time was out". Then, when Mr. Jaggers informs Pip of the "great expectations" that have been placed on him, Pip thinks, without a doubt, "Miss Havisham was going to make my fortune on a grand scale". Also, he begins to believe that Miss Havisham has destined him to be married to Estella. Almost immediately, Pip's ego grows tremendously, and he becomes arrogant as he looks down on his "common," yet caring and loyal friends. For example, in a private conversation with Biddy, Pip tells his good friend that Joe "is rather backward in some things. In addition, when Pip is finally ready to depart for London, he tells Joe that he "wished to walk away all alone" because he privately fears the "contrast there would be between me and Joe". the arrogant and ungrateful Pip continues to believe that Miss Havisham has chosen him to be the recipient of her money and, hopefully, of Estella's hand in marriage, he also continues to be ashamed of and look down on his past life. On one occasion, Pip receives word that Joe will be visiting London and would like to see him. However, Pip is not at all overjoyed to receive this news. In fact, he looks forward to Joe's visit "with considerable disturbance, some mortification, and a keen sense of incongruity," and he states that he "certainly would have paid money" in order to keep Joe away. Pip is distraught over the prospect of others, especially Bentley Drummle, seeing him with the common blacksmith. After Joe's departure, Pip decides that he should return to the forge, but the next day, he resolves to stay at the Blue Boar Inn, rather than at his old home. His snobbish reasoning is simply, "I should be an inconvenience at Joe's; I was not expected, and my bed would not be ready". Then, Pip is so concerned with gaining Estella's favour that he visits Miss Havisham's home and returns to London while never stopping at the forge.negative attitudes and traits that Pip develops as a result of his unrealistic expectations are portrayed in ways other than his view of his past life. In London, while living as a "gentleman," Pip has trouble managing his new way of life. During a dinner with other gentlemen, Pip has an irrational confrontation with his nemesis, Drummle. After Drummle proposes a toast to Estella, who has allowed "the Spider" to attach himself to her, Pip loses control of his emotions and accuses him of lying. Drummle is then able to provide proof that he has danced with Estella on several occasions, and Pip is forced to apologize for his outrageous actions. However, he and Drummle sit "snorting at one another for an hour" because Pip can "not endure the thought of her stooping to that hound". For many years, Pip had believed that he and Estella were destined to be married, but now his hopes and expectations are just beginning to fade. Pip finally learns that Abel Magwitch, not Miss Havisham, is his benefactor, his unrealistic expectations cease and his genuinely good nature begins to overcome the negative traits that he had developed. Also, he realizes that he was at fault for his non-realistic hopes. During a visit to the Satis House, Pip is able to hold no harsh feelings toward Miss Havisham for the misfortunes of his life. He refuses her offer to financially compensate him for his unhappy life, and instead, he requests that she provide aid to Herbert's business situation. Then, he confesses that he can forgive her. Later, Pip revisits Miss Havisham's room to check on her and finds that she had been too close to the fire, as her aged garments are ignited in flames. Pip immediately risks his own life to save the old woman. She receives serious burns and nerve damage, but she remains alive. Pip is also seriously burned. 's positive characteristics are also evident in his treatment of his benefactor, the convict Magwitch. Initially after the revelation, Pip's reaction had been one of shock, disbelief, and even repugnance. However, he realizes and somewhat appreciates that Magwitch had tried to greatly repay him for the practically insignificant favour that Pip had provided for the convict as a child. Over time, Pip's hard feelings toward his benefactor fade, and at one point he confesses that Magwitch "was softened indefinably, for I could not have said how, and could never afterwards recall how when I tried, but certainly". As he had done while saving Miss Havisham, Pip puts himself through great personal risks and inconveniences to save Magwitch. He is unsuccessful in fleeing the country with Magwitch, but his caring and devotion for the kind convict are unwavering, even though he will not receive any money after Magwitch's death. Every day, Pip visits him in the infirmary in efforts to comfort Magwitch and to make the prisoner's last days as peaceful as possible. Pip believes that his visits are somewhat cheering to Magwitch, and he goes to the infirmary every day until the convict's tranquil death which is almost a blessing. as Pip's feelings toward Magwitch soften, so does his attitude toward his old life after the burden of his expectations is lifted. Soon after Magwitch dies, Pip becomes seriously ill. When he recovers, he learns that Joe had travelled to London to care for him. As he continues to nurse Pip back to good health, Joe remains formal and awkward around Pip, as he had acted while visiting Pip in London several years earlier. On the other hand, Pip begins to feel as if he had never left the forge. When Joe unexpectedly leaves London to return to the forge, Pip follows him as soon as he is physically able. At the forge, Pip no longer shows any feelings of shame or arrogance because he is now content and cheerful in his old surroundings. the conclusion of Great Expectations, the reader most likely finds Pip's fate acceptable and enjoyable. Earlier in his life, he had changed from an innocent, caring boy into an arrogant young man as a result of his non-realistic hopes and expectations. However, when those expectations come to an end, so do his undesirable traits, as he is shown to be a truly good-natured person. Therefore, it is fitting that, in both of Dickens' final episodes, Pip is happy and content with his life.

  • 2. "Silver age" in Russian art
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 03.12.2010

    As opponents of symbolists acted акмеисты (from греч. «акме» the higher degree something, blossoming force). They denied mystical aspirations of symbolists, proclaimed self-value of a real life, urged to return to words their primary sense, having released from symbolical interpretation. The basic criterion of an estimation of creativity for акмеистов (N.S.Gumilev, A.A.Ahmatova, O.E.Mandelshtam) was faultless aesthetic taste, beauty and an art word And formalists clearly and accurately declared, that their morphological method of the analysis of art has arisen for studying of artistry of art, i.e. for revealing of its aesthetic qualities. They have been convinced, that» литературность»,» poetry», i.e. the art essence of a work of art can be revealed only by the morphological analysis of the work of art, instead of that, «reflex ion» of that it is, who and under what conditions has created it, as it influences the recipient what has social, cultural, etc. value. Terms a material became the main things in them категориальном the device (everything of what the artist does product concerned it: a word, language in its ordinary use, thought, feelings, events, etc.) and the form (that the artist in the course of creativity gives to a material). Product was called as a thing for it in understanding of formalists was not created or created as the classical aesthetics believed, but became by means of system of receptions.

  • 3. A Comparison between Beowulf and Redcrosse Knight
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 24.07.2006

    Additionally both heroes have an encounter with a character from hell. Beowulf dives into the lake (personification of hell) where Grendels mother is waiting to attack. He cannot cut her with his sword, so he tosses it away and finds a larger sword killing Grendels mother by cutting her head off. He sees Grendel dead body nearby and cuts off his head as a trophy and return to Denmark (pg. 61, 1356-84). This expresses an important virtue, loyalty. Redcrosse Knight encounters Lucifera (Queen of Hell) and the parade of vices. He has been weakened by his visit to the House of Pride. Although he had the instinctive good sense to flee from that castle, his conscience is still at work. This failure leads him near death in the dungeon of Orgoglio, a giant that represents godless pride. Arthur (represents magnificence) comes along and helps Redcrosse rise up from his lowest state (Canto 7). Redcrosse also defeats the dragon. Just as Christ descended to hell to defeat Satan, Redcrosse had to enter the hellish mouth of the dragon to finally kill it. He is not victorious alone he is saved twice by very timely help. The Well of Life and The Tree of Life, both represents the grace that God gives to mankind, which aids Christian in danger of falling prey to sin (Canto 10). No matter how well equipped or prepared a Christian is, he is no match for sin and death without the underserved grace of God. Thus the message about the Christian life is one of humility; we can never take the credit for Gods victory.

  • 4. A Farewell to Arms
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 24.07.2006
  • 5. About Liverpool
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 23.04.2006

    From 2005, there will be a new European Capital of Culture every year. This is a revival of the well-known City of Culture programme, which benefited Glasgow so much back in 1990.Far from being just another title; it is an ideal opportunity to celebrate the cultural accomplishments of Europe's great cities and to involve the community as a whole in that celebration. It is also an opportunity for further development. Glasgow experienced substantial economic and social benefits during its period as the City of Culture, both strengthening and promoting its own impressive regeneration. In 2008, the European Capital of Culture will be in the UK and Liverpool is one of the cities bidding for the title. Competition will be fierce, but the title is very much worth the battle, and Liverpool's claim is a very strong one indeed. Our bid team has the support of not just the City Council but also many cultural and business leaders. When the people of Liverpool get behind the bid too, we can and will be the European Capital of Culture in 2008.The benefits of winning the title are quite tangible. It will do so much more than simply throw the spotlight on all of the city's cultural and artistic achievements. The world already knows about the Beatles and our famous football teams. The title will enable us to tell a more complete story, encompassing everything from the Tate in Liverpool to the many events of the Liverpool festivals. Specific benefits to the city will also include local and regional regeneration, increased tourism, greater business activity and an overall increase in cultural activities. Just as importantly, the title will remind everyone in the region - and indeed the country - that Liverpool is very much a city to be proud of.Competition is now under way and the Government will publish a shortlist of candidates in the last quarter of 2002, with the final UK nomination decided in spring of 2003.At that point, the winning city will be able to start using the title European Capital of Culture 2008 and to start preparing in earnest for its year of tenure.

  • 6. Agricuture in Ukraine
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 02.07.2010

    The production of grain and oilseed crops is dominated by large agricultural enterprises that were established when Ukraines agricultural sector was restructured in April, 2000. (In contrast, nearly 90 percent of the country's vegetables and virtually all of the potatoes are grown on private household plots.) State and collective farms were dismantled and farm property was divided among the farm workers in the form of land shares. Most new shareholders leased their land back to newly-formed private agricultural associations, under the leadership of a director who was frequently, but not always, the manager of the former State farm. Consolidation of small farms into larger and more viable enterprises has been the prevailing trend, similar to what took place in Russia several years earlier. (For a brief discussion of Ukraines agricultural restructuring, see June 2001 report.) The conversion to a more market-oriented environment has progressed relatively well according to most observers. Many farms are succeeding, under shrewd leadership, in spite of fluctuating grain prices and constraints on the availability of credit. The transition of Ukraine's agricultural sector from a command economy to a more market-oriented system has introduced the element of fiscal responsibility, and farm managers are striving to make their enterprises as efficient as possible. Decisions on crop selection, fertilizer application, harvest method, grain storage, and all other aspects of farm management are made with an eye toward boosting farm profit. Ukraine agriculture is going through a winnowing process whereby unprofitable, usually smaller farms will either collapse or join more successful farms.

  • 7. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 03.08.2010
  • 8. American System of Education
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 22.11.2010

    To serve their citizens and help the country prosper all countries in the world without exception provide public education to children and teenagers as one of its main goals is to prepare students for productive citizenship, work and adult life. All this makes the notion of education universal while each country has its own system of education determined by its history, political system, culture, traditions and so on. The collapse of the iron curtain, modern technological developments like the Internet and ability to travel the world enable Russian students and educators to get more or less good idea of educational system of English speaking countries. The expansion of American culture, dominance of American movies on television familiarizes Russian viewers and movie-goers with life of American teenagers and American school. However a survey conducted among the high school students of Lyceum 37 proved that their awareness of American educational system leaves much to be desired.

  • 9. An English Speaking Country - New Zealand
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 09.12.2008

    New Zealand stretches 1600 km from north to south it consists of two large islands around which are scattered a number of smaller islands, plus a few far-flung islands hundreds of km away. The North Island (115,000 sq km) and the South Island (151,000 sq km) are the two major land masses. A notable feature of New Zealand's geography is the country's great number of rivers. The Waikato River in the North Island is New Zealand's longest river, measuring in at 425 km. New Zealand also has a number of beautiful lakes; Lake Taupo is the largest and lakes Waikaremoana and Wanaka are two of the most beautiful. As is the case for most Pacific islands, New Zealand's native flora & fauna are, for the most part, not found anywhere else in the world. And, like other Pacific islands, NZ's native ecosystem has been dramatically affected and changed by plants and animals brought by settlers, mostly in the last 200 years.

  • 10. Aral Sea - What Was and What Is
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 11.08.2010
  • 11. Australian Graduate
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 27.02.2006

  • 12. Autobiography studying
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 27.08.2011

    autobiography is a work about the life of a person, written by that person. Derived from three Greek words meaning self, life, and write, autobiography is a style of writing that has been around nearly as long as history has been recorded. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical the Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid but condemned it as pedantic; but its next recorded use was in its present sense by Robert Southey in 1809. Yet autobiography was not classified as a genre within itself until the late eighteenth century. In his book, Inside Out, E. Stuart Bates offers a functional definition of autobiography as a narrative of the past of a person by the person concerned (Bates 4). That definition, however, is too broad for some literary critics. Many wish to define the genre more narrowly. Linda Anderson cites that definition of autobiography as retrospective prose narrative produced by a real person concerning his own existence, focusing on his individual life, in particular on the development of his personality (Anderson 1). She also thinks that the work must implicitly state itself to be an autobiography to be included within the genre (Anderson 1). Other scholars, Bates, for example, do not think that there are any limitations or minimums on how much of a life must be revealed for it to be classified as autobiography. Many factual accounts, though not intended to be an autobiography as such, can be categorized as such because they contain a self-revealed personality, after thorough reconsideration (Bates 4). Cataloging autobiographies are further complicated because there are some that are translations and some that are edited. Despite disagreements concerning how inclusive the category of autobiography should be, there are characteristics that are common to the majority of autobiographical works. These features are the grammatical perspective of the work, the identity of the self, and self-reflection and introspection (Berryman 3). The form of autobiography however goes back to antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an autobiography, however, may be based entirely on the writers memory. Closely associated with autobiography is the form of memoir. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography. While an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories, feelings and emotions. Memoirs have often been written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record and publish an account of their public exploits. Memoir comes from Latin word memoria meaning memory. A memoir is an evolution of the autobiography. An autobiography is a story written by oneself about one life. Most autobiographies are written from the first person singular perspective. This is fitting because autobiography is usually a story one tells about oneself. It would not naturally follow then that the writer would recount his or her past from a second or third person perspective. Jean Quigley confirms this point in her book The Grammar of Autobiography by saying that as soon as we are asked about ourselves, or are asked to tell our autobiography, we start to tell stories. We tell what happened, what we said, what we did (J. Quigley 6). The author, the narrator, and the protagonist must share a common identity for the work to be considered an autobiography (Anderson 1). This common identity could be similar, but is not identical. The self that the author constructs becomes a character within the story that may not be a completely factual representation of the authors actual past self (Quigley 6, Porter and Wolf 12). Roger Porter and H.R. Wolf state that Truth is a highly subjective matter, and no autobiographer can represent exactly what happened back then, any more than a historian can definitively describe the real truth of the past (R. Porter and H.R 12). This is due in part to the fact that words are not adequate to fully express memories and emotions. Because autobiography is, as Anderson puts it, a public exposure of the private self, self-accounting and self-reflection are integral parts of the autobiography. The author wants to justify his or her past actions to the reader. Quigley says that a related but not identical narrator and protagonist are integral to the process of self-justification. The author establishes relationships to him or herself in order to show causality. For example, because the narrator and the protagonist are not identical, the narrator has the ability to treat the self as other… create the occasion for self-regard and editing… the distance between self-now and self-then. There is also a relationship between the reader and the author. By judging past actions as right or wrong, the narrator establishes to the reader that they share common norms. The narrator speaking in the autobiography is always moral, even if the protagonist of the narrative is not. This relating is then evaluated socially according to whether actions are appropriate or inappropriate or surprising or normal. Other interactions that the narrator establishes are relationships with other characters in the story. This allows the speaker to present the self as either an experiencer or recipient of actions, where the self is seen as an objective static entity. The speaker may narrate an event in such a way that the self does not have to accept the responsibility for the outcome. It can be described as happening to the protagonist because of the actions of others. Autobiography is a form of introspection. When authors write about their past, it is not free from emotions. Revealing characters intentions, thoughts, and emotions is another way that the narrator evaluates why events occurred as they did. By explaining what happened in the past, the author is able to express to the reader how the self evolved. The self- now is the person he or she is because of the events of the past. Autobiography is a popular genre. Writers of memoirs and life stories never lack an audience. Anderson says that Autobiography is a form of witnessing which matters to others. People are interested in the actual lives of others and want to know about others pasts and feelings and desires. A quote from Olney in Andersons book reveals the appeal of autobiography. Olney says The explanation for the special appeal of autobiography is a fascination with the self and its profound, its endless mysteries (Olney J. 9). Autobiography is a way to organize the story of a life and reflect on the past in order to better understand the present. One of the first great autobiographies of the Renaissance is that of the sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571), written between 1556 and 1558, and entitled by him simply Vita (Italian: Life). He declares at the start: No matter what sort he is, everyone who has to his credit what are or really great achievements, if he cares for truth and goodness, ought to write the story of his own life in his own hand; but no one should venture on such a splendid undertaking before he is over forty. These criteria for autobiography generally persisted until recent times, and most serious autobiographies of the next three hundred years conformed to them. 18th-century autobiographies in English include those of Edward Gibbon and Benjamin Franklin. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability-or unwillingness-of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. In the eighteenth century, autobiography was one of the highest forms of literary art. Fiction was deemed unworthy, while narration of facts was aesthetically and philosophically pleasing. This prevailing convention overwhelmed fiction to such a degree that many novelists passed their works off as non-fiction, sometimes by creating prefaces written by supposedly real characters, who vouched for the authenticity of the story. Whether readers really believed in the truth of these stories is hard to say. Autobiography-can be used in the preparation of the psychological characteristics of the worker, the study of his life and personality traits: the style of presentation, the emphasis on various aspects of life, helping to judge the various psychological characteristics of the man. These are all the extra-linguistic features, which influence the genre of autobiography. The main advantage of the autobiography are the basic facts of labor and social activities, allowing to present and assess the human way of life that is often used in the selection of personnel. Benjamin Franklins Autobiography is one of the best examples of the autobiographical genre. Franklins book defines itself as an autobiography in its title. Traditionally, an autobiography can be basically defined as a connected narrative in which an individual tells his or her life story. The autobiography is a connected narrative, and Franklin is using it to tell his life story. Hes not messing with his audience or changing up the genre - his books not radical in that way at all. Instead, hes helping to set the standard of what an autobiography is, can, or should be, rather than subverting that standard. The term autobiography is quite generic in nature and several great personalities have written great books as a collection of their personal experiences. Similarly, there are several authors and personalities who have written small essays and short stories to narrate some important experiences in their lives. Some people have also written their autobiography to serve some purpose, such as political propaganda or to narrate an account of some incidence or event. All in all to sum up, the good thing about an autobiography is that we get to know about the writers emotions and thoughts quite easily. The following are three classifications of autobiographies:

  • 13. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 09.09.2010
  • 14. Benitto Mussolini as a lider of Italy
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 16.12.2010

    Benito Mussolini was one of the important and the most interesting figures in Italian history. He was a teacher, journalist, socialist and also a fascist. His father Alessandro Mussolini was a blacksmith and a socialist. It had an important influence on the Mussolini's future life. Mussolini as a young boy had a rebellious behaviour and was expelled from school. He continued his study in the other school and finished it. One of his favorite philosopher was the German philosopher Nietzsche. Mussolini used to say that Nietzsche's ideas are "spiritual eroticism". He was an intelligent person although there are a lot of legends about Mussolini's life. It is said that he was very diligent, worked from 18 to 20 hours per day and always remembered about all meetings and Italy's problems. It wasn't really true and he urged the journalists to write about his diligence. In reality he was a sleepy person and slept 10 hours per day. There was an official statement that he took holidays only one day during the year or never. He convinced people that he had nearly 525 meetings during a year and during 7 years he took care of 1887112 matters. When he wished, he was very nice to the people.

  • 15. British education
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 24.07.2006

    The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are needed as the main and most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet.
    Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
    It is the major international language for communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organization. It is the language of the literature, education, modern music, international tourism.
    Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is espicially urgent today. Learning a foreing language is not as easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist.
    It is well known that reading books in the original , listening to the BBC news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a lot. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of the native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign language.

  • 16. Bronchopulmonary system
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 25.04.2008

    One of the most frequent diseases of respiratory system is the dyspnea characterised changing of frequency, deepth and a rhythm of respiration. The dyspnea can be accompanied as a sharp acceleration of respiration, and degreasing it up to stopping. Pointed an inspiratory dyspnea(it is shown by difficulty of an inspiration, for example, at a tracheostenosis and large bronchuses), an expiratory dyspnea(are characterized by difficulty of an expiration, in particular, at a spasm stricture of fine bronchuses and admixed type. The dyspnea presents at many acute and chronic diseases of respiratory system. The cause occurrence in most cases arises with change of gas structure of a blood - incresing of the contents of a carbon dioxide and depression of the contents of the oxygen, accompanied shift pH bloods in the acidic side. The dyspnea is leading display of a respiratory insufiention - a condition at which the system of external respiration of the person cannot provide normal gas structure of a blood or when this structure is supported only by to excessive strains of all system of external respiration. The respiratory failure can arise was acutely (for example, at closing respiratory ways by an alien body) or to proceed chronically, for a long time (for example, at an emphysema of lungs).

  • 17. Chemical element Niobium
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 09.01.2012

    is estimated that out of 44,500 metric tons of niobium mined in 2006, 90% ended up in the production of high-grade structural steel, followed by its use in superalloys. The use of niobium alloys for superconductors and in electronic components account only for a small share of the production.is an effective microalloying element for steel. Adding niobium to the steel causes the formation of niobium carbide and niobium nitride within the structure of the steel. These compounds improve the grain refining, retardation of recrystallization, and precipitation hardening of the steel. These effects in turn increase the toughness, strength, formability, and weldability of the microalloyed steel. Microalloyed stainless steels have a niobium content of less than 0.1%. It is an important alloy addition to high strength low alloy steels which are widely used as structural components in modern automobiles. These niobium containing alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.amounts of the element, either in its pure form or in the form of high-purity ferroniobium and nickel niobium, are used in nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base superalloys for such applications as jet engine components, gas turbines, rocket subassemblies, and heat resisting and combustion equipment. Niobium precipitates a hardening γ''-phase within the grain structure of the superalloy. The alloys contain up to 6.5% niobium. One example of a nickel-based niobium-containing superalloy is Inconel 718, which consists of roughly 50% nickel, 18.6% chromium, 18.5% iron, 5% niobium, 3.1% molybdenum, 0.9% titanium, and 0.4% aluminum. These superalloys are used, for example, in advanced air frame systems such as those used in the Gemini program.alloy used for liquid rocket thruster nozzles, such as in the main engine of the Apollo Lunar Modules, is C103, which consists of 89% niobium, 10% hafnium and 1% titanium. Another niobium alloy was used for the nozzle of the Apollo Service Module. As niobium is oxidized at temperatures above 400 °C, a protective coating is necessary for these applications to prevent the alloy from becoming brittle.becomes a superconductor when lowered to cryogenic temperatures. At atmospheric pressure, it has the highest critical temperature of the elemental superconductors: 9.2 K. Niobium has the largest magnetic penetration depth of any element. In addition, it is one of the three elemental Type II superconductors, along with vanadium and technetium. Niobium-tin and niobium-titanium alloys are used as wires for superconducting magnets capable of producing exceedingly strong magnetic fields. These superconducting magnets are used in magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance instruments as well as in particle accelerators. For example, the Large Hadron Collider uses 600 metric tons of superconducting strands, while the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is estimated to use 600 metric tonnes of Nb3Sn strands and 250 metric tonnes of NbTi strands. In 1992 alone, niobium-titanium wires were used to construct more than 1 billion US dollars worth of clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems.is used as a precious metal in commemorative coins, often with silver or gold. For example, Austria produced a series of silver niobium euro coins starting in 2003; the color in these coins is created by diffraction of light by a thin oxide layer produced by anodizing. In 2008, six coins are available showing a broad variety of colors in the centre of the coin: blue, green, brown, purple, violet, or yellow. Two more examples are the 2004 Austrian 25 euro 150 Years Semmering Alpine Railway commemorative coin, and the 2006 Austrian 25 euro European Satellite Navigation commemorative coin. Latvia produced a similar series of coins starting in 2004, with one following in 2007.and some niobium alloys are used in medical devices such as pacemakers, because they are physiologically inert (and thus hypoallergenic). Niobium treated with sodium hydroxide forms a porous layer that aids osseointegration. Along with titanium, tantalum, and aluminum, niobium can also be electrically heated and anodized, resulting in a wide array of colors using a process known as reactive metal anodizing which is useful in making jewelry. The fact that niobium is hypoallergenic also benefits its use in jewelry.arc-tube seals of high pressure sodium vapor lamps are made from niobium, or niobium with 1% of zirconium, because niobium has a very similar coefficient of thermal expansion to the sintered alumina arc tube ceramic, a translucent material which resists chemical attack or reduction by the hot liquid sodium and sodium vapor contained inside the operating lamp. The metal is also used in arc welding rods for some stabilized grades of stainless steel.was evaluated as a cheaper alternative to tantalum in capacitors, but tantalum capacitors are still predominant. Niobium is added to glass in order to attain a higher refractive index, a property of use to the optical industry in making thinner corrective glasses. The metal has a low capture cross-section for thermal neutrons; thus it is used in the nuclear industries.Superconducting Radio Frequency (RF) cavities used in the free electron lasers TESLA and XFEL are made from pure niobium.high sensitivity of superconducting niobium nitride bolometers make them an ideal detector for electromagnetic radiation in the THz frequency band. These detectors were tested at the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, the South Pole Telescope, the Receiver Lab Telescope, and at APEX and are now used in the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory.

  • 18. Civil marriage in Russia
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 13.09.2010


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  • 19. Classic philosophy of quality
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 29.10.2010

    The main figure of such society is an user. His requirements (if they are socially safe) possess priority above possibilities of producer, and are on the defensive establishments of the state and society. Can be considered major achievements of "society of consumption":

    1. successive making reality of ideas of trade freedom, that resulted in international market of commodities and services creation an user in any country can acquire a commodity, produced in any country; investigation of it is the sharp intensifying of competition of producers, intensifying of their fight for upgrading products and competition prices, for the decline of terms of output of commodity to the market and at the same time strengthening of co-operation and collaboration in a production and advancement of commodities to the market;
    2. development of the systems of state and public defense of rights for users on high-quality products and services; these systems of defense not only allow an user to exact from a producer harm for of poor quality products and services but also warn the market entry of such products, and also limit monopolization of market a producer; investigation of it is a necessity of producer to give an user the system of proofs of quality of commodity yet till user this commodity purchased;
    3. high enough level of consciousness of users which agree to pay for quality and ready to co-operate with a producer in his increase.
  • 20. Congress of the United States
    Другое Иностранные языки добавлен 30.01.2011

    Both houses facilitate business by a committee system, and each has a fixed number of permanent committees, called standing committees, the chief function of which is considering and preparing legislation. Each house may create an indeterminate number of impermanent committees, known as select committees, for investigations of profiteering in war contracts, of election frauds, and of subversive activities. These select committees, which expire when their purposes are fulfilled, are created on the theory that their investigations are useful in framing legislation. Since 1800, Congress has found it expedient to establish a number of joint standing committees. Temporary joint committees are also established occasionally by Congress. A notable one was the Joint Congressional Committee on Labor-Management Relations, created by the Labor-Management Relations (Taft-Hartley) Act of 1947, to observe the operation of that law and to make a final report on it to Congress on January 2, 1949. Differences between the two houses of Congress over legislation, usually in the form of amendments made by one house to bills initiated by the other, are generally reconciled in conference committees consisting of managers appointed by the presiding officers of the two houses. If no agreement is reached by the conference committees, the legislation in dispute fails.