Дипломная работа по предмету Иностранные языки

  • 21. Opening a coffee shop
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 12.01.2012

    than 15 years since London's espresso cafe new wave spawned a boom of coffee houses across Europe. Early players like Aroma, Seattle Coffee and Madison's already left the scene, however, such international brands such as Starbucks, which opened its first European subsidiary in London's Kings Road in 1997 and has a large number of coffee bars in London (120) than in any other city in the world, showing significant activity. Another strong player is a member of the British Whitbread group company Costa, which, though numerically represented in the UK a large number of coffee shops, but entered the London market after Starbucks. However, recently it has started to develop much more active part, due to a more original approach to the selection of sites for new stores and franchising policy. These stores can be found in Banks (joint venture with Abbey National), supermarkets (Tesco), offices, bookshops (Waterstone's and WH Smith), as well as in more typical places - on the streets in the city center, railway stations, airports and shopping centers. (Starbucks Coffee Company, 2012)Nero, the coffee brand number 3 in the UK, particularly firmly settled in London, with its 102 stores. All property of the company. Last year the company became even more pronounced with the installation of trading on the removal of mobile kiosks Nero Express main railway stations, where previously housed AMT. After attempts to divide the ownership of other firms the company returned in 2007 to the private sector, and company founder Jerry Ford became CEO and majority shareholder of the company.(Caffè Nero, 2012)has become increasingly important and traditional bars. Network of bars with large rooms, J D Wetherspoon offers a wide selection of coffee in all its branches 685 (many of them - "oversize" bars in London and surrounding area) and has already invested about £ 6 million in the necessary equipment and training. How to compare visits to bars, visiting coffee bars, remains a contentious issue, but Wetherspoon now expects to sell at least 500 cups per week in each of their establishments. The network is growing at a rate of 30 units per year and aggressively promoting the pricing policy more affordable than Starbucks (which has raised prices twice in 2007) and other brands of coffee bars.King, another giant chain of pubs, posted operating under a franchise agreement Coffee Republic branches in 30 of its bars, and next year plans to add 40 more.addition to price competition Wetherspoon is not a key factor in sales of coffee in London, where the average bill in a coffee bar reaches 3.32 lbs. Chain of sandwich bars, Benjy's, which once was known for a cappuccino 30p, went bankrupt in 2007, all the last decade, McDonald's coffee bars placed the McCafe with reasonable prices in some major institutions in London, but now there was only one coffee shop in the Birmingham area. New style of this network, which offers an extended selection of coffee in the main menu, it is considered more appropriate. (McCafé Coffee , 2012)

  • 22. Parable thinking in W. Faulner's novel "A fable"
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 18.06.2010


    1. Arendt H. The Human Condition / H. Arendt.- New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1959. - 156 p.
    2. Barth J., Robert. A Rereading of Faulkners A Fable/ J. R. Barth.- America, 1954. - 79 p.
    3. Bergson, H. The Two Sources of Morality and Religion/ H. Bergson.- New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1935. - 289 p.
    4. Bernard, R. Book Reviews/ R. Bernard. - Arizona Quarterly, 1954.- P. 361-363.
    5. Bertman, M.A. On Faulkner's Thucydidean Aesthetics/ - University of Illinois Press. - 1973. - Vol. 7, No. 3 - Journal of Aesthetic Education. - P. 99-101
    6. Brendan, G. Fifth Gospel/ G. Brendan. - New York: The New Yorker,1954. - P. 70-71.
    7. Bouvard, L. Conversation with William Faulkner/ L. Bouvard.- New York: Modern Fiction Studies,1959-1960. - P. 361-364.
    8. Brumm, U. Wilderness and Civilization: A Note on Waggoner/ U. Brumm. - New York: From Jefferson to the World, 1954.- 229 p.
    9. Carter, T.H. Dramatization of an Enigma/ T.H. Carter. - New York: Western Review, 1955. - P. 147-148.
    10. Collins, C. War and Peace and Mr. Faulkner/ C. Collins. - New York: Times Book Review, 1954. -P. 13.
    11. Cowley, M. Faulkner's Powerful New Novel/ M. Cowley. - New York: Herald Tribune Books, 1954. - 256 p.
    12. Crossan, J.D. Parable, Allegory and Paradox / J.D. Crossan. - Boston: Accent, 1976. 277 p.
    13. Dillistone, F.W. The Novelist and the Passion Story/ F. W. Dillistone. - London: Collins Clear Types Press, 1960. - 195 p.
    14. Faulkner, W. A Fable/ W. Faulkner. - New York: Random House, 1954. - 384 p.
    15. Fiedler, L. Stone Grotesques/ L. Fiedler. - New York: The New Republic, 1954. - P. 18-19
    16. Flint, R.W. What Price Glory? / R. W. Flint. - New York: Random House, 1955. - P. 602-606.
    17. Gardiner, H.C. William Faulkner's 'A Fable/ H. C. Gardiner. - New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954. - 502 p.
    18. Hafley, J. Faulkner's 'A Fable: Dream and Transfiguration/ J. Hafley. - Boston: Accent, 1956. - P. 3-14.
    19. Hartt, T. Some Reflections on Faulkner's Fable/ T. Hartt. - Boston: Religion in Life, 1955. - P. 601-607.
    20. Harvey, V.A. A Handbook of Literary Terms/ V. A. Harvey. - New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964. - 170 p.
    21. Hoffman, F.J. William Faulkner: Three Decades of Criticism/ F. J. Hoffman. - New York: Brace and World, 1963. - 365 p.
    22. Howe, I. Thirteen Who Mutinied: Faulkners First World War/ I. Howe. - New York: The Reporter, 1954. - P. 43-45
    23. Howe, I. William Faulkner: A Critical Study / I. Howe. - New York: Vintage Books, 1962. - 239 p.
    24. Hunt, J.W. William Faulkner: Art in Theological Tension/ J.W. Hunt. - Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1965. - 345 p.
    25. Kenner, H. Book Reviews/ H. Kenner. - Winchester: Shenandoah, 1955. - P. 44-53.
    26. King, R.A. Everymans Warfare: A Study of Faulkner's Fable/ R.A. King. - New York: Modern Fiction Studies, 1956. - P. 132-138.
    27. Kohler, D.A Fable: The Novel as Myth/ D. Kohler. - Boston: College of English, 1955. -P. 471-478.
    28. Liddell Hart, B.H. The Real War: 1914-1918/ B.H. Liddell Hart. - Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1930. - 301 p.
    29. Lytle, A. The Son of Man: He Will Prevail/ A. Lytle. - Boston: The Sewanee Review, 1955. -P. 114-137.
    30. Mercier, V.A Search for Universality that Led too Far from Home/ V. Mercier. - Boston: Commonweal, 1954. - P. 443-444.
    31. Nygren, A. Eros and Agape: A Handbook of Christian Theology/ A. Nygren. - Cleveland, Ohio: World Publising Company, 1958. - P. 96-101.
    32. Pickerel, P. Outstanding Novels/ P. Pickerel. - Yale, 1954. - P. 9-18.
    33. Podhoretz, N. William Faulkner and the Problem of War/ N. Podhoretz. - New York: The Reporter, 1954. - P. 227-232.
    34. Rice, P.B. Faulkner's Crucifixion: Three Decades of Criticism/ P.B. Rice. - New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963. - 202 p.
    35. Sandeen, E. William Faulkner: His Legend and His Fable. Review of Politics/ E. Sandeen. - New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963. - P. 47-68.
    36. Schorer, M. Technique as Discovery. The World We Imagine/ M. Schorer. - New York: Farrer, Straus and Giroux, 1968. - 300 p.
    37. Sowder, W. Faulkner and Existentialism: A Note on the Generalissimo/ W. Sowder. - New York: Farrer, Straus and Giroux, 1968. - P. 163-167.
    38. Straumann, H. An American Interpretation of Existence: Faulkner's A Fable/ H. Straumann. - New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963. - P. 484-515.
    39. Taylor, W.F. William Faulkner: The Faulkner Fable. American Scholar/ W. F. Taylor. - New York: Farrer, Straus and Giroux, 1957. - P. 471-477.
    40. Thompson, L. Willim Faulkner: An Introduction and Interpretation/ L. Thompson. - New York, 1963. - P. 13.
    41. Waggoner, H.H. William Faulkners Passion Week of the Heart/ H. H. Waggoner . - New York: Association Press, 1957. -P. 306-323.
    42. Waggoner, H.H. William Faulkner: From Jefferson to the World / H. H. Waggoner . - Lexington: Lexington University Press, 1957. -229 p.
    43. Wilder, A. Theology and Modern Literature/ A. Wilder. - Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1958. - P. 113-131.
    44. Кеба А. Андрей Платонов и мировая литература ХХ века: Типологические связи/ А. Кеба К.-П.: Абетка НОВА, 2001. 505 c.
    45. Хитарова Т.А. Архетипические образы Верха и Низа в романе с притчевым началом (А. Платонов, А. Мердок, У. Голдинг): Автореф. дис. канд. филол. наук / Хитарова Татьяна Александровна. Красн., 2003. 29 с.
    46. Энциклопедический словарь юного литературоведа/ [Под ред. В.И. Новикова] М.: Педагогика, 1987. 416 с.
  • 23. Peculiarities of British and American variants in the English Language
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 10.03.2012

    America has given the English lexicon many thousands of words, meanings, and phrases. Several thousand are now used in English as spoken internationally; others, however, died within a few years of their creation.of an American lexiconprocess of coining new lexical items started as soon as the colonists began borrowing names for unfamiliar flora, fauna, and topography from the Native American languages. Examples of such names are opossum, raccoon, squash and moose (from Algonquian). Other Native American loanwords, such as wigwam or moccasin, describe artificial objects in common use among Native Americans. The languages of the other colonizing nations also added to the American vocabulary; for instance, cookie, cruller, stoop, and pit (of a fruit) from Dutch; levee, portage ("carrying of boats or goods") and (probably) gopher from French; barbecue, stevedore, and rodeo from Spanish.the earliest and most notable regular "English" additions to the American vocabulary, dating from the early days of colonization through the early 19th century, are terms describing the features of the North American landscape; for instance, run, branch, fork, snag, bluff, gulch, neck (of the woods), barrens, bottomland, notch, knob, riffle, rapids, watergap, cutoff, trail, timberline and divide. Already existing words such as creek, slough, sleet and (in later use) watershed received new meanings that were unknown in England.noteworthy American toponyms are found among loanwords; for example, prairie, butte (French); bayou (Choctaw via Louisiana French); coulee (Canadian French, but used also in Louisiana with a different meaning); canyon, mesa, arroyo (Spanish); vlei, kill (Dutch, Hudson Valley).word corn, used in England to refer to wheat (or any cereal), came to denote the plant Zea mays, the most important crop in the U.S., originally named Indian corn by the earliest settlers; wheat, rye, barley, oats, etc. came to be collectively referred to as grain (or breadstuffs). Other notable farm related vocabulary additions were the new meanings assumed by barn (not only a building for hay and grain storage, but also for housing livestock) and team (not just the horses, but also the vehicle along with them), as well as, in various periods, the terms range, (corn) crib, truck, elevator, sharecropping and feedlot., later applied to a house style, derives from Mexican Spanish; most Spanish contributions came after the War of 1812, with the opening of the West. Among these are, other than toponyms, chaps (from chaparreras), plaza, lasso, bronco, buckaroo, rodeo; examples of "English" additions from the cowboy era are bad man, maverick, chuck ("food") and Boot Hill; from the California Gold Rush came such idioms as hit pay dirt or strike it rich. The word blizzard probably originated in the West. A couple of notable late 18th century additions are the verb belittle and the noun bid, both first used in writing by Thomas Jefferson.the new continent developed new forms of dwelling, and hence a large inventory of words designating real estate concepts (land office, lot, outlands, waterfront, the verbs locate and relocate, betterment, addition, subdivision), types of property (log cabin, adobe in the 18th century; frame house, apartment, tenement house, shack, shanty in the 19th century; project, condominium, townhouse, split-level, mobile home, multi-family in the 20th century), and parts thereof (driveway, breezeway, backyard, dooryard; clapboard, siding, trim, baseboard; stoop (from Dutch), family room, den; and, in recent years, HVAC, central air, walkout basement).since the American Revolution, a great number of terms connected with the U.S. political institutions have entered the language; examples are run, gubernatorial, primary election, carpetbagger (after the Civil War), repeater, lame duck and pork barrel. Some of these are internationally used (e.g. caucus, gerrymander, filibuster, exit poll).rise of capitalism, the development of industry and material innovations throughout the 19th and 20th centuries were the source of a massive stock of distinctive new words, phrases and idioms. Typical examples are the vocabulary of railroading (see further at rail terminology) and transportation terminology, ranging from names of roads (from dirt roads and back roads to freeways and parkways) to road infrastructure (parking lot, overpass, rest area), and from automotive terminology to public transit (e.g. in the sentence "riding the subway downtown"); such American introductions as commuter (from commutation ticket), concourse, to board (a vehicle), to park, double-park and parallel park (a car), double decker or the noun terminal have long been used in all dialects of English. Trades of various kinds have endowed (American) English with household words describing jobs and occupations (bartender, longshoreman, patrolman, hobo, bouncer, bellhop, roustabout, white collar, blue collar, employee, boss [from Dutch], intern, busboy, mortician, senior citizen), businesses and workplaces (department store, supermarket, thrift store, gift shop, drugstore, motel, main street, gas station, hardware store, savings and loan, hock [also from Dutch]), as well as general concepts and innovations (automated teller machine, smart card, cash register, dishwasher, reservation [as at hotels], pay envelope, movie, mileage, shortage, outage, blood bank).existing English words -such as store, shop, dry goods, haberdashery, lumber- underwent shifts in meaning; some -such as mason, student, clerk, the verbs can (as in "canned goods"), ship, fix, carry, enroll (as in school), run (as in "run a business"), release and haul- were given new significations, while others (such as tradesman) have retained meanings that disappeared in England. From the world of business and finance came breakeven, merger, delisting, downsize, disintermediation, bottom line; from sports terminology came, jargon aside, Monday-morning quarterback, cheap shot, game plan (football); in the ballpark, out of left field, off base, hit and run, and many other idioms from baseball; gamblers coined bluff, blue chip, ante, bottom dollar, raw deal, pass the buck, ace in the hole, freeze-out, showdown; miners coined bedrock, bonanza, peter out, pan out and the verb prospect from the noun; and railroadmen are to be credited with make the grade, sidetrack, head-on, and the verb railroad. A number of Americanisms describing material innovations remained largely confined to North America: elevator, ground, gasoline; many automotive terms fall in this category, although many do not (hatchback, SUV, station wagon, tailgate, motorhome, truck, pickup truck, to exhaust).addition to the above-mentioned loans from French, Spanish, Mexican Spanish, Dutch, and Native American languages, other accretions from foreign languages came with 19th and early 20th century immigration; notably, from Yiddish (chutzpah, schmooze, tush and such idioms as need something like a hole in the head) and German -hamburger and culinary terms like frankfurter/franks, liverwurst, sauerkraut, wiener, deli(catessen); scram, kindergarten, gesundheit; musical terminology (whole note, half note, etc.); and apparently cookbook, fresh ("impudent") and what gives? Such constructions as Are you coming with? and I like to dance (for "I like dancing") may also be the result of German or Yiddish influence. Finally, a large number of English colloquialisms from various periods are American in origin; some have lost their American flavor (from OK and cool to nerd and 24/7), while others have not (have a nice day, sure); many are now distinctly old-fashioned (swell, groovy). Some English words now in general use, such as hijacking, disc jockey, boost, bulldoze and jazz, originated as American slang. Among the many English idioms of U.S. origin are get the hang of, take for a ride, bark up the wrong tree, keep tabs, run scared, take a backseat, have an edge over, stake a claim, take a shine to, in on the ground floor, bite off more than one can chew, off/on the wagon, stay put, inside track, stiff upper lip, bad hair day, throw a monkey wrench, under the weather, jump bail, come clean, come again?, it ain't over till it's over, what goes around comes around, and will the real x please stand up?words that survived in the United Statesnumber of words and meanings that originated in Middle English or Early Modern English and that always have been in everyday use in the United States dropped out in most varieties of British English; some of these have cognates in Lowland Scots. Terms such as fall ("autumn"), pavement (to mean "road surface", where in Britain, as in Philadelphia, it is the equivalent of "sidewalk"), faucet, diaper, candy, skillet, eyeglasses, crib (for a baby), obligate, and raise a child are often regarded as Americanisms. Fall for example came to denote the season in 16th century England, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year". During the 17th century, English immigration to the colonies in North America was at its peak, and the new settlers took their language with them, and while the term fall gradually became obsolete in Britain, it became the more common term in North America. Gotten (past participle of get) is often considered to be an Americanism, although there are some areas of Britain, such as Lancashire and North-eastern England, that still continue to use it and sometimes also use putten as the past participle for put (which is not done by most speakers of American English).words and meanings, to various extents, were brought back to Britain, especially in the second half of the 20th century; these include hire ("to employ"), quit ("to stop," which spawned quitter in the U.S.), I guess (famously criticized by H. W. Fowler), baggage, hit (a place), and the adverbs overly and presently ("currently"). Some of these, for example monkey wrench and wastebasket, originated in 19th-century Britain.mandative subjunctive (as in "the City Attorney suggested that the case not be closed") is livelier in AmE than it is in British English; it appears in some areas as a spoken usage, and is considered obligatory in contexts that are more formal. The adjectives mad meaning "angry", smart meaning "intelligent", and sick meaning "ill" are also more frequent in American than British English.of the differences in lexis or vocabulary between British and American English are in connection with concepts originating from the 19th century to the mid 20th century, when new words were coined independently. Almost the entire vocabularies of the car/automobile and railway/railroad industries (see Rail terminology) are different between the UK and US, for example. Other sources of difference are slang or vulgar terms, where frequent new coinage occurs, and idiomatic phrases, including phrasal verbs. The differences most likely to create confusion are those where the same word or phrase is used for two different concepts. Regional variations, even within the US or the UK, can create the same problems.is not a straightforward matter to classify differences of vocabulary. David Crystal identifies some of the problems of classification on the facing page to his list of American English/British English lexical variation, and states "this should be enough to suggest caution when working through an apparently simple list of equivalents".the influence of cross-culture media has done much to familiarize BrE and AmE speakers with each other's regional words and terms, many words are still recognized as part of a single form of English. Though the use of a British word would be acceptable in AmE (and vice versa), most listeners would recognize the word as coming from the other form of English, and treat it much the same as a word borrowed from any other language. For instance, an American using the word chap or mate to refer to a friend would be heard in much the same way as an American using the Spanish word amigo.and phrases which have their origins BrEspeakers of AmE are aware of some BrE terms, although they might not generally use them, or may be confused as to whether someone intends the American or British meaning (such as for biscuit). They will be able to guess approximately what some others, such as driving licence, mean. However, use of many other British words such as naff (unstylish, though commonly used to mean "not very good"), risks rendering a sentence incomprehensible to most Americans.and phrases which have their origins AmEof BrE are likely to understand most AmE terms, examples such as 'sidewalk', 'gas (gasoline/petrol)', 'counterclockwise', or 'elevator (lift)', without any problem. Certain terms which are heard less frequently, eg. 'copacetic (satisfactory)', are unlikely to be understood by most BrE speakers.and phrases with different meaningssuch as bill (AmE "paper money", BrE and AmE "invoice") and biscuit (AmE: BrE's "scone", BrE: AmE's "cookie") are used regularly in both AmE and BrE, but mean different things in each form As chronicled by Winston Churchill, the opposite meanings of the verb to table created a misunderstanding during a meeting of the Allied forces; in BrE to table an item on an agenda means to open it up for discussion, whereas in AmE, it means to remove it from discussion.word "football" in BrE refers to Association football, also known as soccer. In AmE, "football" means American football., the word "hockey" in BrE refers to field hockey, while in AmE "hockey" means ice hockey.with completely different meanings are relatively few; most of the time, there are either (1) words with one or more shared meanings and one or more meanings unique to one variety (e.g. bathroom and toilet) or (2) words whose meanings are actually common to both BrE and AmE, but which show differences in frequency, connotation, or denotation (e.g. smart, clever, mad).differences in usage and/or meaning can cause confusion or embarrassment. For example, the word fanny is a slang word for vagina in BrE (often used by small children) but simply means buttocks in AmE - the AmE phrase fanny pack is called a bum bag in BrE. In AmE the word fag (short for faggot) is a highly offensive term for a gay male, but in BrE it is also a normal and well-used term for a cigarette. In AmE the word pissed means being annoyed, where as in BrE it refers to being drunk (in both varieties, pissed off means irritated).the confusion is more subtle. In AmE the word quite used as a qualifier is generally a reinforcement: e.g. "I'm quite hungry" means "I'm very hungry". In BrE quite (which is much more common in conversation) can have this meaning, as in "quite right", "quite mad" or "I enjoyed that quite a lot", but it more commonly means "somewhat", so that in BrE "I'm quite hungry" can mean "I'm somewhat hungry" - and this divergence of use can lead to misunderstanding.

  • 24. Peculiarities of regional varieties of the English language in newspapers in English-speaking countries
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 27.06.2011

    "It is important to realize that standard English is in no way intrinsically superior to any other variety of English: in particular, it is not 'more logical,' 'more grammatical,' or 'more expressive.' It is, at bottom, a convenience: the use of a single agreed standard form, learned by speakers everywhere, minimizes uncertainty, confusion, misunderstanding and communicative difficulty generally" [8: 72]. this start point can be so-called Standard English SE as well. To determine what is it and what its features we used web sites. According to numerous Russian web sites weve found out the follows definition: standard English - the official language of Great Britain taught at schools and universities, used by the press, the radio and the television and spoken by educated people may be defined as that form of English which is current and literary, substantially uniform and recognized as acceptable wherever English is spoken or understood [3: 41]. Is stands too far from science, but still some points are unquestionable for example: official language of Great Britain it really is, the statement that it is recognized as acceptable wherever English is spoken or understood [6: 223] is not wrong too, but today English is understood in the most part of the globe and under the concept is understood we mean any combinations of English-like-sound words which provide communication. It means that in India or in South Africa the English language is spoken and understood we deal with Standard English. As we know that it is wrong we cant accept the definition. Though in the further description of Standard English we can find some remarks: its vocabulary is contrasted to dialect words or dialectisms belonging to various local dialects (Trask R. L., 2000: 52). So the Indian English because of the dialectisms cant be considered as Standard, but there is no explanation of evaluation the dialectisms within the Great Britain, another weak point of the definition. And finally we can find wrong statement about dialect and language variant such as: local dialects are varieties of the English language peculiar to some districts and having no normalized literary form. Regional varieties possessing a literary form are called variants [4: 78]. Weve paid a lot of attention to this difference and it seems there is no need to go back to our arguments. This is the content of many essays and it is the same in many works, unfortunately we couldnt determine its origin but its obvious that it is taken from one and the same book.found the previous definition as unsatisfying we analyzed the material from Bad Language, suggested it as more reliable source. Their article is as follows: Standard English (often shortened to S.E. within linguistic circles) refers to whatever form of the English language is accepted as a national norm in an Anglophone country. It encompasses grammar, vocabulary, and spelling. In the British Isles, particularly in England and Wales, it is often associated with the "Received Pronunciation" accent, also known as Queen's English. In the United States it is generally associated with the "General American" accent, and in Australia with General Australian. Unlike the case of other standard languages, however, there is no official or central regulating body defining Standard English [2: 75]. It is quite informative and as usual native speakers provided more valuable information. The first difference is determining the Standard English as national norm in an Anglophone country, thus the author accepts that Standard Language can belong not only to the Great Britain and it is reasonable from the one point of view: there is a country which uses this language as official and it is no doubt standard for them, the laws, the literature, everyone goes along with these norms. But from another point of view in such a way we dont have a start point to determine deviations and variants. So if every English is the Standard English we should consider this as a paradox and give up this point of view, or neglect the regional division and consider it just wide set of rules which a rather flexible and can satisfy peoples from different countries.problems of point of views of two previous web sites left the question opened, but another source, devoted to the problem we find as proper and want to present it with the analyses. The article begins from the origins of the Standard English: By far the most influential factor in the rise of Standard English was the importance of London as the capital of England. London English took as well as gave. It began as a Southern and ended as a Midland dialect. By the 15th century there had come to prevail in the East Midlands a fairly uniform dialect, and the language of London agrees in all important respects with it. We can hardly doubt that the importance of the eastern counties is largely responsible for this change. Even such Northern characteristics as are found in the standard speech seem to have entered by way of these counties. The history of Standard English is almost a history of London English. [1: 172]. explains why we should consider the British English as standard through the history. But the question is still open: half-way through the 17th century, the lexicographer Thomas Blount declares that the 'Babel' of the vernacular made England a 'self-stranger' nation--one growing alien to itself through this diversity of available forms. He dedicates his dictionary of 1656 to the cause of having 'English Englished.' Arguably, in this context it is not the rise of a standard variety of language, but a new awareness of dialect and variability of discourse - the 'self-stranger' English of the Renaissance - that best defines the linguistic culture of early modern England [6: 62]. the final accord was in the end of the article: [T]here is no such thing (at present) as a Standard English which is not British or American or Australian, etc. There is no International Standard (yet), in the sense that publishers cannot currently aim at a standard which is not locally bound. [5: 23]. we can give up the search of standard English due to its declination to the International Standard, which is not bound to any country.

  • 25. Polysemy in english language
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 06.03.2012

    By the "symbol" here is meant the word; thought or reference is concept. The dotted line suggests that there is no immediate relation between word" and referent: it is established only through the concept. /Antrushina English Lexicology p.130/the other hand, there is a hypothesis that concepts can only find their realization through words. It seems that thought is dormant till the word wakens it up. It is only when we hear a spoken word or read a printed word that the corresponding concept springs into mind. The mechanism by which concepts (i. e. mental phenomena) are converted into words (i. e. linguistic phenomena) and the reverse process by which a heard or a printed word is converted into a kind of mental picture are not yet understood or described.branch of linguistics which specializes in the study of meaning is called semantics. As with many terms, the term "semantics" is ambiguous for it can stand, as well, for the expressive aspect of language in general and for the meaning of one particular word in all its varied aspects and nuances (i. e. the semantics of a word = the meaning (s) of a word).unit which most people would think of as one word may carry a number of meanings, by association with certain contexts. Thus pipe can be any tubular object, a musical instrument or a piece of apparatus for smoking; a hand can be on a clock or watch as well as at the end of the arm. Multiple meaning or polysemy is of considerable linguistic importance, and the process of extension is a concern of historical linguistics. Most of the time, we are able to distinguish the intended meaning by the usual process of mental adjustment to context and register: we dont expect to find tobacco pipes in the school recorder band. The literary language, however, again refuses to give us comfortable divisions of meaning beyond which imagination need not stray. It often forces us to accept polysemy not as a feature from which we select but as one in which we meet the writers intention without restriction.writer may indeed call in the aid of context to distinguish the meanings of polysemantic words; but his intention is not necessarily to elucidate a single meaning but rather to emphasize the uncertainties of daily usage and to point from this to an ironical comment on the human predicament.may allow a writer to work on two levels concurrently, apparently relating one set of events while really indicating something different. We move here towards metaphor, which must be a separate concern, but it is interesting to see how a chosen image can be maintained by word-choice appropriate to the register in which we should normally expect to find it, while the metaphorical relation to hidden meaning is deferred. For example, George Herbert sustains the image of God as the landlord in the poem Redemption by use of legal terms which are in perfect register-agreement with the opening statement:been tenant long to a rich Lordthriving, I resolved to be bold,make a suite into him, to affordnew small-rented lease, and cancel tholdheaven at his manor I him sought:told me there that he was lately gonesome land, which he had dearly boughtsince on earth, to take possession.writer may not confine himself to any normal register but rather create his own by choices that would seem odd or questionable in that context in everyday use. It is useful, though without attempting to draw any impassable line, to distinguish between two ways in which a writers selection of a single word may seem admirable. We will assume that there is no syntagmatic deviation and that the choice is paradigmatic within a context that is free from apparent ambiguity. Of course, the associations and figurative applications of words may still operate even when there is no obvious polysemy.the first way, there is no deviation; the achievement is in tackling the problem of synonymous words. It may well be argued that there are no perfect synonyms, since choice must be conditioned by register, dialect and emotive association. However, the problem of word-selection is difficult and is not much aided by the brief definitions of a dictionary or the listings of a thesaurus. One of the most effective ways of finding out what a word means in current usage is by asking people whether they would readily use it in a given sentence.

  • 26. Regularities of proper name from English into Russian
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 27.06.2011

    №English proper nameRussian proper nameCharacteristics1The Lord of the Rings: The Two TowersВластелин колец: Две крепостиOmission, word-by-word translation, 8-4, article+N+Prep+article+article+number+N - N+N+number+N, article + common name + preposition + article + number + common name - common name + common name + common name + common name2The Green MileЗеленая миляOmission, word-by-word translation, 3-2, article+Adj+N - Adj+N, article+ adjective + common name - adjective + common name3The Dark KnightТемный рыцарьOmission, word-by-word translation, 3-2, article+Adj+N - Adj+N, article+ adjective + common name - adjective + common name4Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black PearlПираты Карибского моря: Проклятие Черной жемчужиныOmission, word-by-word translation, addition, 10-6, N+prep+article+N+article+N+prep+article+Adj+N - N+Adj+N+N+Adj+N, common name+ preposition+ article+ proper name+ article + common name+ preposition+ article+ proper name+ proper name- common name+ proper name + common name+ common name+ proper name+ proper name5The Shawshank RedemptionПобег из ШоушенкаOmission, addition, word-by-word translation, 3-3, article+N+N - N+prep+N, article+ proper name+ common name - common name+ preposition+ proper name6A Beautiful MindИгры разумаOmission, word-by-word translation, explication, 3-2, article+Adj+N - Adj+N, article+ adjective + common name - adjective + common name7The Fifth ElementПятый элементOmission, word-by-word translation, 3-2, article+Number+N - Number+N, article+ number+ common name - number+ common name8Saving Private RyanСпасти рядового Райанаword-by-word translation , 3-3, Gerund+N+N - V+Adj+N, gerund+ adjective+ Proper name- verb + adjective+ Proper name9Knockin` on Heaven`s DoorДостучаться до небесOmission, explication, 4-3, gerund+ prep+ possessive сase+ N - V+ prep+ N, gerund+ preposition + prop name(possessive case)+ common name- verb+ preposition+ common name10Catch Me If You CanПоймай меня, если сможешьOmission, word-by-word translation, 5-4, V+ Pronoun+conj+Pronoun+V - V+Pronoun+conj+V, verb+ pronoun+ conjunction+ pronoun+ verb- verb pronoun+ conjunction+ verb11The Passion of the ChristСтрасти ХристовыOmission, word-by-word translation, 5-2, article+ N+ preposition+ aricle+ N- N+N, article+ common name + preposition+ aricle +prop name- common name + prop name12Back to the FutureНазад в будущееOmission, word-by-word translation, 4-3, Adv+ prep+ article+ N- Adv + prep + N, adverb + preposition+ article+ common name- adverb+ preposition+ common name13Requiem for a DreamРеквием по мечтеOmission, word-by-word translation, 4-3, N+ prep + article + N- N + prep+ N, common name+ preposition+ article+ common name- common name+ preposition+ common name14Men in BlackЛюди в черномword-by-word translation, 3-3, N+ prep+ N- N+prep+N, common name+ preposition+ common- common name+ preposition+ common15Harry Potter and the Sorcerer`s StoneГарри Поттер и философский каменьOmission, word-by-word translation, 6-5, N+N+ conj+ article+ N+N- N+ N + prep +adj + N, Proper mame+ Proper mame+ conjunction+ article + Proper mame (possessive case)+ common name- Proper mame+ Proper mame+ conjunction+ adjective+ common name16The Social NetworkСоциальная сетьOmission, word-by-word translation, 3-2, article+Adj+N - Adj+N, article+ adjective + common name - adjective + common name17Meet Joe BlackЗнакомьтесь, Джо Блэкword-by-word translation, 3-3, V+N+ N- V+N +N, verb+ prop name+ prop name - verb+ prop name+ prop name18What Women WantЧего хотят женщиныword-by-word translation, transposition, 3-3, Pron+ N +V - Pron+ V+ N, Pronoun + common name+ verb - Pronoun + verb+ common name 19The King`s SpeechКороль говорит!Omission, explication, 3-2, Article+ N+ N- N+V, Article+ common name (possessive case) + common name- common name+ verb20The Silence of the LambsМолчание ягнятOmission, word-by-word translation, 5-2, Article+ N + prep+ article+ N- N+N, article+ Common name +preposition+ article+ Common name- Common name+ Common name

  • 27. Russian Identity
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 27.05.2010
  • 28. Semantic peculiarities of the English article and ways of its translation
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 14.11.2011

    A mere semantic observation of the articles in English, i.e. the definite article the and the indefinite article a/an, at once discloses not two but three meaningful characterizations of the nounal referent achieved by their correlative functioning, namely: one rendered by the definite article, one rendered by the indefinite article, and one rendered by the absence (or non-use) of the article. Let us examine them separately.definite article expresses the identification or individualization of the referent of the noun: the use of this article shows that the object denoted is taken in its concrete, individual quality. This meaning can be brought to explicit exposition by a substitution test. The test consists in replacing the article used in a construction by a demonstrative word, e.g. a demonstrative determiner, without causing a principal change in the general implication of the construction. Of course, such an "equivalent" substitution should be understood in fact as nothing else but analogy: the difference in meaning between a determiner and an article admits of no argument, and we pointed it out in the above passages. Still, the replacements of words as a special diagnostic procedure, which is applied with the necessary reservations and according to a planned scheme of research, is quite permissible. In our case it undoubtedly shows a direct relationship in the meanings of the determiner and the article, the relationship in which the determiner is semantically the more explicit element of the two. Cf.:look at the apple-tree! - But look at this apple-tree! The town lay still in the Indian summer sun. - That town lay still in the Indian summer sun. The water is horribly hot. - This water is horribly hot. It's the girls who are to blame. - It's those girls who are to blame.justification of the applied substitution, as well as its explanatory character, may be proved by a counter-test, namely, by the change of the definite article into the indefinite article, or by omitting the article altogether [50, c.181] The replacement either produces a radical, i.e. "non-equivalent" shift in the meaning of the construction, or else results in a grammatically unacceptable construction. Cf.: ... - Look at an apple-tree! - Look at apple-tree! ... - A water is horribly hot. - Water is horribly hot.indefinite article, as different from the definite article, is commonly interpreted as referring the object denoted by the noun to a certain class of similar objects; in other words, the indefinite article expresses a classifying generalization of the nounal referent, or takes it in a relatively general sense. To prove its relatively generalizing functional meaning, we may use the diagnostic insertions of specifying-classifying phrases into the construction in question; we may also employ the transformation of implicit comparative constructions with the indefinite article into the corresponding explicit coparative constructions. Cf.:passed a water-mill. - We passed a certain water-mill. It is a very young country, isn't it? - It is a very young kind of country, isn't it? What an arrangement! - What sort of arrangement! This child is a positive nightmare. - This child is positively like a nightmare.procedure of a classifying contrast employed in practical textbooks exposes the generalizing nature of the indefinite article most clearly in many eases of its use. E.g.:door opened in the wall. - A door (not a window) opened in the wall. We saw a flower under the bush. - We saw a flower (not a strawberry) under the bush.for the various uses of nouns without an article, from the semantic point of view they all should be divided into two types. In the first place, there are uses where the articles are deliberately omitted out of stylistical considerations. We see such uses, for instance, in telegraphic speech, in titles and headlines, in various notices. E.g.:received room reserved for week-end. (The text of a telegram.) Conference adjourned until further notice. (The text of an announcement.) Big red bus rushes food to strikers. (The title of a newspaper article.)purposeful elliptical omission of the article in cases like that is quite obvious, and the omitted articles may easily be restored in the constructions in the simplest "back-directed" refilling procedures.. - The telegram is received, a room is reserved for the weekend. ... - The conference is adjourned until further notice. ... - A big red bus rushes food to the strikers.free elliptical constructions, there are cases of the semantically unspecified non-use of the article in various combinations of fixed type, such as prepositional- phrases (on fire, at hand, in debt, etc.), fixed verbal collocations (take place, make use, cast anchor, etc.), descriptive coordinative groups and repetition groups (man and wife, dog and gun, day by day, etc.), and the like. These cases of traditionally fixed absence of the article are quite similar to the cases of traditionally fixed uses of both indefinite and definite articles (cf.: in a hurry, at a loss, have a look, give a start, etc.; In the main, out of the question, on the look-out, etc.).the elliptical constructions and fixed uses, however, we know a really semantic absence of the article with the noun. It is this semantic absence of the article that stands in immediate meaningful correlation with the definite and indefinite articles as such.is widely acknowledged, the meaningful non-uses of the article are not homogeneous; nevertheless, they admit of a very explicit classification founded on the countability characteristics of the noun. Why countability characteristics? For the two reasons. The first reason is inherent in the nature of the noun itself: the abstract generalization reflected through the meaningful non-use of the article is connected with the suppression of the idea of the number in the noun. The second reason is inherent in the nature of the article: the indefinite article which plays the crucial role in the semantic correlation in question reveals the meaning of oneness within its semantic base, having originated from the indefinite pronoun one, and that is why the abstract use of the noun naturally goes with the absence of the article.essential points of the said classification are three in number.. The meaningful absence of the article before the countable noun in the singular signifies that the noun is taken in an abstract sense, expressing the most general idea of the object denoted. This meaning, which may be called the meaning of "absolute generalization", can be demonstrated by inserting in the tested construction a chosen generalizing modifier (such as in general, in the abstract, in the broadest sense). Cf.:(in general) begins with the beginning of human society. Steam-engine (in general) introduced for locomotion a couple of centuries ago has now become obsolete.. The absence of the article before the uncountable noun corresponds to the two kinds of generalization: both relative and absolute. To decide which of the two meanings is realized in any particular case, the described tests should be carried out alternately. Cf.:laughed with great bitterness (that sort of bitterness - relative generalization). The subject of health (in general - absolute generalization) was carefully avoided by everybody. Coffee (a kind of beverage served at the table - relative generalization) or tea, please? Coffee (in general - absolute generalization) stimulates the function of the heart.. The absence of the article before the countable noun in the plural, likewise, corresponds to both kinds of generalization, and the exposition of the meaning in each case can be achieved by the same semantic tests. Cf.:, planets and comets (these kinds of objects: relative generalization) are different celestial bodies (not terrestrial bodies: relative generalization). Wars (in general: absolute generalization) should be eliminated as means of deciding international disputes.distinguish the demonstrated semantic functions of the non-uses of the article by definition, we may say that the absence of the article with uncountable nouns, as well as with countable nouns in the plural, renders the meaning of "uncharacterized generalization", as different from the meaning of "absolute generalization", achieved by the absence of the article with countable nouns in the singular.much for the semantic evaluation of the articles as the first stage of our study.to the situational assessment of the article uses, we must point out that the basic principle of their differentiation here is not a direct consideration of their meanings, but disclosing the informational characteristics that the article conveys to its noun in concrete contextual conditions. Examined from this angle, the definite article serves as an indicator of the type of nounal information "which is presented as the "facts already known", i.e. as the starting point of the communication. In contrast to this, the indefinite article or the meaningful absence of the article introduces the central communicative nounal part of the sentence, i.e. the part rendering the immediate informative data to be conveyed from the speaker to the listener. In the situational study of syntax the starting point of the communication is called its "theme", while the central informative part is called its "rheme".

  • 29. St. Petersburg State Museum of theatre and music
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 07.01.2012

    . Petersburg State Museum of Theatre and Music is located in the historical centre of the city, in the building, which belongs to one of the most splendid architectural ensembles of the city - the ensemble of Alexandrinsky Theatre. This architectural masterpiece, as well as the street, bearing nowadays the name of its creator, was built by the great Carlo Rossi.1840 in one of the buildings, surrounding the Theatre, the office of the Imperial Theatres Management settled. It was here that the fate of Russian Theatre was decided. Here the contracts with famous actors were signed. Modest Mussorgsky, Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Alexander Ostrovsky, Anton Chekhov and other great men of Russian theatre brought here their works to be produced on the stage.1918 the Management was reorganized and it was decided to organize the first Theatre museum in St. Petersburg. The decree about the museum was confirmed by the People's Commissar of Enlightenment Anatoly Lunacharsky. But in fact, the Theatre Museum was founded in 1908 when in Saint-Petersburg "First Russian Theatre exhibition" was opened in the premises of Panaev Theatre. There for the first time different exhibits, later on made up the base of the present collection of the Museum, were presented to the public.basis of the museum archives was formed by the private collections of the celebrated Alexandrinsky Theatre actors Ivan Gorbunov, Maria Savina, Vladimir Davydov, and the people who were close to the Theatre - Anatoly Molchanov, Vladimir Protopopov, Levky Zheverzheyev, Sergey Svetlov, as well as the archives of the Imperial Theatres Management.first exhibition opened for the visitors on 16 May 1921. The year 1971 was marked by the creation of the museum's first branch - the N.A.Rimsky-Korsakov Museum (Zagorodny Prospekt, 28), where, in the apartment # 39, the last 15 years of the great composer's life had passed. In 1975 the F.I.Chaliapin Museum in the celebrated singer's former house (Ul.Graftio, 2b) opened. In 1985 the museum received the State Collection of Musical Instruments. In 1989 the museum was given one more building - the palace of Counts Sheremetev, the famous Fountain House, built in the 18 century. (Nab.Fontanki, 34). When the State Collection of Musical Instruments moved to the Palace, the branch became known as the Museum of Music in the Sheremetev Palace. In 1994 the other branch - the Actors Samoilov Family Museum opened in the house # 8 on Ul.Stremyannaya.first two years of the museum's existence were the period of intensive collecting. As early as in 1923 the following departments opened for the visitors: drama, ballet, opera, set modeling, set design, theatrical books, posters and placards. It was planned to open the departments of circus, cinema, foreign theatre and foreign actors in Russia. However, subsequently the museum's mission became to collect and display the materials, mainly connected with the history of Russian drama theatre. When the new musical branches (the Rimsky-Korsakov and Chaliapin Museums) opened and the museum received the State Collection of Musical Instruments, the history of music and musical theatre became an important direction of the museum's activities.museum and its branches offer various tours and lectures on the history of theatre, audio and video-concerts, meetings with outstanding actors, artists, musicians, small-scale productions, one-man shows, chamber concerts. As a cultural and educational centre, the museum receives more than 100 000 people annually.all the buildings of the museum there are halls where concerts and performances, meetings with famous actors and singers, musicians and artists, take place. The museum's aim is to connect the past and the present. The museum not only preserves the memory of the old art, but also is a hospitable house for the modern art and probably a cradle for the art of the future. Non-surprisingly, a considerable number of productions, subsequently famous, were first presented here, and many future celebrities made their debut here.

  • 30. Studies lexical material of English
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 06.06.2010

    So far we have been talking about lexical chunks as if they were a single al chunks undifferentiated category. But there are different types of chunks and different degrees of 'chunkiness'. Of the different types, the following are the most important for teaching purposes:

    1. collocations such as widely travelled; rich and famous; make do with; set the table
    2. phrasal verbs such as get up; log on; run out of; go on about
    3. idioms, catchphrases and sayings such as hell for leather; get cold feet; as old as the hills; mind your own business; takes one to know one
    4. sentence frames such as would you mind if... ?; the thing is ...; I'd... if I were you; what really gets me is ...
    5. social formulae such as see you later; have a nice day; yours sincerely
    6. discourse markers such as frankly speaking; on the other hand; I take your point; once upon a time; to cut a long story short...
  • 31. Subject: ways of expressing the sentence
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 05.05.2011

    The notion of the Subject in the grammatical theory of the English language can be presented very briefly and clearly: it is the main part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent. [8, 67]reason for calling the subject and the predicate the main parts of the sentence and distinguishing them from all the other parts which are treated as secondary, is roughly this. The subject and the predicate between them constitute the backbone of the sentence: without them the sentence would not exist at all, whereas all the other parts may or may not be there, and if they are there, they serve to define or modify either the subject, or the predicate, or each other. [10, 205]linguistic experiment to prove the correctness of this view would be to take a sentence containing the subject, a predicate, and a number of secondary parts, and to show that any of the secondary parts might be removed without the sentence being destroyed, whereas if either the subject or the predicate were removed there would be no sentence left: its backbone would be broken. This experiment would probably succeed and prove the point in a vast majority of cases.question now arises: what criteria do we practically apply when we say that a word (or, sometimes, a phrase) is the subject of a sentence? [10, 206]grammatical phenomenon of the subject in English has been examined by a number of linguists, philologists and grammatical experts both of English and foreign origin in different epochs. This notion is defined in various interpretations; still the common backbone is identified in all of them. Lets retrace this common thread, kept in all the definitions of the subject.Greenbaum in The Oxford English Grammar notes that the subject of a sentence is the constituent that normally comes before the verb in a declarative sentence and changes position with the operator in an interrogative sentence. It is applicable, the verb agrees in number and person with the subject (I am ready): the subject I is first person singular and so is am [2,305]Roberts in Understanding Grammar presents the subject as the element stressed or the new element added to the discourse end in complexities that are interesting philosophically but useless grammatically. The beginners device to find the subject is first to find the verb and then ask who? or what before it. When the subject is very specific (e.g. a proper name), we may even invert the normal word order without befuddling out listeners. [6, 405]brief definitions of the subject are presented by Richard Gardiner and Timothy Cobb in Todays English Grammar from one side, and by Geoffrey Leech in An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage from the other side.Todays English Grammar the authors state that the word indicating the person or thing referred to is called the subject of the sentence. [1, 202]Leech, in his turn, notes that the subject is a grammatical term for the past of a clause or sentence which generally goes before the verb phrase (in statements). [5, 413]philologists, such as Kaushanskaya in «Грамматика английского языка», say that the subject is the principal part of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the second principal part (the predicate) is grammatically dependent, i.e. in most cases it agrees with the subject in number and person. The subject can denote a living being, a lifeless thing or an idea. [13, 115]to I. P. Krylova in A Grammar of Present Day the subject is a word or a group of words which names the person, object or phenomenon the sentence informs us about. [14,85], we can identify the following common points:) the subject is normally a noun phrase or a clause with nominal function;) the subject occurs before the verb phrase in declarative clauses, and immediately after the operator in questions;) the subject has number and person concord, where applicable, with the verb phrase. [3, 158]

  • 32. Teaching English speaking at the beginning stage
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 22.12.2011

    in these «higher» levels of language will be attained only if the child has opportunity to hear and use language in situations where these competences (pic. 4) are authentically required.as with the mother tongue, a foreign language is acquired through a developmental process that focuses first on language use through meaningful communicative activities, combined with steps along the way that sometimes involve focus on language form with conscious self-editing and refinement of the rules of the language.is needed is a consciousness-raising of the rules, a focus on the components of the utterance so that the child can more control of their speech. This is not to advocate a return to dry grammar/parsing lessons. It is, rather, helping the child monitor the correctness and/or appropriateness of their utterances, helping them focus on accuracy as well as fluency, on social, discourse and pragmatic features of language use. But this seems far away perhaps from the initial stages of developing speaking in the foreign language. How do we start? By considering the functions of communication through a range of stress-free and fun activities and by moving on to structured opportunities for the child to explore and enjoy this new language.is infinite range of activities - the context, which the teacher, or the teacher and pupils jointly set up, will determine the activity - which will encourage learners to engage emotionally and physically in the language learning process and which will develop techniques to build up a powerful visual and auditory memory and will make them fell able to risk making mistakes. Language is associated with sound, music, movement, colour, drama and thereby impregnated with meaning. There are memory games, songs, rhymes, poems, stories which they will hear and want to adapt, make their own. There will be opportunities for dramatization which will exploit the child's sense of theatre and appreciation of audience, their awareness of register.the context of foreign language learning the class teacher can do mach to promote the above, in simple ways which are consonant with the ways the child will be learning in other areas of the primary curriculum. For example, if we consider length of utterance, the introduction of connectors (and, but, which) and modifiers (rather, enough) can be introduced at an early stage in the process during the daily routine slot where the children are talking about the weather. For example:weather is fine today.weather is fine, but it is rather cold.only does the child have the satisfaction of hearing themselves say «more», but they can also be encouraged to reflect on the change in the intonation pattern occasioned by the introduction of the connectors and modifiers. A pattern can then be established in the child's mind. Equally, there is an expectation set up in their mind that they should be willing to expand on utterances, giving opinions, agreeing, disagreeing - all features of natural conversation in the mother tongue. (3)need also to engage the child's activity in the foreign language within the parameters of their current competence but always with an eye to expecting more and celebrating more. Where breakdowns in communication occur, as they will inevitably, then the sensitive teacher allows the child to revert to the mother tongue and will translate for the child, thereby setting up a paradigm of foreign language learning which is again consonant with the ways in which the primary class teacher operates in other areas of the curriculum - namely, providing «knowledge» on a need-to know basis, personalizing the input according to the interests, needs and learning styles of each child. There is an example that is given in practical part, showing how an activity can (a) be connected to an area of the primary curriculum (Maths); (b) allow the children to move gradually from stress-free listening structured speaking to more open-ended speaking; and (c) encourage the children to develop learning strategies. Its named Shapes.

  • 33. The Experience of transnational corporations’ development in the conditions of world financial crisis
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 04.06.2011

    the debates on the influence of transnationalization, savants and experts concluded long ago that this phenomenon is not purely economic, which is limited only to the reorganization of production activities and movement of capital flows. Globalization is a process of large-scale that produces effects in several areas such as politics, finances, trade, defense system, demography, ecology. Academics consider that the world has now become "a global city.", in compared aspect, still can be viewed as migration process. Putting capital in other regions of the world, necessarily involves staff migration. Transnational corporations favors the meeting of the labor force with capital, making the movement of labor towards capital or transferring capital to areas with labor force surplus., foreign direct investment is placed in the long term and requires interaction with various groups of econo0mic agents, starting with suppliers and ending with officials. Investors need to know the consumer, labor force and raw materials markets, regulations and laws governing their activities. Informational and contractual problems can often be very hard, so legal rules remain to be the most important determinant of FDI flows in one state.history of labor migration knows more than 100 years. Since the mid-nineteenth century were observed in many migration flows from European countries to the U.S., especially during economic conjuncture overseas. The second wave of migration into the U.S. from different countries was in the years '20-50, XX century, and then followed the migration from Mexico, the Caribbean etc.consider that the first attractive center for foreign labor force has been South Africa, which since the '50s drew cheap labor force from neighboring countries. In the period 1950-1970 takes place the accelerated development of peripheral global regions industrialization, which later achieved positive results in industrial development, becoming leaders in chapter - exports. They relate to Latin America, South African, Middle East and Southeast Asia. Obtaining independence of many African countries boost this process. Active penetration of international corporations in South Africa from Europe and the U.S. in the '70s, led to increased migration of labor force in this area. During this time it began to form the international center of attracting labor force from another continent, in South America, in the composition of some of the more developed countries like Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. Simultaneously, in these countries annually comes a large workforce from some of the least developed countries and from African and Asian countries. The interest of the Middle East for the labor force is related to the development of the oil industry from the '70s. In the late '70s, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, UAE, worked over 3 million foreign workers and specialists from neighboring Arab countries, India, Pakistan and South Korea.the last decade has been formed a new regional center of attraction of labor force - South-East Asia. Starting with the '70, here takes place a process of accelerating the country's industrial development and internationalization of economic life in this giant region, influenced by massive foreign investment. An important role in these processes went to different transnational corporations from different national origin: American, Japanese, Australian, South Korean, etc.main feedback of the process of migration is the migrants remittances. They represent their financial sources, delivered in the origin countries. In 2002, migrant remittances constituted about 79 billion dollars. This amount is more than the sum of all development aid provided by the states of the world and about 40% of total FDI in developing countries.use of foreign labor force, in present, becomes an important part of normal and efficient operation of the world economy mechanism. Transnational corporations (TNCs), being the main driver of globalization, acts in a global economy that relates to global production, global capital, global market.are the best bet people can work and earn money. Leaders are cooperating in an effort to bring about real reform in a way that was unthinkable a few years ago. They deserve the worlds energetic support. Therefore, lots of host countries as can as possible try to attract in order to allocate affiliates of large transnational corporations in their countries, because of huge vacancy for the unemployment by TNCs. main reason leading companies to internationalize their assets are: achieving higher profits with low costs and of enhanced profitability. This can be achieved by exploiting opportunities offered by other countries with cheaper raw materials and human resources, by the penetration of more advantageous markets for export. Not at least, among the positive effects of capital and technology exports are repatriating their earnings as profit in the origin countries of TNCs., many scientists try to show the dependence between migration and trade. They say that determining the volume of trade without taking into account migration, it is not objective. Testing in some small economies shows that there is dependency between export and migration.practice of international labor migration has emerged as a spontaneous phenomenon but, with the development and intensification of the process, began to be regulated by the state. However, currently are not liquidated all features of this process.last decade of the XX century is characterized by the fact that importing countries and exporting countries of labor force introduce radical correction in their migration policy. As world practice shows, workers migration provides indisputable advantages to the countries: for those providing employment as for those who receive it.the control of migration processes, states have begun to introduce so-called migration rates. Labor force - importing states, taking into account the real needs and labor market situation, determine the number of labor resources to be imported.goal of migration policy of the exporting countries is that labor force migration should increase the reduction of unemployment, receipt of foreign funds from immigrant workers, i.e. remittances, which is used for balancing imports - export operations. But sometimes, there may appear acute economic and social problems. Positive consequences of labor force migration:

    • settling the problem of unemployment;
    • the emergence of additional sources of income from migrants for exporting countries;
    • obtaining the knowledge and experience by the immigrants;
    • investment income of immigrants in small business, favoring the opening of new jobs.
    • Negative consequences of immigration workers:
    • the trend of increase in consumption funds obtained abroad.
    • the tendency to hide income;
    • "brainwashing".
    • decrease the qualification of unemployed immigrants.
    • However, both for countries of origin as for TNCs host countries, in addition to the earnings of the process of globalization, there are also losses. The transfer to other countries of a part of the assets of TNCs contributes to job losses and rising unemployment in countries of origin. Moreover, labor productivity growth through technology transfer, information, innovation in firms purchased by foreign investors, brings with it an increase in unemployment in the host countries, in particular for unskilled or low skilled labor force. Host countries are frustrated that research and development operations are in countries of origin of TNCs, and technological innovations arent implemented simultaneously in the host countries.
    • Workforce in developing countries means, for industrial countries, providing some branches and infrastructure with needed workers, without which it is impossible a normal industrial process, and sometimes normal everyday life. For example, in France, migrants make up 1/2 of total employment in construction, 1/3 - in the car industry, in Belgium - half of the miners, in Switzerland - 2/5 of the construction workers.
    • As mentioned above, one of the key features of the process of globalization is the movement or free flow of capital. In addition, current global trade regime under WTO auspices provides unique possibilities for movement and reallocation off funds. Transnationalization of the world takes place differently in each country. Some countries have more foreign capital, others less. The trend that it is observed today is that where foreign capital is moving there will focus large flows of people.
    • Even if corporations come in underdeveloped countries, they dont offer great benefits to employees; on the contrary, they came just as attracted by low wages and slave pyramid style of local systems. Citizens of third world are seeking to reach the West, believing that they perform the same work more and will gain more money. Their surprise occurs when, once arrived in Europe, all companies have their production moved to countries where they originally came, now they must re-orientate or accept jobs below their qualifications.
    • Although the products are cheaper because they are performed in countries where production costs are minimal, this migration of labor force generates unemployment in developed countries and, therefore, the remaining unemployed have no money to buy products even so not cheap. Forbes magazine has published a study showing that Detroit will disappear in the next 20 years, this outsourcing and refurbishment made that unemployment in this city to be enormous, and now crime is at unimaginable odds. From a towering American city - king of the automobile production, with millions of habitants - now have left only 900 thousand people.
    • 3.1 Modern tendency of TNCs development during the crisis
    • Today there are about 82,000 TNCs worldwide, with 810,000 foreign affiliates in the world. These companies play a major and growing role in the world economy. For instance, exports by foreign affiliates of TNCs are estimated to account for about one third of total world exports of goods and services. And the number of people employed by them worldwide, which has increased about fourfold since 1982, amounted to about 77 million in 2009 - more than double the total labor force of a country like Germany.
    • The largest TNCs contribute to a significant proportion of total international production by all TNCs, both in developed and developing economies. Over the three-year period 2007-2009, on average, the 100 largest non-financial TNCs accounted for 9%, 16% and 11%, respectively, of the estimated foreign assets, sales and employment of all TNCs in the world. They also accounted for about 4% of world GDP, a share which has remained relatively stable since 2000. This section analyses the major trends and recent developments with respect to the largest TNCs, and examines the impacts of the ongoing financial and economic crisis on these firms and their international activities.
    • Over the past 15 years, the largest TNCs have undergone a steady process of internationalization. Also there has been a progressive increase in the proportion of companies operating in the services sector, and of firms based in developing countries. These largest TNCs are presently being strongly affected by the ongoing economic and financial crisis, both at company and industry levels, as evidenced by declining profits, divestments and layoffs, restructurings and some bankruptcies. According to preliminary estimates, the increase in their overall degree of internationalization seems to have slowed down markedly in 2008. However, an UNCTAD survey shows that, despite a temporary setback in their investment plans in the short term, large TNCs expect to continue to internationalize and increase their FDI expenditures in the medium term, with a growing focus on emerging markets.
    • 3.1-picture can show how the change is being expected corporations investment plans for 2009-2011 because of crisis. It can be seen that investment plans are altering.
  • 34. The lofty elevated lexicon and poetic style in the works of Samuel Johnson
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 04.11.2011

    we may see from the previous parts of the term paper the lofty\elevated lexicon and poetic style are aspects of belles-lettres style dealing with poetry, emotive prose and drama. According to results of researches we may see that belles-lettres style performs the esthetic function of influence, producing an impression on the readers. It is the functional style of speech which is used in poetry. A text written in this style influences on imagination and feelings of the reader, transfers thoughts and feelings of the author, using all the wealth of the lexicon. Analyzing Johnson`s poetry we may mark out the measures used by author to achieve this effect. The lofty\elevated lexicon provided at phonetic and lexical levels of speech. Each of this levels has own stylistic devices distinguishing it from another level. Such stylistic devices, providing lofty\elevated lexicon in the poetry, as onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, rhyming and repetition are used in phonetic level. Phonetic level is the form of representation wherein expressions, or sentences, are assigned a phonetic representation, which is then pronounced by the speaker. So using sound or syllables combination, as for example in alliteration or rhyming, author will pass his senses enclosed in verse. Personification, simile and metaphor are used in lexical level. Using this devices, we can understand one thing in terms of another. They construct an analogy between two things or ideas, the analogy is conveyed by the use of a metaphorical word in place of some other word. A stylistic device is the use of any of a variety of techniques to give an auxiliary meaning, idea, or feeling to the literal or written. Not less important role is played by poetic words and archaisms peculiar only for belles-lettres style. Such poetic word, as for example, «Alas» used only in poetic lexicon. In technical text it will be useful and even unnecessary, because it has no definite definition, but in poetry this word would be appropriate, expressing the strong filling of disappointment. So as we can see the stylistic devices, used in the verse in the right place, may express the author`s thoughts, feelings, emotions, despair or happiness and moreover, to hand them to listeners or readers and to make them feel the same. They allow to convey the sense of a poem most brightly and emotionally allowing the reader to endure all emotions enclosed in poetry.

  • 35. The main character Clyde Griffiths in Theodore Dreiser’s novel «An American Tragedy
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 01.02.2012

    was attracted to women since he was at the age of 16. He was at once girl - hungry and girl - shy. And he always thought that if he wants to get the prettiest girls, he has to look handsome and rich.first love was a pretty girl named Hortense Briggs, who works in a Kansas City store. When he meets her for the first time, he already notices that «…she was not a little coarse and vulgar - a very long way removed from the type of girl he had been imagining in his dreams that he would like to have». When he asks her out, she pretends to have dates with other fellows. Nevertheless, she agrees to see him on occasion, accepting little gifts from him even though she does not care about him.for Hortense, she doesnt really care about Clyde. However, she tolerates him for the gifts he gives her and the compliments he bestows on her.really wanted to give her as much as he can, and he starts to neglect his familys needs, particularly his faithful mother and sister Esta, the latter having been seduced, impregnated and left by a faithless lover. Hortense's manipulative, materialistic behaviour is partly perceived by Clyde, despite all his attempts at denial, and it causes him considerable pain throughout the relationship, which in the end is never consummated.after his friends and he had killed a girl by driving a car, he ran away from Kansas City and moved to Lycurgus, New York. He had already forgotten about Hortense, and had started to work in his uncles factory. In Lycurgus the name Griffiths gave Clyde a certain cachet, but his patrons regarded him as poor relation, a poor embarrassment, and virtually ignored him. But he got new friend and got known with two girls who had been from his background. They were as poor as he was. Clyde communicated with them only because no one else did it. So he met Zella and Rita. Clyde was interested in the fact that the girls were pretty and out of clear sky and in the face of his loneliness. But after some period of time he thought that those girls were too available if not exactly dangerous and so far as his future was concerned. Even in spite of the way he liked Rita, he put an end to his relations with her and any relations with all current friends, because his uncle noticed him and invited him to his house for dinner with his family.the dinner he meets Sondra Finchley «…as smart and vain and sweet a girl as Clyde had ever laid his eyes upon - so different to any he had ever known and so superior. To Clydes eyes she was the most adorable feminine thing he had seen in all his days».the days following dinner, Clyde yearns to become part of the world of the Griffiths. Clyde is to take charge of the stamping department, where about 25 young women prepare directions for how collars are to be finished. Clyde is ecstatic.Miss Finchley out of reach-at least temporarily-he begins seeing another attractive woman, Roberta Alden, a farmer's daughter who works in his department at the factory. Clyde's factory girlfriend believes in life and love. Like Clyde, she desires a better life and better marriage prospects, but she has no grand illusions about marrying into wealth and luxury. She believes in the efficacy of her efforts and in the value of continuing her education. Morality is important to her, but the passion overwhelms her. Gilbert Griffiths had forbidden Clyde to mingle socially with any of the factory girls, but Clyde and Roberta meet secretly and eventually become intimate. All goes well, and Clyde - in answer to her prodding - vows never to leave her.he encounters Sondra Finchley again. It is evening, and he is out walking when a limousine pulls up with her in the back seat. She has mistaken Clyde for Gilbert and offers him a ride. After realizing her mistake, she does not mind at all, for she finds Clyde more likable than Gilbert. Clyde sees Sondra Finchley, lying to Roberta that he is called upon by his uncle to do some work. He doesnt want to see Roberta; Clyde is too fascinated by Sondra. «So much for the effect of the wealth, beauty, the peculiar social state to which he most aspired, on a temperament that was as fluid and unstable as water» After inviting him to various social events, she is quite taken with him and falls in love with him - and he with her and her social status., of course, forgets all about Roberta - almost. Rather than breaking off with her all at once, he goes out with her occasionally in order to cut his ties with her gradually. But a twist of fate takes him by surprise: She is pregnant. The news devastates Clyde, for he and Sondra had become very close.persuading Roberta to abort the child, Clyde travels to Schenectady, N.Y., where know no one knows him, and buys a box of pills from an unscrupulous clerk. Somewhat relieved, he returns and gives them to Roberta.he checks on Roberta in the following days, she tells him the pills are not working. He takes Roberta to Gloversville, where a certain physician is said to administer abortions. However, despite Roberta's pleadings, he refuses to abort the child. Roberta is now set on having the baby and makes Clyde promise to marry her. It appears he has no way out - until he sees a newspaper headline which tells about accidental double tragedy at Pass Lake.thought of committing murder horrifies him at first. But the more he thinks about killing Roberta, the more he convinces himself that he has no alternative. If she has the baby, he is disgraced, ruined. Marrying Sondra would be out of the question. One day, he goes off with her to a resort area in upper New York State. Roberta thinks they are eloping. After they arrive, he takes her out in a boat, on Lake Bittern, to do the deed. It won't be difficult, for Roberta cannot swim.they set off from shore, he takes along his camera under the pretence that he plans to snap pictures of her. He is unable to act, unable to go through with his plan. As he sits there, it is if he is in a trance. Concerned, Roberta asks why he looks so strange, and then leans over to him to take his hand. Angry with himself for his failure to proceed, angry with Roberta for her power over him, he reacts to her movement toward him, throwing out at her with the camera in his hand. He does not mean to harm her; he wants only to prevent her from holding his hand. But the camera strikes her in the face, throwing her back. The boat rocks and she falls in. Clyde lets her drown.did not even feel reproach of his conscience he was only afraid that he could be arrested. He fled the scene of Robertas death, but circumstantial evidence, including letter to Clyde from Roberta and Sondra, led to his arrest for first - degree murder. Sondra left town, and her identity was never publicly revealed.had lost both girls whom he had loved.'s women - Hortense, Sondra, Roberta, Rita, and many others - are nothing more than pleasure seekers.

  • 36. The peculiarities in texts of business documents
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 05.07.2011

    One of the most striking features of Business English is a wide use of verbals. There is common knowledge that verbals are widely used in social English, but they are often used in business and commercial correspondence as well. The usage of verbals, however, is very specific and presents certain difficulties.of the most frequently used verbals in business letters is the infinitive. It may use as an adjunct to verbs, nouns and adjectives. Accordingly, infinitive constructions are subdivided into infinitives as verb adjuncts, infinitives as noun adjuncts and infinitives as adjective adjuncts. The most interesting and important for the research is the first group, so we have focused on it.are six types of patterns in which the infinitive is to be regarded as a verb adjunct:

    • an adjunct to an active verb;
    • an adjunct to a passive verb;
    • a complex adjunct to an active verb;
    • a prepositional complex adjunct to an active verb;
    • a wh - infinitive adjunct;
    • an adjunct to a verb in a sentence with a function of the subject.
    • The groups of the infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb, the infinitive as an adjunct to a passive verb and the infinitive as a complex adjunct to an active verb are used in commercial correspondence and in contracts in particular situations. The last three types of the infinitive are rarely used in business correspondence or might be used just occasionally.
    • The infinitive as an adjunct to an active verb always follows a head-verb. In business correspondence it is lexically dependent and commonly found after the following verbs: to agree, to appear, to arrange, to continue, to decide, to expect, to fail, to hesitate, to hope, to intend, to like, to manage, to need, to offer, to omit, to plan, to prefer, to prepare, to propose, to regret, to secure, to try, to want, to wish.
    • e.g. They have arranged to produce the equipment.
    • We won't fail to provide full particulars as soon as possible.
    • In the case the suppliers want to have any additional information you should contact us immediately.
    • Generally in contracts and agreements the infinitive adjunct to an active verb is a simple infinitive. Sometimes, however, it may be followed by the perfect infinitive, indicating an action which precedes that one of the predicate verb. As for the continuous infinitive in this function the analysis of contracts has proved that it is hardly ever used.
    • It should also be noted that in commercial correspondence the subject of the infinitive adjunct is a person (e.g. we, they) or a thing denoted by the subject of the sentence (e.g. our firm).
    • e.g. We look forward to your early reply.
    • The Suppliers inform the Buyers that there had been a fire.
    • The infinitive in business correspondence may also serve as an adjunct to a passive verb. In this case it always follows its head-verb and is lexically restricted. The infinitive in this function follows the following verbs: to consider, to expect, to instruct, to prepare, to repute, to require.
    • e.g. The goods are considered to be in conformity with the certificate.
    • The delivery date is understood to be the date on which the Suppliers apply to the Buyers' Shipping Agents.
    • The use of the infinitive adjunct to a passive verb is stylistically restricted. It frequently occurs in newspapers, scientific prose and business correspondence, but it is not characteristic of literary style, and in social English it is not common at all.
    • The infinitive may serve as an adjunct to an active verb followed by a noun or a pronoun which stands to the infinitive in the relation of a subject. The combination is lexically restricted, because in business correspondence it may be found only after the definite verbs from the following list: to advise, to allow, to ask, to enable, to expert, to help, to prefer, to urge, to want, to wish.
    • e.g. We would advise you to take an all-rich insurance policy.
    • If the period of guarantee has not expired we will ask you to replace the machine by another one.
    • We agree to accept this shipment on condition that you…
    • The complex infinitive adjunct to an active verb is not restricted stylistically and is in extensive use in scientific and fiction literature and also in commercial and business correspondence.
    • The Indefinite Infinitive occurs in contracts in the function of the predicate, expressing obligation and a future action.
    • e.g. Delivery to commence in six to eight months and to be completed in twelve to sixteen months (to commence - will commence).
    • Date of shipment to be determined by date of Bill of Lading (to be determined = will be determined).
    • It is allowed only in texts of contracts and other business documents.
    • Each contract also has constructions with participles.
    • e.g. The letter of credit is to be valid for 90 days, all bank charges being at the expense of the Buyers.
    • Here is a construction with Participle I where it refers to the noun in the General Case, which goes before the participle. It is not common in speech, but it occurs in contracts.
    • Constructions with the Perfect Participle, however, are rare in contracts and show an action prior to another one expressed by the predicate.
    • e.g. We have included in our claim only the cost of material and labor, all other expenses connected with the repair not having been taken into consideration.
    • Some participles which have no explanatory words in contracts can either precede or follow a noun. Mostly they are constructions with Participle II:
    • e.g. the required specification vs. specification required; the enclosed letter vs. the letter enclosed.
    • The Past Participle Passive always follows a noun if it has explanatory words.
    • e.g. a telegram received from London;
    • the cheque attached to the letter.
    • If a participle shows only an action which is made upon the subject, it follows a noun.
    • e.g. The sellers are to inform us of the quantity of the goods loaded.
    • Buyers are to accept or pay for the quantity shipped.
    • The participle showing the quality, if there is one, precedes the noun:
    • e.g. within six weeks of the stipulated time of shipment;
    • illustrated catalogue; damaged goods.
    • 2.3 Lexical peculiarities of contract
    • From the lexicological point of view business papers are of great interest. Their lexicon is rather stable. As a rule, words have their only exact meaning. There are no words which are emotionally coloured. As a result of it, we can point out the words, which are present practically in every contract. For example,
    • «whereas» expresses every man's idea of how a contract begins. Whereas means that the parties have been engaged in a series of transactions resulting in a dispute over accounting between them.
    • e.g. The surplus is to be paid for by the Buyers, whereas short weight is to be refunded by the Sellers.
    • One more compound word with the adverb where is whereby, which means by which and refers to the present contract.
    • e.g. We have concluded the present contract whereby it is agreed as follows…
    • The usage of compound words with adverbs here / there and prepositions is also typical of written formal style of English. Their meaning is made up from meaning of their components. There is no principal difference, though, between meanings of here- / there - compounds.
    • e.g. If shipment of the whole or part is thereby rendered impossible… (thereby = by it; by that means; in that connection)
    • We are sending you herewith statement of your account (herewith - with it / that)
    • All expenses connected therewith being born by… (therewith - with it)
    • The examination of the goods and objection thereto… (thereto = to it)
    • Subject to General Conditions on Sale endorsed hereon… (hereon = on this document)
    • The goods to be shipped as soon thereafter as suitable tonnage obtainable. (thereafter = from that time)
    • The Sellers shall not be responsible for any damage resulting to the Buyers therefrom, (therefrom = from it / them)
    • Hereinafter is a very useful word, doing the job of the six, referred to later in a document. Hereinafter frequently sets up abbreviated names for the contracting parties.
    • e.g. D & R Electrical, Ltd. hereinafter the Buyer.
    • The aforesaid is a cliche which is more preferable in texts of contracts instead of its less formal equivalents: the above-mentioned, the above-written, as was written / said before, and the like.
    • e.g. The aforesaid documents should contain references…
    • It is understood and agreed. On one hand it usually adds nothing, because every clause in the contract is figurally understood and agreed. On the other hand, it adds an implication that the other clauses are not backed up by this phrase. By including one you exclude the other.
    • e.g. The prices in this contract are understood and agreed upon.
    • Including without limitation. Usually people want to specify things underscored in contracts, and this phrase indulges the prediction.
    • e.g. You may assign any and all your rights including without limitation your exclusive British and Commonwealth Rights.
    • To tell the truth, it is a useful phrase because people are always forgetting or neglecting to mention that a great many interests may be involved in what appears to be a simple dialogue. A is controlled by investors, and В - by a foreign parent company. That's why it will be useful to say in such a situation as between us…
    • e.g. We confirm the exchange of telexes as between us follows…
    • Solely on condition that - it's one of a few phrases that can be considered better than its short counterparts. One might ask: «Why not use just if instead of the phrase?» If - by itself, opens a possibility to open contingencies.
    • e.g. If Smith delivers 2000 barrels I will buy them.
    • But it is unclear if you will buy them only from Smith. Therefore, we can use only if as a synonym. Sometimes it works out, but not always. In this case more than an elaborated phrase is justified.
    • e.g. I will buy 2000 barrels solely on condition that Smith delivers them.
    • The phrase makes the conditions of the deal clear.
    • e.g. We can accept the goods solely on condition that you grant us allowance of…per…
    • In contracts there are other prepositional phrases made up from words. They are complex, and one must be attentive using them. The prepositions also provided are the following: on conditions that; on the understanding, etc.
    • e.g. We agree to this only on the understanding that the rate of freight does not exceed.
    • e.g. Claims against the quality of vehicles may be submitted on conditions that the defects are found within 40 days.
    • Such prepositional phrases are practically equal in meaning.
    • Subject to - a few contracts do without this phrase. Many promises can be made good only if certain things occur. The right procedure is to spell out these plausible impediments to the degree that you can reasonably foresee them.
    • e.g. Our agreement is subject to the laws of Connecticut.
    • e.g. The wood goods hereinafter specified subject to a variation in Sellers' option of 20 percent…
    • But there is another meaning of the prepositional phrase. It may express some condition.
    • e.g. We offer you, subject to your acceptance by cable, 1000 tons of ore.
    • Exclusive - it's important in contracts. English is vast and its usage creates difficulties in many cases. Exclusivity as a term means that somebody is bored from dealing with another one in a specified area.
    • In the lexicon of contracts there are many foreign words, first of all, Latin ones, such as pro rata and pari passu. Pro rata proves helpful when payments are to be in proportion refuting prior formulas in a contract.
    • e.g. Demurrage is to be paid per day and pro rata for any part of the running day.
    • Pari passu is used when several people are paid at the same level or time out of a common fund.
    • e.g. Fractions to be considered pari passu.
    • Still there are such words as inferior / superior, they are often used to describe the quality of goods.
    • e.g. The quality of Model B-50 is superior to that of Model B-45.
    • Complaints and claims may arise in connection with inferior quality of the goods, late delivery or non-delivery of goods.
    • A Latin word is not often used in contracts nowadays. Now it means an arbitrary court for a concrete trial. Such Latin words as ultima, proxima are now archaic and rarely used.
    • e.g. If the excess is discovered only on arrival of the goods at their ultima destination in the U.K.
    • On the contrary, such a Latin adjective as extra, which means additional, keeps being widely used in official English, and is quite common for the colloquial style.
    • e.g. In order to obtain delivery we have had to incur extra expenses for which we hold you responsible.
    • e.g. No extra payment is to be effected for any excess weight.
    • The most widespread French words are force majeure, which is an essential clause of almost any contract and serves to describe some unpredictable events that may happen to goods while being delivered or other reasons, and amicably, which means friendly.
    • e.g. Very often the parties amicably agree upon a settlement of the claim in question.
    • e.g. The Sellers and the Buyers shall take all measures to settle amicably any disputes.
    • So, in contracts a person can come across a definite number of words and word combinations which make up lexical peculiarities of the texts. They all are rather bookish and belong to formal style of written English, not being used in informal English and rarely used in spoken formal English.
    • In Chapter 2 the stylistic, grammatical, lexical peculiarities of contract and business correspondence have been analyzed. On the basis of our analysis we can conclude that language of contracts and business correspondence is not always easy to obtain due to their complicated syntactic constructions, specific terms and abbreviations. Linguistic peculiarities of business correspondence and contracts are similar because both of them belong to the formal style of English which is characterized by the conventionality of expressions, combining several ideas within one sentence, the encoded character of the language, absence of emotiveness. All that revealed in texts of contracts and business correspondence through their vocabulary, grammar and style.
    • 3. The translation of official documents
    • 3.1 Problems of adequate translation of official business papers
    • Equivalence is almost full and identical preservation of source text information including the stylistic peculiarities. Equivalent translation is rather relative notion. Its level and specific character change depending on the way of translation and genre of target text. Equivalence of requirements to the translation of scientific, business and, for example, literal texts can also be different. Types of texts determine approach to the translation, choice of translational method and equivalence degrees of target text. Aims and tasks of translator vary when he / she translates poem or novel, scientific article or newspaper information, document or technical instruction.
    • The great number of state, politic, commercial, legal and other documents belongs to official business texts. Their main function is message. They are fully directed on rendering information. Their form in most of cases is typical: addressing, beginning of the text, succession of exposition, finalizing of document, and amount of cliches, in all languages obey strict rules of rhetoric. In target language the structure of source text remains, but cliches may vary at inner form coinciding with content. In European languages culture the standardization of documents is very high. Thus, while translating official business texts into Ukrainian it is not always possible to find equivalent of rhetorical stamps that is why word-for-word translation is sometimes used. This translation is used in diplomatic documents where each word is of great importance. Inappropriate word can cause misinterpretation and even diplomatic conflict.
    • The most widespread language of international business communication is English. But even between English and Americans could appear some linguistic misunderstandings. Such divergences had been accumulated for centuries during the process of English language development in two different historical and cultural surroundings. Thus, the same terms can have different semantic meaning and v.v. different terms can have the same meaning. There were cases when contracting parties were having conversation (with a help of interpreter) and did not suspect that they spoke about different things. It can be explained by low qualification of interpreter or by polysemantic terminology which seems at first identical. For example, term 'industry' in English and French has different meaning: in English it includes agriculture but not in French. Among the most typical examples of polysemy of identical terminology or identity of terms different in meaning is legal terminology. For example, to name the institution in Great Britain and USA different terms can be used. British people use term 'company' while Americans use term 'corporation' though they mean the same thing. Linguistic barrier is also called ethno-linguistic because it is rather ethnic than linguistic. It is based on the difference of cultures, national psychology, other ethnic peculiarities, etc. While drawing up international contracts ethno-linguistic barrier gets new characteristics - of legal context. That is why reaching and confirmation of the agreement between parties depend on their understanding of contract's articles formulated by specific terminology which was developed by the influence of culture and law. Translator has to brake this ethno-linguistic barrier. The main function of the translator is to provide bilingual communication, which has almost the same possibilities as monolingual communication. It can be reached due to right technology of translation used by translator.
    • Any translation has to maintain content, functions, stylistic and communicative value of the source text. While translating official business papers it is not enough just to make right translation in a whole. Translation is to render the information including all details and even the meaning of separate words. It also must be authentic to source text.
    • The problem of translation equivalence is closely connected with the stylistic aspect of translation - one cannot reach the required level of equivalence if the stylistic peculiarities of the source text are neglected. Full translation adequacy includes as an obligatory component the adequacy of style, i. e. the right choice of stylistic means and devices of the target language to substitute for those observed in the source text. This means that in translation one is to find proper stylistic variations of the original meaning rather than only meaning itself.
    • The expression of stylistic peculiarities of the source text in translation is necessary to fully convey the communication intent of the source text. Stylistic peculiarities are rendered in translation by proper choice of the target language translation equivalents with required stylistic coloring. This choice will depend both on the functional style of the source text and the individual style of the source text author.
    • While translating the text a translator first of all must distinguish neutral, bookish and colloquial words and word combinations, translating them by relevant units of the target language. It is sometimes hard to determine the correct stylistic variety of a translation equivalent, then - as in almost all instances of translation - final decision is taken on the basis of context, situation and background information.
    • Style is expressed in proper combination of words rather than only in stylistic coloring of the individual words. Thus, any good translation should be fulfilled with due regard of the stylistic peculiarities of the source text and this applies to all text types rather than only to fiction.
    • It is well known that adequacy and accuracy of international contract translation, its legal terminology help to avoid disputes. In comparison with other documents translation of contract is at the same time easiest and hardest one. This translation is one of the easiest because texts of contract are well structurized, they have strictly formulated standard articles. However, it is one of the hardest because origin and realization of legal systems are revealed in it. Quality of translation is characterized by adequacy. There are some cases when translation seems to be adequate from the linguistic point of view but it is inadequate according to professional language of translation. One should take into account contextual variety of lexeme meanings, which must be translated because in certain case it can have special meaning.
    • Text of contract includes great number of special legal, economical, commercial terminology. One should avoid verbiage, repetition, archaic language, long sentences, inaccuracy of formulation, disparity (between articles of contract), usage of subjunctive mood. Translation of documents is rather complicated process. There are no subjective standards as for the quality of legal translation, but its main criterion is absence of problems and negative consequences caused by translation. Why is it so difficult to translate text of document? First of all each word has not only initial meaning but also some peculiarities which were formed as the result of its development in certain context.
    • Polysemantic words of one language and also words similar by their form are spread in other languages. Secondly, legal language is considered to be separate even inside one language. Words and phrases of this language can have special meaning which has been formulated for centuries. Thirdly, every language has a lot of words of same origin (for example Latin) that are interpreted by legal lexicon of different languages. For example word 'contract': thing that is called contract in French law is not contract in American law. Fourthly, there are different variants of one language. English encloses legal languages of Great Britain, USA, Australia, Canada and other countries. They all can vary syntactically, lexically and semantically. Fifthly, every language has its grammar peculiarities. That is why translator has to interpret text of document. But the question is whether text of contract should be translated or interpreted. Practice shows that legal texts should be translated. According to general rule, texts of polylingual contracts must be identical in content and form as though drawn up in one language. It is to be reached by the translation of source text into target language in that way to correspond to source text.
    • While comparing original texts and their translations three main principles of quality of this effect are distinguished: structure, content and potential of influence. Source and translated texts must be equal in their ability to evoke same reactions of their addressees.
    • Doing translation it is necessary to maintain structure of source text of contract. While rendering structure and syntax of one language into structure and syntax of another language one should decide whether to keep textual form strictly and have a risk of inadequate linguistic standard of translation or to use more free translation which might undermine legal accuracy. To solve this problem it is necessary to analyze legal terms to avoid word-for-word translation that not always explains the meaning of term. It should be noted that trying to choose words identical in form with terms in other language you are making mistake because terms can have different legal meaning. It is also recommended not to make free interpretation of text and to use moderate level of transformation. Identical and adequate translation is the main task and characteristics of ethno-linguistic barrier overcoming. Difficulty of this task while drawing up contract is that parties think and speak different languages, they also use special language, i.e. technical, economical, legal terminology semantic meaning of which can diverge in different languages. Thus, in structure of ethno-linguistic barrier there is special level - conceptual barrier. In texts of international contracts it concerns first of all legal terminology. Very often in legal system of one language there are no institutions, concepts and corresponding terms which would transmit corresponding terminology of another party's legal system adequately. If there is no identical term in one language which explains meaning of foreign term it is recommended to use one of three ways to cope with this situation: 1. Borrowing; 2. Explanation; 3. New term formation.
    • Nowadays this method becomes more and more popular in Ukrainian contracting practice, where English terms are widely used, e.g. default, transaction. But it should be mentioned that one must be careful with foreign words usage in business communication and writing. If foreign words can be replaced by corresponding Ukrainian, then their usage is not appropriate. However, if foreign terms passed into active vocabulary of international communication they can be used in certain business papers. These are financial lexics and legal terminology.
    • The explanation used with translation of terms is inexpedient. For example, terms which name doctrines expressed in idioms 'clean hands' - чисті рук; чесність, бездоганність поведінки; 'rules against perpetuties' - правила проти вічних розпоряджень; доктрина недійсності угод, які встановлюють речові права з терміном виникнення більш ніж через 21 рік після смерті особи чи осіб названих в /, and so on. Term can be explained directly in text instead of original term, as a notice to corresponding part of text where term is used, or separately in that part of text where other terms are explained. There are cases when foreign term can be transliterated or explained, or both transliterated and explained. Sometimes foreign terms, though transliterated and due to it acquire original conception of term, have Ukrainian correspondence. It depends on context what method to choose. For example, term 'abandonment' can have meaning відмова, at the same time in insurance sphere it is transliterated - авансування. Such situation concerns a lot of foreign terms, e.g. 'accept' - 1. прийняття, 2. акцепт, 3. акцептування; 'endorsement' - 1. схвалення, підтвердження, 2. індосамент; 'freight' - 1. вантаж; 2. фрахт.
    • New term formation is rarely used, only when contracting parties agreed on the meaning of certain terms and there is a need in new terms.
    • 3.2 Application of Cross-Cultural Communicative Theory to business translation
    • Before signing a contract or any other important document, business partners begin communication which can be written or oral. If we are talking about forms of written communication first of all we mean business letters which can be considered as the initial part of business relationships. Oral communication includes telephone calls and of course negotiations. Nowadays almost all negotiations with foreign business partners are performed in English and the signing or non signing of contract depend on it. That is why business correspondence and negotiations should be carried out in appropriate and correct language. We have already described the most important peculiarities of business English, but we also would like to raise very important and interesting problem of business doing - the cultural aspect.
    • Those involved in business translation, testify that their linguistic challenges are: special terminology, cliched lexics and its formal register. Still certain linguistic dexterity may not prove efficient under field conditions when besides
    • language problems the translator in business faces quite newly appreciated challenge - cultural or psychological one.
    • The necessity to keep certain 'appearances' and observe conventionalities in international business communication has been acknowledged since the times when success of a company's extension started to be judged by the number of its foreign affiliations or partners.
    • Intensification of international contacts yielded, besides obviously positive results, multiple failures at negotiations, absence of foreign trainees' motivation, and even open conflicts among partners, especially between those belonging to different cultures (Asian and Western, Western and Slavic). Minute feedback analysis of the situations suggests that whereas business matters were handled perfectly, national, ethnic, psychological or cultural factors were completely neglected.
    • This was an impetus for methodologists and linguists to start developing a separate branch of the communication theory - Cross-Cultural Communication Studies. That encompasses ethnic culture and psychology, sociology, and a lot of other adjacent spheres. According to W. Gudykunst, W.G. Stephan, B. Blake and many other researchers of cultural diversity in business context, communication cannot be successful unless ethno-psychological identity of its participants is recognized.
    • W. Gudykunst identified the cultures according to the following criteria: 1) individualism-collectivism, 2) low-high context communication, 3) uncertainty avoidance, 4) power distance. These features greatly influence linguistic and extra-linguistic manner of the translators.
    • In individualistic cultures people are supposed to look after themselves and their immediate family only, while in collectivistic cultures, people belong to in-groups of collectivities which are supposed to look after them on exchange for loyalty. The example of the first culture is presented by United States, whereas Japan is an illustration of the second. This factor is to be taken into consideration in negotiations planning, since a Japanese will never be able to take a decision which may lie beyond the interests of his corporation, and will never speak on his own behalf, whereas the individual achievements of an American may stipulate his risky decisions and possibility to take it independently. At linguistic level it stipulates the use of particular grammar structures - Active versus Passive, I / we pronouns, etc.
    • Communication that predominates in the cultures makes the second important criterion of cultural diversity. A high-context communication, inherent in most Asian cultures, is one in which the most information is implemented either in extra-linguistic situation of communication or is shared by the communicants, while very little is coded. A low-context communication takes place in terms of explicit code, like in Germany or the United States. This may cause the necessity to make certain aspects in business communication, e.g. price negotiations, more explicit for the Americans and less direct for the Japanese or the Chinese through the use / avoidance of certain direct grammar constructions and vocabulary.
    • Cultures with high uncertainty avoidance have a lower tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity, which expresses itself in higher levels of anxiety and energy release, greater need for formal rules and absolute truth, and less tolerance for people in groups with deviant ideas or behavior. It was empirically confirmed that in organizations, workers in high uncertainty avoidance cultures prefer a specialist career and clear instructions, avoid conflict, and disapprove of competition between employees more than workers in low uncertainty avoidance cultures, e.g. Denmark versus Japan. It does not only stipulate the pattern of behavior with businessmen representing these cultures but also the linguistic strategy in translation, e.g. presence or absence of mitigation markers.
    • Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power as distributed unequally. Individuals from high power distance cultures accept power as part of the society. Superiors there consider their subordinates to be different from themselves (Arab cultures). Low power distance cultures believe that power should be used only when it is legitimate and prefer expert or legitimate power (Western cultures). This stands for observation of subordination in the groups of businessmen, which is, for example, strict in Philippines and optional in the Netherlands. This directly influences the use of the certain vocabulary register depending on the level of communication (horizontal, with peers, or vertical, with subordinates or superiors) and the tone (type of modality, from orders to mild advice or suggestion).
    • The application of Cross-Cultural Communicative Theory to the business translation looks rather significant since it crucially changes the very concept of the translator's role in business communication. Supplied by the cultural knowledge, translator does not simply find equivalents of the ideas in different languages. His strategy is to maintain rapport between cultures by finding the forms of mutually accepted manner of communication, which raises his role to the global level.
    • The development of business correspondence in Ukrainian, need of official documents translation from English into Ukrainian and vice versa after proclaiming Ukrainian language to be state on the territory of Ukraine, give special significance to the language of business communication and especially to English as it is language of international communication. Business correspondence obeys certain rules of exposition and arranging of the information. Business letters have common and national specific characteristics. In all language cultures formation of official style was presupposed by the development of State system, government apparatus and by the need to confirm legal relationships of juridical and private persons by documents. The world practice shows that despite all the peculiarities of national systems of business correspondence the main requirements to the structure, fullness of content and arrangement are stable because they had been forming historically and were determined by the peculiarities of business communication.
    • National specific character in business letters is performed at communicative level because peculiarities of historical development in this sphere in every nation caused the formation of specific communicational phrases and stylistic constructions. That is why while comparing standards of official style of Ukrainian and of business correspondence in particular with the existing standards of English business correspondence one can distinguish ethno-linguistic characteristics of Ukrainian and English business correspondence which should be taken into account in translation. Ukrainian business correspondence is characterized by the functionality (the so-called 'telegraph style'), restraint and rationality, absence of emotional coloring, estrangement of exposition that expressed through rationality and strictness of linguistic forms and patterns. In comparison with Ukrainian style, style of English business letters is characterized by more independent choice of words and syntactic constructions, by the intention of author to show his personal interest and willingness for close partnership with addressee, by hierarchy of polite addresses depending on the level of formal relationships between communicants.
    • 3.3 Grammatical aspect of translation of official documents
    • The way of translation of official business documents is opposite of literary translation where concerns the freedom of translator's actions and choices. Literary translation is more art than craft which is accounted by the nature of literary texts. Translation of a literary text is unique and cannot be standardized and obeys almost no rules.
    • The task of an interpreter translating official documents is to find target language equivalents of the source text frames and use them in translation as standard substitutes, filling the slots with frame fillers in compliance with the document content.
    • Translation of legal, economic, diplomatic and official business papers requires not only sufficient knowledge of terms, phrases and expressions, but also depends on the clear comprehension of the structure of a sentence, some specific grammar and syntactical patterns, which characterize the style.
    • Here are some English constructions which can cause special difficulties while translating.
    • Depending on the function the Infinitive plays in the sentence it can be translated in the following ways:
    • 1. As an adverbial modifier of purpose the Infinitive can express an independent idea that adds some new information about its subject; the adverb «only» is omitted in translation, e.g. The president announced his resignation after the failure of his drive to push through the merger of the two countries last summer.
    • Президент повідомив про свою відставку після того, як влітку минулого року його кампанія за об'єднання двох країн зазнала невдачі.
    • 2.After adjectives «the last, the only» and ordinal numerals the Infinitive is translated as the predicate of an attributive subordinate clause, its tense form is determined by the context.
    • e.g. He was the first high official to be admitted to the inner council of government, to the cabinet.
    • Він був першим високопоставленим службовцем, якого було допущено до закритих нарад з питань державного управління і навіть до засідань кабінету.
    • «if + noun + be + infinitive» can be translated as «для того щоб».
    • e.g. In any event, members of the association should be prepared to put aside partisan interests if consensus on the abovementioned principles is to be achieved.
    • У будь-якому випадку, щоб дійти згоди щодо зазначених принципів, члени асоціації повинні облишити свої партійні інтереси.
    • 3.The Complex Object with the Infinitive is translated as an object subordinate clause,
    • e.g. Both experiments revealed the rated dimensions to be highly interrelated.
    • Обидва експерименти показали, що розрахункові параметри дуже тісно пов'язані між собою.
    • 4.The Complex Subject with passive forms of the verbs «think, expect, show, see, find, argue, know, mean, consider, regard, report, believe, hold, suppose, note, claim, admit, interpret, etc.» is translated as a complex sentence with an object subordinate clause.
    • e.g. Still they can hardly be said to have come to the agreement.
    • І все ж навряд чи можна стверджувати, що вони дійшли згоди.
    • 5.The Complex Subject with active forms of the verbs «happen, appear, see, prove, turn out, be likely, be certain, etc.» is translated in two possible ways:
    • - the English finite form is transformed into a Ukrainian parenthesis and the English Infinitive into a Ukrainian predicate.
    • e.g. So, there appear to be two choices. Отже, виявляється, вибір існує;
    • - the English finite form transformed into Ukrainian main clause («малоймовірно», « мені здається», etc.) and the English Infinitive into Ukrainian predicate in an object subordinate clause.
    • e.g. Neither proposal is likely to work.
    • Малоймовірно, щоб якась з цих пропозицій виявилась слушною. If the English predicate has an object «by somebody» such predicate-object clusters are translated as a parenthesis «на думку» «за даними».
    • Depending on the function of the Gerund in the sentence it can be translated as:
    • - A noun.
    • e.g. Banking on a loss of nerve within the board of trustees may turn out to be misguided.
    • Розрахунок на те, що члени ради опікунів втратять витримку, може виявитися невірним.
    • - An infinitive.
    • e.g. Under the pressure of national campaign, he showed a positive gift for saying the wrong things in the wrong words at the wrong time.
    • В умовах напруженої кампанії, що проводиться в країні, він виявляв безумовний дар говорити не те, що треба, не так, як треба, і не тоді, коли треба.
    • - A participle.
    • e.g. In Washington there is quite satisfaction that the French by joining the float have indirectly acknowledged that the U.S. was right all along.
    • У Вашингтоні висловлюють задоволення з приводу того, що Франція, приєднавшись до країн з плаваючим курсом валюти, хоча і непрямо, але ж визнала, що США були повністю праві.
    • The Perfect Gerund denotes an action which is prior to the action expressed by finite form of the verb.
    • e.g. After having been colonies for a long time, many Asian and African countries have now become independent states.
    • Багато країн Азії та Африки, що протягом тривалого часу були колоніями, перетворилися па незалежні.
    • Very often constructions with participles are used in official documents. Participle I can be translated as:
    • an attributive clause;
    • an adverbial clause;
    • a separate sentence.
  • 37. The Profile of Effective Manager
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 24.07.2006

    We should ask our self the question: Are there people who have more managerial skills than others, because they are able to learn from their experience what they need to know to manage effectively. Livingstone S (1971) found three characteristics of men who learned to manage effectively.

    • Need to manage: to be able to manage effectively, you should have a strong desire and satisfaction to influence the performance of others. Many of those who aspires high- level positions are driven by the expectations of high salaries or high status, but are not motivated to get effective results through others. Those managers dont learn how to develop an effective managerial career, because there is a lack of willingness to manage. They are not able to devote enough time and energy to find a suitable way to manage. So the need to manage is a crucial factor in determining whether a person will learn and apply in practice what is necessary to get effective results on the job. For example, managers who are outstanding individual performers, but with a lack to motivate others or to delegate tasks to subordinates, rarely advance far up the organizational hierarchy because they will be blocked by low performances of a large number of subordinates.
    • Need for power: Since managers are primarily concerned with directing and influencing subordinates, they should be characterized by a high need for power. We could refer to the above chapter about leadership and power.
    • Capacity for empathy: The capacity for empathy is ”the ability to cope with the emotional reactions that inevitably occur when people work together in an organization” (Livingstone S. 1971). Managers who are perfectly capable to learn from their job experience, or who are able to apply management techniques successfully, often fail because their affinity with others is entirely intellectual or cognitive. They are emotionally blind. They are not capable to deal with the emotional reactions that are crucial in gaining the willing cooperation of subordinates. It is very difficult to teach people how to cope with human emotions.
  • 38. The socialist workers party 1951-1979
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 29.06.2010

    ІS hаd by nоw cеаsеd tо bе а prоpаgаndа grоup. But thіs dіd nоt mеаn thаt prоpаgаndа hаd cеаsеd tо bе іmpоrtаnt. Оn thе cоntrаry, іt wаs thе cоntіnuаl flоw оf prоpаgаndа mаtеrіаl thаt wаs cеntrаl tо іts grоwіng іnfluеncе. Fundаmеntаl tо thіs wаs thе buіldіng оf Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr. Thе pаpеr hаd chаngеd іts nаmе frоm Lаbоur Wоrkеr tо cоnfіrm thе brеаk wіth еntry wоrk іn thе Lаbоur Pаrty. Іn Sеptеmbеr 1968 thе pаpеr wаs lаunchеd аs а wееkly. Іt hаd fоur pаgеs, cоst twо (оld) pеncе, аnd lооkеd sоmеwhаt scruffy. Іt wаs sоld mаіnly by studеnts оutsіdе thе gаtеs оf fаctоrіеs аnd оn cоuncіl еstаtеs. Slоwly thе pаpеr wаs іmprоvеd; іt grеw tо sіx pаgеs іn 1969, еіght іn 1970, twеlvе іn 1971 аnd sіxtееn іn 1972. Thе cіrculаtіоn rоsе frоm undеr tеn thоusаnd іn і 1968 tо оvеr thіrty thоusаnd sоmе fіvе yеаrs lаtеr. But іt wаs nоt sіmply thе sаlе оf thе pаpеr оr іts jоurnаlіstіc quаlіty thаt mаttеrеd; іt wаs іts pоlіtіcаl rоlе. Іt wаs Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr whіch gаvе thе pоlіtіcаl cоhеrеncе tо аn оrgаnіsаtіоn whоsе mеmbеrs wеrе іnvоlvеd іn strugglеs thаt dіffеrеd wіdеly frоm оnе frоm аnоthеr. Іt wаs Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr thаt prоvіdеd thе mаіn lіnе оf cоmmunіcаtіоn bеtwееn thе cеntrе аnd thе mеmbеrshіp аnd pеrіphеry. Іt wаs Sоcіаlіst Wоrkеr thаt prоvіdеd thе pоlіtіcаl bаsіs fоr thе mеmbеrshіp, thе pоlіtіcаl lіnе thаt еvеry mеmbеr hаd tо dеfеnd tо thоsе hе sоld tо.

  • 39. The use of communicative approaches in teaching English in elementary school
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 02.01.2012

    language activities stir a class. In a positive sense stir means that activities wake them up, stimulate them. In a negative sense, it may be that the activity over-excite them or allow them to become unconstructively restless. There are other activities, which have the opposite effect. They seem to settle the children. To put it positively, that means they will calm a class down. The negative side of this is to say that some activities will bore the class into inertia.we know the effect of activities like this, we can plan lesson, which neither stay stuck in dullness nor get out of hand in excitement. So it is useful to make your own list from experience of your particular class or classes. For example, most teachers find copying quietens children like magic. So does colouring. Competitions, on the other hand make children excited and noisy.way of looking at it is in terms of the different effects of different language skills. Oral work always seems to stir. Listening usually settles. You can equally well apply the same stir/settle distinction to any typical and regular teaching. For example, you perhaps have a routine oral exchange of several sentences with which you regularly begin a lesson. Ask yourself whether it basically stir or settles. There may be occasions when it is not an appropriate start.will help to think of any classroom event in this way. What happens when you hand out books? If the answer in your experience is stir then there will be occasions when you quite deliberately choose to delay the event until you have settled the classroom down. In order to have the freedom to adapt, we need to know the effect of what we do. So you count make up a chart, which reflects your experience.

  • 40. The use of the linguacultural texts in teaching undergraduate degrees
    Дипломы Иностранные языки добавлен 15.10.2011

    What a text is? What do we mean by text? We can define text, in the simplest way perhaps, by saying that it is language that is functional. By functional, we simply mean language that is doing some job in some context, as opposed to isolated words or sentences that I might put on the blackboard. (These might also be functional, of course, if I was using them as linguistic examples.) So any instance of living language that is playing some part in a context of situation, we shall call a text. It may be either spoken or written, or indeed in any other medium of expression that we like to think of.important thing about the nature of a text is that, although when we write it down it looks as though it is made of words and sentences, it is really made of meanings. Of course, the meanings have to be expressed, or coded, in words and structures, just as these in turn have to be expressed over again - recoded, if you like - in sounds or in written symbols. It has to be coded in something in order to be communicated; but as a thing in itself, a text is essentially a semantic unit. It is not something that can be defined as being just another kind of sentence, only bigger., we cannot simply treat a theory of text as an extension of grammatical theory, and set up formal systems for deciding what a text is. It is by no means easy to move from the formal definition of a sentence to the interpretation of particular sentences of living language; and this problem is considerably greater in the case of the text. Because of its nature as a semantic entity, a text, more than other linguistic units, has to be considered from two perspectives at once, both as a product and as a process. We need to see the text as product and the text as process and to keep both these aspects in focus. The text is a product in the sense that it is an output, something that can be recorded and studied, having a certain construction that can be represented in systematic terms. It is a process in the sense of a continuous process of semantic choice, a movement through the network of meaning potential, with each set of choices constituting the environment for a further set.of culture. Much of the work of learning a foreign language consists in learning to make the right predictions. If the student coming into school with a first language other than English finds difficulty in using English to learn with, this is likely to be in part because he has not yet learnt to expect in English - to use the context in this predictive way. Tcontext of situation, however, is only the immediate environment. There is also a broader background against which the text has to be interpreted: its CONTEXT OF CULTURE. Any actual context of situation, the particular configuration of field, tenor, and mode that has brought a text into being, is not just a random jumble of features but a totality - a package, so to speak, of things that typically go together in the culture. People do these things on these occasions and attach these meanings and values to them; this is what a culture is.school itself provides a good example of what in modern jargon could be called an interface between the context of situation and the context of culture. For any text in school - teacher talk in the classroom, pupils notes or essay, passage from a textbook - there is always a context of situation: the lesson, with its concept of what is to be achieved; the relationship of teacher to pupil, or textbook writer to reader; the mode of question-and-answer, expository writing, and so on. But these in turn are instances of, and derive their meaning from, the school as an institution in the culture: the concept of education, and of educational knowledge as distinct from commonsense knowledge; the notion of the curriculum and of school subjects; the complex role structures of teaching staff, school principals, consultants, inspectorate, departments of education, and the like; and the unspoken assumptions about learning and the place of language within it.these factors constitute the context of culture, and they determine, collectively, the way the text is interpreted in its context of situation. It is as well to know what we are assuming, as teachers, when we stand up in front of a class and talk, or when we set pupils a task like writing a report or an essay, or when we evaluate their performance in that task.have not offered, here, a separate linguistic model of the context of culture; no such thing yet exists, although there are useful ideas around. But in describing the context of situation, it is helpful to build in some indication of the cultural background, and the assumptions that have to be made if the text is to be interpreted - or produced - in the way the teacher (or the system) intends.lesson in culture. This paper argues for a new interpretation of culture which potentially challenges traditional views of culture common in discussions of foreign and second language learning. It also proposes ways to restructure curriculum around this new interpretation. Three different perspectives on culture are developed: first, culture creates differences and tension, both of which propel learning; second, culture is not a fact but a process of learning; third, culture can be used in a monolingual/monocultural and multilingual/multicultural setting. The theoretical perspective explained here is grounded on the premise that knowledge, or meaning generation, is constructed as the result of a transaction between an individuals conception of the world (individual culture) and the world outside the individual (social culture). From this standpoint, culture resides in, rather than being separate from, each individual. This progressive theory of culture allows us to restructure the curriculum in ways that highlight learner participation, the importance of social transaction, and the role of tension in promoting learning. After an explanation of this alternative interpretation of culture, suggestions for creating a classroom environment consistent with that interpretation are explored.paper potentially challenges the ways in which traditionally existing perspectives view culture and its relationship to language learning. In what follows, the traditional views on the role of culture in foreign or second language learning and teaching will be discussed, and contrasted to a new interpretation of culture. Finally, the creation of an environment that supports learning, and which involves the introduction of classroom activities, will be suggested.is often neglected in EFL and ESL teaching/learning, or introduced as no more than a supplementary diversion to language instruction. Yet changes in linguistic and learning theory suggest that culture should be highlighted as an important element in language classrooms. Efforts linking culture and language learning are impelled by ideas originating in sociolinguistic theory and schema learning theory. Sociolinguistic theory focuses on the social and cultural aspects of language. From a sociolinguistic perspective, competence in language use determined not only by the ability to use language with grammatical accuracy, but also to use language appropriate to particular contexts. Thus, successful language learning requires language users to know the culture that underlies language.to both EFL and reading instruction is the premise that deficiencies in cultural background knowledge create learning difficulties. It follows that understanding the culture of the text is essential to successful language learning; without the appropriate cultural schema to aid understanding, what is learnt must necessarily be incomplete.new interpretation of culture. A new interpretation of culture, which focuses on culture as a process of learning rather than an external knowledge to be acquired incidental to the facts of language, reconceptualizes our view toward culture in EFL. This reconceptualization helps us to reposition the role of culture in learning. Sociolinguistics, schema learning, and cultivation theories all focus on cultural knowledge as an essential component for gaining competence in learning second and foreign language., that triggers learning is not culture but the process of meaning generation, and the differences and tensions that come from encountering various cultures. As valuable as sociolinguistics, schema, and cultivation theories are for pushing us into more effective ways of conceiving language learning, if we examine Peircian semiotics (1992), then these theories present several problems.(1868) wrote that no cognition not determined by a previous cognition , then, can be known. In other words, we must use our inner, pre-existing cognition to make sense of the outer world, to detect and expand meaning. That inner text is formed through our multiple experiences with the world. As a result, each individual has his or her own uniqueness, and carries his or her own culture. Second, any meaning-making is a transaction between our own inner world and the external world (environment). Meaning is generated as a result of transactions between our conception of the world and our confrontation with that world. In other words, all knowledge is a dynamic construction orchestrated by language users. As an example, think of the differing concepts held by Americans of the words Michael Jordan, conceptions developed from previous experiences as consumers of news, television, or other entertainment media. When an American sees the words Michael Jordan on a bulletin board, one may recall a Chicago Bulls basketball game that he or she has watched, that brings to mind the grace in movement of a particular play, while another may recall some sporting shoes they purchased and which may be needing repair. Yet the bulletin board may refer to a wholly different context, such as an attack on the athlete for endorsing Nike shoes. In this way, any meaning we construct is a transaction between our own perspectives - developed from our past experiences in the world - and the reality of that present world.can infer from this meaning-making process an interpretation of culture. Every new perspective on culture is the transaction between each individuals culture (developed from a personal history of the world) and social culture (composed of the histories of others). An individual culture (IC) refers to each individuals conception, which becomes a culture in itself. The world outside the individual - other people and their environments - becomes the social culture. (SC). When we apply these terms to the language classroom, SC will include not only people in the immediate society of the language learners, but also those who live in the target language culture (TC) - the culture of the second or foreign language being learned. Any knowledge or meaning that we generate is the result of transactions between IC and SC. As a consequence of the interaction between them, a new perspective on culture is developed through a process that is always incomplete, and continuously evolving. The triad relationship among these terms, which draws on Peirces theory, is illustrated in Figure 2.