Курсовой проект по предмету Иностранные языки

  • 1. "Буквализм" и "вольность" как основная переводческая оппозиция
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 10.10.2010

    Начало монолога «To be or not to be» переводится как «Быть или не быть» у М. Вронченко и «Жить или не жить» у П. Каншина. Все последующие изменения выделены в текстах оригинала и переводов подчёркиванием. Скорее всего, П. Каншин выбрал такой перевод просто потому, что ему хотелось выделиться из «толпы» многочисленных переводчиков монолога, показав свою изобретательность с помощью такого интересного варианта перевода. Ведь в действительности Гамлет в оригинале не рассуждал о жизни и смерти, он просто рассуждал и пытался найти подсказку, что делать дальше, действовать или не действовать. Фраза «The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune» переводится буквально как «удары и стрелы жестокой фортуны». М. Вронченко перевёл это так: «удары стрел враждующей фортуны», в то время как у П. Каншина это «злобные удары обидчицы-судьбы». Во втором переводе эпитеты усиливают стилистический эффект, чего нет у Шекспира. То есть опять второй автор перевёл всё по-своему. 4-я строка монолога Гамлета следующая: «Or to take arms against a sea of troubles», то есть Гамлет колеблется в выборе, одной из альтернатив является восстание против бесчисленных бед. М.П. Вронченко так и пишет: «Или восстать противу моря бедствий», в то время как П.А. Каншин ещё не определился со словом, не знает, что лучше: «вооружиться против моря бед» или «восстать», поэтому в своём переводе он употребляет оба сказуемых, что создаёт некую перегруженность текста. Далее Гамлет противопоставляет два состояния: смерть и сон и в этом случае для него ближе сон, и он выбирает эту альтернативу: «To die, to sleep To sleep!». Пример буквального перевода «Умереть уснуть. Уснуть». То есть М.П. Вронченко выполнил буквальный перевод, лишь несколько смягчив сильные эмоции, выраженные восклицательным знаком. Противопоставление и выбор, сделанный героем, сохраняются. Вольный перевод проще: «Умереть, уснуть». Простое перечисление действий не отражает трудный выбор Гамлета в оригинале, что делает этот перевод довольно вольным. В строке «When we have shuffled off this mortal coil» присутствуют слова, которые невозможно перевести без контекста метафоры: mortal «мертвый», coil «узел». Это предложение может быть переведено как «когда мы стряхнем этот смертельный узел». М. Вронченко даёт следующий эквивалент: «Когда мятежную мы свергнем бренность», у П. Каншина «когда мы уже сбросили с себя все земные тревоги». Первый перевод ближе к оригиналу, он в полной мере воссоздаёт метафору Шекспира. В конце монолога, когда Гамлет обращается к нимфе, с тем чтобы она в своих молитвах помянула его грехи, мы читаем такую заключительную строку:

  • 2. "Ложные друзья" переводчика
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 27.01.2011

    «Ложные друзья переводчика», констатирует В.В. Акуленко [Акуленко: 14], вводят в заблуждение не только начинающих переводчиков, но и опытных мастеров. В действительности, как отмечают многие исследователи этой лексической категории, «ложные друзья переводчика» способны вводить в заблуждение не только людей, начинающих изучение языка и плохо владеющих им. Также опасно это языковое явление и для лиц, уверенно и практически удовлетворительно пользующихся иностранным языком, и даже иногда для специалистов-филологов (в том числе лексикографов, переводчиков-профессионалов, преподавателей). Так возникают многочисленные заблуждения, которые направляют переводчика в семантические кальки и случаи нарушений лексической сочетаемости или стилистического согласования не только в процессах пользования иностранной речью, но и при переводах на родной язык. Смысловая структура высказывания кажется переводчику вполне очевидной, но на самом деле оно может иметь совсем иное содержание. Обнаруживается, что английское высказывание специально направляет переводчика в ложном направлении. Возьмём простую английскую поговорку: It is a long lane that has no turning. Казалось бы, на русский язык она переводится дословно: «Это длинная дорога, которая никуда не сворачивает». Но этот простой перевод оказывается «ложным другом». Англичанин таким странным для русского переводчика образом выражает совсем другую мысль: «Дорога, которая нигде не сворачивает, была бы такой длинной, что и существовать не может». Аналогичным образом направляет переводчика по ложному пути и другая английская поговорка: It is a good horse that never stumbles. На первый раз взгляд, перевод элементарен: «Это хороший конь, который никогда не споткнётся». На самом деле смысл здесь таков: конь, который никогда не спотыкается, должен быть таким хорошим, что подобных коней вообще не бывает. При этом нельзя считать, что любые ошибки этого рода свидетельствуют о недостаточном владении чужим языком или о небрежности говорящего. Как признаётся в современной теоретической лингвистике, владение вторым языком в большинстве случаев не бывает вполне безукоризненным, а равно свободное абсолютно правильное параллельное использование двух языков является лишь теоретически допустимой абстракцией. Отсюда следует, что подавляющее большинство людей, знающих языки, может в различной степени допускать ошибки в словоупотреблении и переводе. И именно потребности практики перевода обуславливают исследования данного явления. Особенно это актуально для устного перевода, при котором очень важным навыком профессионального переводчика является навык переключения с одного языка на другой. Одной из закономерностей функционирования этого навыка является то, что навык переключения отдаёт предпочтение формально-знаковым связям. Имеются в виду прямые связи между эквивалентами двух языков при переводе без идентификации денотата (ситуации). Эта закономерность приводит к парадоксальному выводу, что смысловой анализ, который необходим для избегания ошибок в явлении «ложных друзей переводчика», становится фактором, тормозящим функционирование навыка переключения. В этом заключается одно из противоречий деятельности устного переводчика. Отказ в целом ряде случаев от денотативных связей (смысловой анализ) повышает эффективность функционирования навыка переключения, но игнорирование денотата приводит к таким ошибкам, как буквализмы.

  • 3. Abelard on Universals
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 09.12.2008

    It was the claim of extreme nominalists that the names were just sounds, that we could call one and the same thing quite opposite names, and it would not change anything in its essence. It very well can be so, but in the naming things we also do something to ourselves, to our understanding of the physical nature of the things. Is there really man or woman, masterpiece, junk, good guy, bad guy, traitor, falsifier, guilty, innocent? Or all those words are just “utterances”? Is there some reality behind the word mother, or John can be your mother if the court rules so? Abelard understood that there is some medium between things and names which is not the name and not the thing it signifies, and still to keep the language meaningful we must use certain words which point to that medium in order to form meaningful concepts in our minds. Without this physics would not be possible as well as any science and language itself. That is because of that medium it is possible to translate from one language to another. Without this there would be no dictionaries, and to understand Greek or Latin would be impossible. If you call a nominalist a genius, he will be pleased, and if you call him a fool he will likely to get offended. But why, if it is true what he is teaching? Words do signify something about physical world! The words we use to describe physical objects are symbols of meaningful concepts which we form about those things in our minds. They are mental in nature, but they necessarily belong to those particulars. For Abelard this was easy to see and demonstrate. But what about the names which do not point to particulars? There were three questions, which Peter Abelard and Porphyry before him asked: (1) whether genera and species subsist or are placed only in understanding; (2) if they subsist, whether they are corporeal or incorporeal; (3) whether they are separated from sensibles or are placed in sensibles. Also there was the forth question added by Abelard, whether genera and species must refer to something or whether, if their normal referents are destroyed, these universals could consist of mere meaning of the concept.

  • 4. Adjective
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 22.01.2008

    Thus, the less/least-combinations, similar to the more/most-combinations, constitute specific forms of comparison, which may be called forms of "reverse comparison". The two types of forms cannot be syntagmatically combined in one and the same form of the word, which shows the unity of the category of comparison. The whole category includes not three, but five different forms, making up the two series respectively, direct and reverse. Of these, the reverse series of comparison (the reverse superiority degrees) is of far lesser importance than the direct one, which evidently can be explained by semantic reasons. As a matter of fact, it is more natural to follow the direct model of comparison based on the principle of addition of qualitative quantities than on the reverse model of comparison based on the principle of subtraction of qualitative quantities, since subtraction in general is a far more abstract process of mental activity than addition. And, probably, exactly for the same reason the reverse comparatives and superlatives are rivalled in speech by the corresponding negative syntactic constructions.

  • 5. Adjectives
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 22.01.2008

    The subject of our investigation was adjectives. What we have learnt about adjectives is that most English adjectives have comparative and superlative forms. These are generally constructed in one of two ways: either by suffixes (big, bigger, biggest) or by the use of the grammatical particles more and most. We have investigatedthat some adjectives have suppletive forms in their comparison, such as good, better, best. Comparative and superlative forms apply only to the base form of the adjective, so that duplicate forms like most biggest or worser are nonstandard (although lesser is sometimes permitted as a variant of less). A few adjectives have no comparative but a superlative with -most: uppermost, westernmost, etc. Also it has its own degrees, such as comparison, etc. Those such as male, female, extant and extinct which express "absolute" qualities do not admit comparisons: one animal cannot be more extinct than another. Similarly in a planktonic organism the adjective planktonic simply means plankton-type; there are no degrees or grades of planktonic. Other cases are more debatable. Grammatical prescriptivists frequently object to phrases such as more perfect on the grounds that something either is perfect or it is not. However, many speakers of English accept the phrase as meaning more nearly perfect. An adjective that causes particular controversy in this respect is unique. The formulations more unique and most unique are guaranteed to raise the hackles of purists. Which English adjectives are compared by -er/-est and which by more/most is a complex matter of English idiom. Generally, shorter adjectives (including most monosyllabic adjectives), Anglo-Saxon words, and shorter, fully domesticated French words (e.g. noble) use the suffixes -er/-est. Adjectives with two syllables vary. Some take either form, and the situation determines the usage. For example, one will see commoner and more common, depending on which sounds better in the context. Two-syllable adjectives that end in the sound [i], most often spelled with y, generally take -er/-est, e.g., pretty: prettier: prettiest. It was pleasant to investigate adjectives and we think that it is not the end of its investigation. We will continue this theme on our diploma work. Thank you for spending time on reading our course work!

  • 6. Allusion as discourse symbol
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 11.07.2012

    Any research can not be stated in proper way without pointing out the main functions of the subject under consideration. So now we should pay attention to different functions of allusion and especially to its stylistic functions.we have already mentioned allusion is a technique used in literature in which a literary work references another work of literature, work of art, historical figure, place, or event. In general, this passing reference is not explained by the writer, so only readers who are familiar with the source of allusion tend to understand or notice it. The wide use of allusions is caused by many reasons. In some special cases, allusion is used because it already communicated what the author wants to say better than he could have himself. More often, though, the writer uses allusions because of the many emotions or ideas that readers may associate with the text to which the writer alludes.in many cases, allusion serves a more specific purpose than simply tapping into a body of associations. Sometimes a reference to another work is given in a context that is drastically opposed to the original meaning. This technique is often used to refute the meaning of the original and to assert a new meaning. [20] Other case of the use of allusion in poetic texts actually reference several different sources simultaneously to create new associations and to make the reader to evaluate one or more sources of allusions.implies presence of the contextual elements which function consists in indication on the relation between the given text and other texts or reference to the certain historical, cultural and biographic facts.function of allusion consists in the help for the author to depict his attitude towards the world by comparison of two (or several) realities or text systems.scholars suggested diverse approaches to differentiation of functions of allusion. Let us firstly innumerate these functions and then proceed to their analysis. So stylistic functions of allusion in the poetic text are the following:of the idea of the textof the subtextformationof the pragmatic structureof time categoryformationincreasevalueon the authors subtextlet us proceed to the brief analysis of above mentioned functions.their work scientists Dashtamirova and Serdukova stated the function of allusion that they called the expression of the idea of the text [4, pp.4-54]. Later other scholars continued their work where they stated the position of allusion as the expression of the authors intention in the text. The main idea of the text may be hidden in the allusive process, so as we have already studied from the work of scientist Mashkova, using this function of allusion the author is expecting for the prepared reader [9, p.28].next function called the creation of the subtext was studied by various scientists such as Kashkimbaeva [5, pp. 28-33], Mamaeva [10, p.20], Serdukova [4], Fedosiuk. They stated allusion to be the means of creation of associative subtext which is possible by realization of intertextual references. In her work Kashkinbaeva points out that the sense of allusion is in the interrelation between situational usage of speech means in the context created by the allusion and the new context where the reader can find authors attitude to these means. [5, p.33] In Mamaevas work we can also find the examination of this function of allusion. She explains [10, p.20] that allusion is not way different well known facts but just the hint for understanding of the subtext.Diadechko [6, pp.117-123] mentioned the style forming function of allusion. He examined this function analyzing the above mentioned type of allusions called reminiscence and their use and influence in poetic text.as the means of irony was also studied by different scholars (Dzhilkibaev, Kashkimbaeva [5, pp.28-33], Homleshko [2, p.6]). Homleshko states allusion to be one of the major stylistic devices used for creating irony (together with oxymoron, zeugma, hyperbole [2, p.24].)function of allusion was examined by major Russian linguists such as Davydova [3, pp.141-150], Mamaeva [10], Polubychenko, Tukharelli [13, pp.110-116]. Davydova points out that allusion is often used for the explanation of thematic problems raised in the text. At the same time the author is expecting again for the readers background knowledge [3, p.145].main partisan of regarding allusion as the microcomponent of the pragmatic structure was researcher Dashtamirova. This approach became the topic of her major works [4, pp.4-54]. She stated that the pragmatic power of the text as one of the sides of pragmatic influence of the language is based on the special choice of stylistic devices one of which is the allusion.also examined allusion as the realization of time category [6, pp.117-123]. According to him allusion can be one of major stylistic devices dealing with this function.states that allusion (so as the phraseology) can provide the economy of expression [6, p. 118]. This function was also studied by Evseev [7] and Kashkimbaeva [5, p.28-33].about such type of allusion as the citation various scholars (Davydova [3, pp.145-150], Diadechko [6, pp.117-120], Tukharelli [12]) mtention its structure forming function. According to Belozerova allusions can depict the structure of characters and events in the poetic text [1].increase function of allusion was firstly mentioned by Tukharelli [14, p.163]. He points out that active interrelation between texts content (and their stylistic peculiarities) and the authors mind depicts one of the major intertextual principles which consists in the following phenomenon - the appeal to them creates productive semantic fluctuation - leads to sense increase and sense transformation. Other scholars such as Dashtamirova [4] and Evseev [7, p.10] also paid attention to this function. Examining their works we can come to a conclusion that allusion lead to sense increase not only because allusion markers create the relation with the source text but also because in the sense of the new text the source text is also transformed. This transformation changes the semiotic structure of the new text [18]. So we can treat the allusive process as a kind of exclusive circle.value as a function of allusion was studied by Polubychenko and Fedosiuk [15]. It is ease to understand that allusions (as other stylistic devices) increase the poetic value of the text.of the most important functions of allusion in the poetic text is the indication on the authors subtext. Linguist Dzhilkibaev [5, pp.28-33] and later his colleague scolar Tsyrenova [17, pp.115-161] mentioned this major function in their research. According to Tsyrenova allusion is one of the means of realization of intertextuality [17, p.155] which, in tern, often becomes the basis for the authors subtext.function of allusion helps authors to provide the reader with the special features of any character. It is can be often examined while allusion is used in dialogues. Such scientists of Dashtamirova [4, pp.48-50], Dzhilkibaev [5, pp.28-33], Diadechko [6, p.118] and Polubychenko also pointed out the interrelation between characterological function and the influence of allusion on the intertextuality in poetic texts. Linguist Davydova states that allusion can be used as the contextual synonym of any character [3, p.147].function of allusion studied by Serdiukova and Dzhilkibaev [5, p.30] consists in symbolic meaning of events and characters referred to in allusive process.examining the theoretical points according the allusion phenomenon, major approaches to its classification and the most important functions of allusion we should proceed to more profound analysis the use of allusion in poetic texts.

  • 7. American Revolution and War for Independence
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 24.07.2006

    Spurred by Patrick Henry, the Virginia Assembly passed a set of resolutions denouncing taxation without representation as a threat to colonial liberties. A few days later, the Massachusetts House invited all the colonies to appoint delegates to a Congress in New York to consider the Stamp Act menace. This Congress, held in October 1765, was the first inter-colonial meeting ever summoned on American initiative. Twenty-seven men from nine colonies seized the opportunity to mobilize colonial opinion against parliamentary interference in American affairs. After much debate, the Congress adopted a set of resolutions asserting that "no taxes ever have been or can be constitutionally imposed on them, but by their respective legislatures" and that the Stamp Act had a "manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists."

  • 8. Ancient and modern pronunciations
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 13.12.2010

    Why is proper pronunciation important? Because without correct pronunciation- no matter how vast the students vocabulary may be, no matter how well the student understands and uses grammatical rules, no matter what their level of reading or writing skills may be- if they don't use correct pronunciation it may be very difficult for listeners to understand what they say. And that is a huge hindrance to communication. In addition, some research indicates that if a student can not pronounce a word correctly, they may not be able to hear it when spoken by another person either, which furthers hinders communication. The students can then repeat the correct version or tell you what the difference between the two sentences was and why their version was wrong. Because the students dont do much of the work in this way of being corrected, it might not be as good a way of remembering the correction as methods where you give more subtle clues. Its advantages are that it is quick and suits cultures, classes and students that think of elicitation as shirking by the teacher. It can also be more face-saving than asking them for self-correction, as trying to correct themselves risks making even more mistakes. The “right version” could mean the whole sentence or just the correction of the part that was wrong. In the latter case, you can then ask them to put it into the sentence in the right place and repeat the whole thing.

  • 9. British slang and its classification
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 15.02.2010

    According to the British lexicographer, Eric Partridge (1894-1979), people use slang for any of at least 17 reasons:

    1. In sheer high spirits, by the young in heart as well as by the young in years; 'just for the fun of the thing'; in playfulness or waggishness.
    2. As an exercise either in wit and ingenuity or in humour. (The motive behind this is usually self-display or snobbishness, emulation or responsiveness, delight in virtuosity).
    3. To be 'different', to be novel.
    4. To be picturesque (either positively or - as in the wish to avoid insipidity - negatively).
    5. To be unmistakably arresting, even startling.
    6. To escape from clichés, or to be brief and concise. (Actuated by impatience with existing terms.)
    7. To enrich the language. (This deliberateness is rare save among the well-educated, Cockneys forming the most notable exception; it is literary rather than spontaneous.)
    8. To lend an air of solidity, concreteness, to the abstract; of earthiness to the idealistic; of immediacy and appositeness to the remote. (In the cultured the effort is usually premeditated, while in the uncultured it is almost always unconscious when it is not rather subconscious.)
    9. To lesson the sting of, or on the other hand to give additional point to, a refusal, a rejection, a recantation;
    10. To reduce, perhaps also to disperse, the solemnity, the pomposity, the excessive seriousness of a conversation (or of a piece of writing);
    11. To soften the tragedy, to lighten or to 'prettify' the inevitability of death or madness, or to mask the ugliness or the pity of profound turpitude (e.g. treachery, ingratitude); and/or thus to enable the speaker or his auditor or both to endure, to 'carry on'.
    12. To speak or write down to an inferior, or to amuse a superior public; or merely to be on a colloquial level with either one's audience or one's subject matter.
    13. For ease of social intercourse. (Not to be confused or merged with the preceding.)
    14. To induce either friendliness or intimacy of a deep or a durable kind.
    15. To show that one belongs to a certain school, trade, or profession, artistic or intellectual set, or social class; in brief, to be 'in the swim' or to establish contact.
    16. Hence, to show or prove that someone is not 'in the swim'.
    17. To be secret - not understood by those around one. (Children, students, lovers, members of political secret societies, and criminals in or out of prison, innocent persons in prison, are the chief exponents.)
  • 10. Changes and specimens of the English language
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 16.02.2010

    This simplicity, so characteristic of our modern English, as well as of the Saxon tongue, its proper parent, is attended with advantages that go far to compensate for all that is consequently lost in euphony, or in the liberty of transposition. Our formation of the moods and tenses, by means of a few separate auxiliaries, all monosyllabic, and mostly without inflection, is not only simple and easy, but beautiful, chaste, and strong. In my opinion, our grammarians have shown far more affection for the obsolete or obsolescent terminations en, eth, est, and edst, than they really deserve. Till the beginning of the sixteenth century, en was used to mark the plural number of verbs, as, they sayen for they say; after which, it appears to have been dropped. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, s or es began to dispute with th or eth the right of forming the third person singular of verbs; and, as the Bible and other grave books used only the latter, a clear distinction obtained, between the solemn and the familiar style, which distinction is well known at this day. Thus we have, He runs, walks, rides, reaches, &c., for the one; and, He runneth, walketh, rideth, reacheth, &c., for the other. About the same time, or perhaps earlier, the use of the second person singular began to be avoided in polite conversation, by the substitution of the plural verb and pronoun; and, when used in poetry, it was often contracted, so as to prevent any syllabic increase. In old books, all verbs and participles that were intended to be contracted in pronunciation, were contracted also, in some way, by the writer: as, "call'd, carry'd, sacrific'd;" "fly'st, ascrib'st, cryd'st;" "tost, curst, blest, finisht;" and others innumerable. All these, and such as are like them, we now pronounce in the same way, but usually write differently; as, called,carried, sacrificed; fliest, ascribest, criettst; tossed, cursed, blessed, finished. Most of these topics will be further noticed in the Grammar.

  • 11. Classification and comparative analysis of English negative affixes
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 06.03.2011

    But it is known that some words can acquire several negative affixes and new words can seem semantically similar to language learners. It is a rude mistake to misuse the affixes. So on this stage of analysis appears a question, why some words are attached with a certain negative affix and others are attached with others. And it is also very important to find out how not to mix up some affixes with very similar meanings. The Longman dictionary contains an article comparing prefixes un-, in- and non-, which look very much alike at the first sight. “The difference between them is the degree to which they suggest the idea of the opposite rather than negative. Non- is usually just negative (for example, nonalcoholic drinks contain no alcohol), but un- is often used to suggest an opposite quality. Compare: He is applied for a nonscientific job (=not connected with science) in the Civil Service. | It was very unscientific (=showing too little attention to scientific principles) not to measure your results. Of the three prefixes (un-, in-, non-), in- tends most often to suggest opposite qualities. Compare: their inhuman (=very cruel) treatment of political prisoners | The archeologists discovered both human and non-human bones”. This explanation is a great help for language learners and also for the practical purposes of our work. [6]

  • 12. Cultural and linguistic features of the use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English and Ukrainian
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 29.05.2012

    The private-scientific study of any object or subject of reality cannot be limited to their own units and categories, especially in the case of such a complex phenomenon as language. The comparison of languages reveals defects as monistic view of human nature, as a special human gift, which is the language [10, 21]. The comparison of language is an emergence in various spiritual and mental worlds of different nations, i.e. access to the substance of the highest order which is essentially multidimensional and unknowable to the end. According to O.S. Kubryakova the term concept is like an umbrella, he covers subject spheres of several research styles: first of all cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics which concerned about thinking and learning, storage and processing of information [9, 90]. Cognitive linguistics together with cognitive psychology are designed to answer the questions about how the human mind is organized and how language reveals the mental space, how other people and nations see the world and how these differences are expressed in their language and communication [11, 41]. The entire human cognitive activity can be regarded as having developed the ability to navigate the world and is associated with the need to distinguish objects. Thus, the formation of concepts related to the comprehension of the world and forming ideas about it.the end of XX century linguists have realized that a native speaker is a carrier of certain relevant conceptual systems. Each concept associations are important to human knowledge about the world and yet rejected unnecessary idea. The system concept creates the picture of the world showing the understanding of human reality, its special concept picture on which a person thinks about the world [11, 41].should be noted that the concepts are the result of two tendencies: the desire to display dialectical world, that is to reflect the world as it is, and the desire to construct the world in order to subordinate his will and desire of a man, that is to introduce the world easier, more rigid and deterministic to the extent that is necessary and sufficient for a person to solve practical problems.semantic space of a particular language consists of concepts and we can talk about the structure of knowledge under it. Cognitive linguistics are not guided by linguistic elements and units that are specific in origin, they appear as the guides of any information and fully or partly manifested in the language. To indicate these units used the term concepts.to the fact that modern scientific thought does not make ​​ a single definition of the phenomenon of concept we present different approaches to its interpretation. Typically, researchers offer different definitions of the concept. Thus, scientists working in the mainstream cultural studies (S.G. Vorkachev, V.I. Karasik etc.) consider that the concept is the main fact of ethnic and cultural conditionality in determining while other representatives of cognitive linguistics (O.S. Kubryakova, Z. Popova , I.A. Sternin etc.) emphasize, first of all, the mental essence of the concept and its belongings to the sphere of consciousness of the individual.to the literary dictionary: The concept (Latin Concipere - to form) is formulation, mental image, the general idea, the notion that dominates by the work of art or literary article[4, 373].encyclopedic dictionary treats concept as the phenomenon of the same order as the meaning of the word, but seen in another system connections like the value in the system of language, like the term in the system of logical relations and forms that are studied both in linguistics and in logic [12, 384].Encyclopedic Dictionary of Philosophy concept is treated as one of the logical forms of thinking in the opposite judgment and opinion, which consist of concepts. There is a distinction between the concepts that we use in everyday life and logical ones. It is noted that in the thinking of people or individuals concepts are formed not by perception and integration inherent in the group of subjects, the same signs, and because of initially perceived and done over again the concept of substantial properties of things [18, 354].lot of works are published on various issues of conceptology today including interpretation of the term concept. The definition of the concept we relied on the work corresponding to our understanding of the concept. Thus, S. Askoldov, one of the founders of the doctrine of the concept, defines it as mental formation that replaces us in the process of thinking uncategorized plurality of items of the same kind [1, 269]. Conceived in his opinion, the concept is not always a substitute for real objects it can replace some of the real object or action, such as the concept of justice and, in general, replace all sorts of highly accurate and only thinking function [2, 270].determining the types of concepts (cognitive and artistic) S. Askoldov, on the one hand, emphasized their unity (concepts of cognitive character only seemingly quite far from poetry. In fact, they feed their underground roots by irrational values and uncategorized element of poetic words and techniques [2, 268]) and on the other hand differentiated them as: [2, 274 - 275]

  • 13. Cтарославянский язык
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 09.02.2011

    Залоговые отношения глагола в говорах в настоящее время не изучены достаточно систематично, и на основе имеющегося материала невозможно дать полное описание этих отношений с точки зрения их отличий от литературной нормы. Можно констатировать, однако, что специфика говоров в плане выражения категории залога - в употреблении некоторых форм причастий и возвратных форм глагола. Что касается выразителя возвратной формы-частицы -ся, то здесь фактический материал показывает, что возвратные формы глаголов в говорах очень разнообразны. В литературном языке возвратная частица употребляется в виде -ся после согласных и в виде -сь - после гласных: купалс'а (по старым орфоэпическим нормам после согласных [с] - купалса), уч'ус' (старая норма - учус). В ряде говоров находим варианты этой частицы: -си (-се,-си). В результате отвердения эти основные варианты привели к образованию разновидностей с [с]: се>сэ, Вариант -си характерен для средне- и южнорусских говоров; на территории распространения северно-русского наречия эти формы встречаются в районе Прионежья: пск. ударилси, спугалси, боимси, моск. ни ругайси, боимси, звалси, осталси. Пенз. ни балуйси, жалуйси, боялси; калужск. испугалси, запрягаимси; орд. ушибси, нарядилси; Курск. женилси.

  • 14. Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and their Pragmatic Aspect
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 14.02.2011

    After this come details of a Platinum Plus credit card and some associated offers of free gifts. The letter closes with a copy of Mr. Moyes' signature, with his name and position (“Team Manager”) in print below. We can conjecture that the immediate writer of this letter is not Mr. Moyes, but someone with knowledge of financial products, employed by the club to help raise money from fans. I can be more confident that this is so, since it is only a few months since I received a near-identical letter, bearing the signature of the previous manager, Mr. Walter Smith. The writer assumes that he or she is addressing people who have at some point described themselves as supporters of Everton FC - the mail shot will have gone only to names on a database of such potential cardholders. Closer inspection suggests that the letter does not necessarily come from the club, as “Everton” appears in a typeface different from the surrounding text - prompting the thought that the card issuer (MBNA Europe bank Limited) is the real source of the letter, and has signed up various sporting clubs to endorse its product. The card issuer understands that recipients of such offers will rarely wish to apply for a new credit card, and therefore attempts to exploit my affection for Everton FC as a novel or sentimental reason to do so. The second half of the opening sentence may reflect a sense that most supporters do not receive “excellent benefits at the same time” - though perhaps the humour here is unintended. This kind of practical analysis is a good exercise. Sometimes a teacher will need to ask students to write it, but this will limit how much you can do. It would be better for members of a teaching group to spend five or ten minutes at least once a week, producing an unprepared spoken pragmatic reading of texts chosen at random by the teacher or student. Pragmatics as an explicit field of study is not compulsory for students taking Advanced level courses in English Language. But it is one of the five “descriptions of language” commended by the AQA syllabus B (the others are: lexis, grammar, phonology and semantics). In some kinds of study it will be odd if some consideration of pragmatics does not appear in your analysis or interpretation of data. In commenting on texts you are seeing for the first time, you may need to make use of some pragmatic concepts, as in this example, from Adrian Attwood:

  • 15. English writer Jane Austen
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 12.11.2010

    ``The progress of the friendship between Catherine [Morland] and Isabella was quick as its beginning had been warm... and if a rainy morning deprived them of other enjoyments, they were still resolute in meeting in defiance of wet and dirt, and shut themselves up, to read novels together. Yes, novels; - for I will not adopt that ungenerous and impolitic custom so common with novel-writers, of degrading by their contemptuous censure the very performances, to the number of which they are themselves adding - joining with their greatest enemies in bestowing the harshest epithets on such works, and scarcely ever permitting them to be read by their own heroine, who, if she accidentally take up a novel, is sure to turn over its insipid pages with disgust. Alas! If the heroine of one novel be not patronized by the heroine of another, from whom can she expect protection and regard? I cannot approve of it. Let us leave it to the Reviewers to abuse such effusions of fancy at their leisure, and over every new novel to talk in threadbare strains of the trash with which the press now groans. Let us not desert one another; we are an injured body. Although our productions have afforded more extensive and unaffected pleasure than those of any other literary corporation in the world, no species of composition has been so much decried. From pride, ignorance, or fashion, our foes are almost as many as our readers. And while the abilities of the nine-hundredth abridger of the History of England, or of the man who collects and publishes in a volume some dozen lines of Milton, , and , with a paper from the Spectator, and a chapter from , are eulogized by a thousand pens, - there seems almost a general wish of decrying the capacity and undervaluing the labour of the novelist, and of slighting the performances which have only genius, wit, and taste to recommend them. "I am no novel-reader - I seldom look into novels - Do not imagine that I often read novels - It is really very well for a novel." - Such is the common cant. - "And what are you reading, Miss - -?" "Oh! it is only a novel!" replies the young lady, while she lays down her book with affected indifference, or momentary shame. "It is only CeciliaCamillaBelinda"; or, in short, only some work in which the greatest powers of the mind are displayed, in which the most thorough knowledge of human nature, the happiest delineation of its varieties, the liveliest effusions of wit and humour, are conveyed to the world in the best-chosen language. Now, had the same young lady been engaged with a volume of the Spectator, instead of such a work, how proudly would she have produced the book, and told its name; though the chances must be against her being occupied by any part of that voluminous publication, of which either the matter or manner would not disgust a young person of taste: the substance of its papers so often consisting in the statement of improbable circumstances, unnatural characters, and topics of conversation which no longer concern anyone living; and their language, too, frequently so coarse as to give no very favourable idea of the age that could endure it.

  • 16. Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 12.11.2010

     

    1. Áàðõóäàðîâ Ë.Ñ., Øòåëèíã Ä.À. Ãðàììàòèêà àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. - Ì.: Âûñøàÿ øêîëà, 1973 424 ñòð.
    2. Áîíê Í.À., Ëóêúÿíîâà Í.À., Ïàìóõèíà Ë.Ã. Ó÷åáíèê àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà.  2-õ òîìàõ. Ìîñêâà Õàðüêîâ: Äåêîíò Òîðñèíã, 1997 637 ñòð. Ò1.
    3. Áîíê Í.À., Ëóêúÿíîâà Í.À., Ïàìóõèíà Ë.Ã. Ó÷åáíèê àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà.  2-õ òîìàõ. Ìîñêâà Õàðüêîâ: Äåêîíò Òîðñèíã, 1997 - 311 ñòð. Ò2.
    4. Âåðáà Ë.Ò. Ãðàììàòèêà ñîâðåìåííîãî àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. - Ê.: Çíàíèå, 2001 370 ñòð.
    5. Æèìàëåíêîâà Ò.Ì., Ìûëüöîâà Í.À. Óíèâåðñàëüíûé ñïðàâî÷íèê ïî ãðàììàòèêå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ì.: ÃËÎÑÑÀ, 1997 0 250 ñòð.
    6. Çðàæåâñêàÿ Ò.À., Áåëÿåâà Ë.Ì. Òðóäíîñòè ïåðåâîäà ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íà ðóññêèé. Ì.: Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå îòíîøåíèÿ, 1972 56 ñòð.
    7. Êà÷àëîâà Ê.Í., Èçðàèëåâè÷ Å.Å. Ïðàêòè÷åñêàÿ ãðàììàòèêà àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ñ óïðàæíåíèÿìè è êëþ÷àìè. Êèåâ: Ìåòîäèêà - 2000 365 ñòð. Ò1.
    8. Êà÷àëîâà Ê.Í., Èçðàèëåâè÷ Å.Å. Ïðàêòè÷åñêàÿ ãðàììàòèêà àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ñ óïðàæíåíèÿìè è êëþ÷àìè. Êèåâ: Ìåòîäèêà - 2000 304 ñòð. Ò2.
    9. Õîôìàí Õ. Ñàìîó÷èòåëü àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ê.: Çíàíèå, 2000 272 ñòð.
    10. Øàõíàçàðîâà Â.Ñ. Ïðàêòè÷åñêèé êóðñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Àìåðèêàíñêèé âàðèàíò. Ì.: Âå÷å, 2000 464 ñòð.
    11. Bussines writhing specifics. Practical manual. Ïîä ðåä. Ôåäîðÿ÷åíêî Ë.Â. Ê.: Çíàíèå, 1998 114.
    12. English for daytime students. Ïîä ðåä. Ëåáåäîâè÷à Â.À. Ê.: Òàâðèÿ, 2001 100 ñòð.
    13. Kaushanskaya V.L. and others, A grammar of the English language. Ë.: Ïðîñâåùåíèå, 1973 285.
    14. Murphy Raymond. English Grammer in USE, Cambridge University Press, 1985 328.
    15. World English Institute / English Course // Learning about verbs, adverbs, prepositions. USA: WET, 2000 48 Book#2.
    16. Àíãëî-ðóññêèé ñëîâàðü / Ñîñò. Ìþëëåð Â.Ê. 22-å èçä. Ì.: Ðóññêèé ÿçûê, 1989 - 84 ñòð.
    17. Ðóññêî-àíãëèéñêèé ñëîâàðü / Ñîñò. Àõìàíîâà Î.Ñ. 19-å èçä. Ì.: Ðóññêèé ÿçûê, 1997 - 468 ñòð.
    18. Lewis C.S. Book 4 in the chronicles of Narnia The Silver Chair. - N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1970 218. V4.
    19. Lewis C.S. Book 4 in the chronicles of Narnia The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. - N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1970 186. V1.
    20. Ëüþèñ Êëàéâ, Ëåâ, êîëäóíüÿ è ïëàòÿíîé øêàô. Ïåðåâîä ñ àíãëèéñêîãî Îñòðîâñêàÿ Ò. - Ì.: Âàðèàíò, 1992 128 ñòð.
    21. Ëüþèñ Êëàéâ, Ñåðåáðÿííîå êðåñëî. Ïåðåâîä ñ àíãëèéñêîãî Øàïîøíèêîâà Ò. ïîä ðåä. Òðàóáåð Í.Ã. - Ì.: Âàðèàíò, 1992 - 105 ñòð.
    22. Iofik L.L.,Chakhoyan L.P. ,Readings in the theory of English grammar-Ë.: Ïðîñâåùåíèå.1972-220 ñòð.
    23. Jesperson O.,A modern English grammar on Historical Principles, Part IV, Heidelberg,1931; Part V,Copenhagen,1931-278p.
  • 17. Establishing and development of the theory of translation as a science in the 20 century
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 24.01.2011

    Interpretation is rendered in one mode: simultaneous. In simultaneous interpreting, the interpreter immediately speaks the message in the target-language whilst listening to it in the source language. Consecutive interpretation is rendered as “short consecutive interpretation” and “long consecutive interpretation”. In short consecutive interpretation, the interpreter relies on memory; each message segment being brief enough to memories. In long consecutive interpretation, the interpreter takes notes of the message to aid rendering long passages. These informal divisions are established with the client before the interpretation is effected, depending upon the subject, its complexity, and the purpose of the interpretation. On occasion, document sight translation is required of the interpreter, usually in consecutive interpretation work. Sight translation combines interpretation and translation; the interpreter must read aloud the source-language document to the target language as if it were written in the target language. Sight translation occurs usually, but not exclusively, in judicial and medical work. Relay interpretation occurs when several languages are the target language. A source language interpreter renders the message to a language common to every interpreter, who then renders the message to his or her specific target language. For example, a Japanese source message first is rendered to English to a group of interpreters, then it is rendered to Arabic, French, and Russian, the other target languages. In simultaneous interpretation, the interpreter renders the message in the target-language as quickly as he or she can formulate it from the source language, while the source-language speaker continuously speaks: sitting in a sound-proof booth, the SI interpreter speaks into a microphone, while clearly seeing and hearing the source-language speaker via earphones. The simultaneous interpretation is rendered to the target-language listeners via their earphones. Moreover, SI is the common mode used by sign language interpreters. Note: Laymen often incorrectly describe SI and the SI interpreter as “simultaneous translation” and as the “simultaneous translator”, ignoring the definite distinction between interpretation and translation. In whispering interpreting, the interpreter sits or stands next to the small target-language audience whilst whispering a simultaneous interpretation of the matter to hand; this method requires no equipment. Chuchotage is used in circumstances where the majority of a group speaks the source language, and a minority (ideally no more than three persons) do not speak it. In consecutive interpreting, the interpreter speaks after the source-language speaker has finished speaking. The speech is divided into segments, and CI interpreter sits or stands beside the source-language speaker, listening and taking notes as the speaker progresses through the message. When the speaker pauses or finishes speaking, the interpreter then renders the entire message in the target-language. Consecutively-interpreted speeches, or segments of them, tend to be short. Fifty years ago, the CI interpreter would render speeches of 20 or 30 minutes, today, 10 or 15 minutes is considered long, particularly since audiences dont like to sit through 20 minutes of speech they cannot understand. Often, the source-language speaker is unaware that he or she may speak at length before the CI interpretation is rendered, and might stop after each sentence to await its target-language rendering. Sometimes, the inexperienced or poorly trained interpreter asks the speaker to pause after each sentence; sentence-by-sentence interpreting requires less memorization, yet its disadvantage is in the interpreter's not having heard the entire speech or its gist, and the overall message is harder to render both because of lack of context and because of interrupted delivery (e.g., imagine a joke told in bits and pieces, with breaks for translation in between). This method is often used in rendering speeches, depositions, recorded statements, court witness testimony, and medical and job interviews, but it is always best to complete a whole idea before it is translated. Full consecutive interpreting allows for the source-language message's full meaning to be understood before the interpreter renders it to the target language. This affords a truer, accurate, and accessible interpretation than does simultaneous interpretation. Liaison interpreting involves relaying what is spoken to one, between two, or among many people. This can be done after a short speech, or consecutively, sentence-by-sentence, or as chuchotage (whispering); aside from note taken then, no equipment is used. Conference interpreting is the interpretation of a conference, either simultaneously or consecutively, although the advent of multi-lingual meetings has consequently reduced the consecutive interpretation in the last 20 years. Conference interpretation is divided between two markets: the institutional and private. International institutions, holding multi-lingual meetings, often favour interpreting several foreign languages to the interpreters' mother tongues. Local private markets tend to bi-lingual meetings (the local language plus another) and the interpreters work both into and out of their mother tongues; the markets are not mutually exclusive. The International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) is the only world-wide association of conference interpreters. Founded in 1953, it assembles more than 2.800 professional conference interpreters in more than 90 countries. Legal, court, or judicial interpreting, occurs in courts of justice, administrative tribunals, and wherever a legal proceeding is held (i.e. a conference room for a deposition or the locale for taking a sworn statement). Legal interpreting can be the consecutive interpretation of witnesses' testimony for example, or the simultaneous interpretation of entire proceedings, by electronic means, for one person, or all of the people attending. The right to a component interpreter for anyone who does not understand the language of the court (especially for the accused in a criminal trial) is usually considered a fundamental rule of justice. Therefore, this right is often guaranteed in national constitutions, declarations of rights, fundamental laws establishing the justice system or by precedents set by the highest courts. Depending upon the regulations and standards adhered to per state and venue, court interpreters usually work alone when interpreting consecutively, or as a team, when interpreting simultaneously. In addition to practical mastery of the source and target languages, through knowledge of law and legal and court procedures is required of court interpreters. They often are required to have formal authorization from the State to work in the Courts and then are called sworn interpreters. In many jurisdictions, the interpretation is considered an essential part of the evidence. Incompetent interpretation, or simply to swear in the interpreter, can lead to a mistrial. In focus group interpreting, an interpreter sits in a sound proof booth or in on observer's room with the clients. There is usually a one way mirror between the interpreter and the focus group participants, wherein the interpreter can observe the participants, but they only see their own reflection. The interpreter hears the conversation in the original language through headphones and simultaneously interpreters into the target language for the clients. Since there are usually anywhere between 2 to 12 (or more) participants in any given focus group, experienced interpreters will not only interpret the phrases and meaning but will also mimic intonation, speech patterns, tone, laughs, and emotions. In escort interpreting, an interpreter accompanies a person or a delegation on a tour, on a visit, or to a meeting or interview. An interpreter in this role is called an escort interpreter or an escorting interpreter. This is liaison interpreting. Also known as community interpreting is the type of interpreting occurring in fields such as legal, health, and local government, social, housing, environmental health, education, and welfare services. In community interpreting, factors exist which determine and affect language and communication production, such as speech's emotional content, hostile or polarized social surroundings, its created stress, the power relationship among participants, and the interpreter's degree of responsibility in many cases more than extreme; in some cases, even the life of the other person depends upon the interpreter's work. Medical interpreting is a subset of public service interpreting, consisting of communication, among medical personnel and the patient and his or her family, facilitated by an interpreter, usually formally certified and qualified to provide such interpretation services. In some situations medical employees who are multilingual may participate part-time as members of internal language banks. The medical interpreter must have a strong knowledge of medicine, common medical procedures, the patient interview, the medical examination processes, and the daily workings of the hospital or clinic were he or she works, in order to effectively serve both the patient and the medical personnel. Moreover, and very important, medical interpreters often are cultural liaisons for people (regardless of language) who are unfamiliar with or uncomfortable in hospital, clinical, or medical settings. When a hearing person speaks, an interpreter will render the speaker's meaning into the sign language used by the deaf party. When a deaf person signs, an interpreter will render the meaning expressed in the signs into the spoken language for the hearing party, which is sometimes referred to as voice interpreting or voicing. This may be performed either as simultaneous or consecutive interpreting, Skilled sign language interpreters will position themselves in a room or space that allows them both to be seen by deaf participants and heard by hearing participants clearly and to see and hear participants clearly. In some circumstances, an interpreter may interpret from one sign language into an alternate sign language. Deaf people also work as interpreters. They team with hearing counterparts to provide interpretation for deaf individuals who may not share the standard sign language used in that country. In other cases the hearing interpreted sign may be too pidgin to be understood clearly and the Deaf interpreter might interpret it into a more clear translation. They also relay information from one form of language to another for example, when a person is signing visually, the deaf interpreter could be hired to copy those signs into a deaf-blind person's hand plus include visual information. By its very nature, media interpreting has to be conducted in the simultaneous mode. It is provided particularly for live television coverages such as press conferences, live or taped interviews with political figures, musicians, artists, sportsmen or people from the business circle. In this type of interpreting, the interpreter has to sit in a sound-proof booth where ideally he/she can see the speakers on a monitor ant the set. All equipment should be checked before recording begins. In particular, satellite connections have to be double-checked to ensure that the interpreter's voice is not sent back and the interpreter gets to hear only one channel at a time. In the case of interviews recorded outside the studio and some current affairs programme, the interpreter interprets what he or she hears on a TV monitor. Background noise can be a serious problem. The interpreter working for the media has to sound as slick and confident as a television presenter. Media interpreting has gained more visibility and presence especially after the Gulf War. Television channels have begun to hire staff simultaneous interpreters. The interpreter renders the press conference, telephone beepers, interviews and similar live coverage for the viewers. It is more stressful than other types of interpreting as the interpreter has to deal with a wide range of technical problems coupled with the control room's hassle and wrangling during live coverage.

  • 18. Euphemisms: history, types and examples
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 19.11.2010

    Other common euphemisms include:

    • getting smashed or hammered instead of 'drinking' or 'being drunk'
    • big, fluffy, full-figured or heavy-set instead of 'fat'
    • lost their lives for 'were killed'
    • wellness for benefits and treatments that tend to only be used in times of sickness
    • restroom for toilet room in American English (the word toilet was itself originally a euphemism)
    • a love of musical theatre, light in the loafers, good fashion sense or confirmed bachelor for male homosexuality
    • woman in sensible shoes for lesbian
    • acting like rabbits, making love to, getting it on, cheeky time, doing it, making the beast with two backs, or sleeping with for having sex with
    • sanitary landfill for garbage dump (and a temporary garbage dump is a transfer station), also often called a Civic Amenity in the UK
    • ill-advised for very poor or bad
    • an intestinal release of pressure for fart
    • pre-owned vehicles or even "pre-loved" for used cars
    • motivation for bribe
    • a student being held back a grade level for having failed or flunked the grade level
    • correctional facility for prison
    • peer homework help or comparing answers for cheating
    • the north of Ireland for Northern Ireland, which is seen by many Irish people as a term imposed by the British and therefore a profanity; however, saying the north of Ireland may be primarily a way of identifying oneself with the Irish Nationalist cause, rather than a euphemism
    • the big C for cancer (in addition, some people whisper the word when they say it in public, and doctors euphemistically use technical terminology when discussing cancer in front of patients, e.g., "c.a." or "neoplasia"/"neoplastic process", "carcinoma" for "tumor"); euphemisms for cancer are used even more so in the Netherlands, because the Dutch word for cancer can be used as a curse word
    • bathroom tissue, t.p., or bath tissue for toilet paper (usually used by toilet paper manufacturers)
    • custodian or caretaker for janitor (Also originally a euphemism in Latin, it means doorman. In the British Secret Service, it may still carry the ancient meaning. It does in the novels of John le Carré.)
    • sanitation worker (or, sarcastically, sanitation officer or sanitation engineer), or garbologist, for "bin man" or garbage man
    • economically depressed neighborhood or culturally-deprived environment for ghetto or slum
    • force, police action, peace process or conflict for war
    • alcohol-related, single-car crash for drunk driver
    • mature or been around the block for old or elderly
    • haem or heme (Americanism) for blood, often used in medical settings ("severe heme loss").
    • enhanced interrogation technique for torture
    • persuasion for torture
    • take legal action for sue
    • fee for fine
    • gaming for gambling
    • specific about what one eats for being a picky eater
    • intellectually challenged for being mentally retarded
    • Before that, mentally retarded for feeble minded
    • Before that, feeble minded for halfwit
    • adult entertainment, adult material, or erotica for pornography
    • to have been paid for 'being fired from or by one's employer'
    • to cut excesses (in a budget) for to fire employees
    • legal capital for stated capital
    • gravitationally challenged for clumsy
    • gender reassignment for sex change
    • differently abled for disabled
    • chemical dependency for drug addiction
    • dual-diagnosed for having both mental illness and drug problems
    • co-morbidity for simultaneous existence of related mental and physical health issues (a dysphemism, perhaps...)
    • gentlemen's club for go-go bar or strip club
    • fertility center for infertility center
    • mental health center for mental illness center
    • it's snowin' down south for your slip is showing
    • vertically-challenged for short
    • feeling no pain (and dozens of others) for drunk
    • your fly is undone for your zip is down
  • 19. Forms of Ownership
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 06.10.2010

    Now lets turn the important question: which of the considered forms of ownership is better? Usually this question is in the form of a dilemma: public or private property? In fact, such an alternative formulation of the question is counterproductive. It should go about finding the most rational, optimal combination of both forms. Criterion for evaluation can be only one: what kind of property in a given historical moment and in longer term, offers higher level needs satisfaction of the population, while taking into account the indicators of life quality. From the combination of these criteria, preference should be given to private property, which is now the core of the developed market economies of the West. To create just such an economic system, developing and former socialist countries are striving. It contains the profit motive and competition, the realization of which brings the highest economic efficiency and better meets the needs. However, private ownership has its drawbacks, especially regarding employment and unemployment. After all, the profit motive and competition is forcing businesses constantly to seek perhaps a greater reduction in production costs, including economy in labor force. In Western countries, a wave of privatization in the 80's, the first half of the 90's led to a reduction in the proportion of state ownership in the production of GDP from 9 am to 7% on average, that means overcoming the legacy of the prewar and early postwar years. In the 30-ies state's direct participation in the economy expanded in the process of overcoming the deepest crisis in the history of capitalism of 1929 - 1933 years. State ownership in the prewar years in most Western countries was significantly strengthened as a sort of "backup" of private enterprises, that had revealed the sequential weaknesses, and as an instrument of maintaining the strength of the social system. In the late 40's - 50's in Western Europe and Japan, private capital was temporarily weakened by war damage and certain other circumstances. Such a gap as a need occurred was filled by the state, what is now not necessary.

  • 20. Functional Materials Based on Self-Assembly of Polymeric Supramolecules
    Курсовые работы Иностранные языки добавлен 25.12.2010

    ×òîáû ïðîèëëþñòðèðîâàòü óïðàâëÿåìîå ðàñïîçíàâàíèåì ôîðìèðîâàíèå ìàêðîìîëåêóë â ïîëèìåðàõ, à òàêæå ïîñëåäóþùóþ ñàìîîðãàíèçàöèþ è ïîäãîòîâêó ôóíêöèîíàëüíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ è íàíî-îáúåêòîâ, ìû ñîñðåäîòî÷èìñÿ íà àðõèòåêòóðå â ôîðìå «ãðåá¸íêè», âîçíèêíîâåíèþ êîòîðîé ñïîñîáñòâóåò ïîâûøåííàÿ ðàñòâîðèìîñòü òàê íàçûâàåìûõ ïîëèìåðîâ-ïðóòèêîâ, ïîêðûòûõ âîëîñêàìè. Ñàìûé ïðîñòîé ñëó÷àé - ãèáêèé ïîëèìåð, èìåþùèé ñâÿçàííûå ó÷àñòêè ïî ñâîåé îñíîâå. Ïîýòîìó îñíîâà îáû÷íî ïîëÿðíà, à îòòàëêèâàþùèåñÿ íåïîëÿðíûå áîêîâûå ãðóïïû ìîãóò áûòü ñâÿçàíû äîïîëíèòåëüíûìè ñâÿçÿìè, ÷òî ïðèâîäèò ê îáðàçîâàíèþ ìàêðîìîëåêóë â ôîðìå «ãðåá¸íêè», êîòîðûå â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü ñàìîîðãàíèçîâûâàþòñÿ. Ìû øèðîêî èñïîëüçîâàëè îáðàçîâàíèå âîäîðîäíîé ñâÿçè èëè êîîðäèíàöèþ, ÷òîáû ñâÿçàòü áîêîâûå öåïè ñ ïîëèìåðíîé îñíîâîé. Àíòîíèåòòè è äð. èñïîëüçîâàëè èîííûå âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ â êîìïëåêñàõ ïîëèýëåêòðîëèòàïîâåðõíîñòíî-àêòèâíîãî âåùåñòâà, ÷òîáû ñôîðìèðîâàòü êîìïëåêñû ïîâåðõíîñòíî-àêòèâíîãî âåùåñòâà ïîëèýëåêòðîëèòà â ôîðìå «ãðåá¸íêè». Ïîëó÷åííûå ñàìîîðãàíèçîâàííûå ìíîãîäîìåííûå ñòðóêòóðû ìîãóò áûòü âûðîâíåíû ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì, íàïðèìåð, ïîòîêà, ÷òîáû ïðèáëèçèòü èõ ê ìîíîäîìåííûì. Ìîæíî òàêæå íàñòðàèâàòü ñâîéñòâà ïîäãîíêîé õàðàêòåðà áîêîâûõ öåïåé. Íàïðèìåð, åñëè áîêîâûå öåïè - ÷àñòè÷íî ôòîðèðîâàíû, ïîëó÷àþòñÿ íèçêèå ðåçóëüòàòû ïîâåðõíîñòíîé ýíåðãèè, ÷òî ó÷èòûâàåò èñïîëüçîâàíèå, âåäóùåå ê óìåíüøåíèþ òðåíèÿ.  äðóãîì ñëó÷àå, îñíîâà ñîñòîèò èç äâîéíîé âèíòîâîé ñïèðàëè ÄÍÊ, è ñàìîîðãàíèçàöèÿ äîñòèãàåòñÿ èîííûì ïðèñîåäèíåíèåì êàòèîííûõ ëèïîñîì èëè êàòèîííûõ ïîâåðõíîñòíî-àêòèâíûõ âåùåñòâ ê àíèîííûì ôîñôîðíîêèñëûì ó÷àñòêàì. Ýòî ó÷èòûâàåò ðàçðàáîòêó ìàòåðèàëîâ ïîìèìî òðàäèöèîííîãî äèàïàçîíà áèîõèìè÷åñêèõ ïðèëîæåíèé. Íàïðèìåð, êðàñèòåëü ìîæåò áûòü âñòàâëåí â ñïèðàëè, ïîäàâëÿÿ èõ òåíäåíöèþ ê ñêîïëåíèþ è ïðèâîäÿ ê ìíîãîîáåùàþùèì ñâîéñòâàì, òàêèì êàê øàáëîíû äëÿ ôîòîííûõ ïðèëîæåíèé.  òàêîé ñòðóêòóðå ïîëèìåðíàÿ îñíîâà ìîæåò ñîäåðæàòü äâà èëè äàæå áîëüøåå êîëè÷åñòâî âèäîâ îáÿçàòåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ãäå ìîãóò áûòü ñâÿçàíû ðàçëè÷íûå äîáàâêè.