Контрольная работа по предмету Иностранные языки

  • 1. About Ireland
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 08.02.2012

    most popular spirits in Ireland are Guinness and Whiskey. Ireland has its own whiskey. The Irish learned to make whiskey from monks. They came to Ireland from the continent of Europe in the fifth and sixth centuries. They knew a lot about the way to make spirits. Irish whiskey is made differently from Scotch whisky. It is also usually spelled differently - Scotch whisky has no «e». Irish whiskey tastes lighter and smoother than Scotch whisky. Just now more people in the world drink Scotch whiskey. But some people like Scotch whisky and some like Irish whiskey. In the American Civil War someone said to President Lincoln that General Grant was drinking too much Irish whiskey. Lincoln knew that Grant was a good general, and he knew that Irish whiskey was a good drink. So Lincoln's answer was: «Find out the make of General Grant's whiskey. Then give it to the other generals».popular spirit is Guinness. It's a kind of beer. Guinness is made from barley, hops, yeast and water. Everything in it is quite natural; there are no chemicals. The Irish have made or «brewed» it in Dublin since 1759. The Guinness brewery in Dublin is bigger than any other brewery in Europe. Today there are also Guinness breweries in Britain, Nigeria, Malaysia. People drink more than seven million glasses of Guinness every day around the world.

  • 2. Alcohol Consumption
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 09.12.2008

    Among many problems which are actual today for our society, the problem of alcoholism is on one of the first places. The damage which this trouble makes to separate people, to families, collectives and all society as a whole is too great. Alcohol consumption in Kazakhstan is high as for soft alcohol drinks as beer and wine as for strong alcohol drinks such as vodka and whisky. In Kazakhstan consumption of alcohol drinks is increasing but middle degree of consumed alcohol drinks is decreasing. Increased number of consumed soft alcohol drinks is because of growing interest of underage population in alcohol; it could be explained by availability, accessibility and advertisement, that provokes young population to buy and drink this beverages, that is why population now have alcoholics among children. According to official representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan Kairat Barmakov, because of unlimited realization of alcoholic production, each third murder in the country is made under alcohol condition. Also drinking of alcohol drinks in youth age could be reflected in children psychology. Alcohol consumption is strongly reflected on peoples reproductive system, one of the main reasons of mens infertility is alcohol. In a country with insufficient demographic situation alcohol consumption problem should be observed in different way, so that our future generation will be healthy productive and normally up bring. Alcohol affects every organ in the body. The problem of alcohol consumption has a place in many post soviet countries and the reason is the “revolution” that happened in several month after Mr. Gorbachev became the head of “CK”, this situation made lots of people unemployed or with any perception of even tomorrow day. There are a lot of professionals who were working in different areas of this big country, who then became alcohol addicted, which then led to scarceness of qualified workers. Alcohol also is the result of an increased monetary losses because of accidents connected with the use of alcohol on a workplace, as well as reduction of work capacity because of «pohmelniy sindrom», as example to take surgeon before operation, or flight, train operation manager which could lead to real disaster. Treating of such a disease as alcohol addiction is very important issue for whole nation and also for Health Ministry of Kazakhstan. Not less serious problem is represented with a female alcoholism, and that more and more women becoming alcohol addicted at young age and it is especially terrible. It fatally affects not only on their health, but also on health of posterity. Thus treatment of a female alcoholism is interfaced to special complexities which are connected with features of female physiology and psychology. Moreover experts of National Cancer Institute, have established, that alcohol is the reason for 70 % of cases of development of the most widespread type of a cancer of a breast. 184 thousand women of the post climacteric period took part in research during seven years, which shows that those women who drinks a glass of alcohol per day are risking develop cancer by 7%. Those who used to drink two glasses of alcohol increase the risk by 32%. Drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, and liver in men and women, and of breast cancer in women. In general, these risks increase after about one daily drink for women and two daily drinks for men. Another research experiment; it was found out that children of mothers abusing alcoholic drinks, cannot accept fast decisions and actively operate in unfamiliar situation. Researchers from scientific research institute of pharmacology of the Russian academy of medical sciences make female rats drank from 1-th pregnancy till 20-th day. Then studied mental abilities of their children when those became adults that how they made their decision. Treatment of alcoholism nowadays is carried out by many experts, firms and clinics. But not all distant methods and means of treatment of alcoholism can guarantee result. The condition of public hospitals of this sphere in Kazakhstan could be softly called as very bad, there is no rehabilitation centers where people could get their treatment and period of relaxing, but they get “Narkodispanser” with awful conditions, food, personnel and may be harmful and cheap drugs. As for private hospitals it is Ok, tidy, light rooms, tasty food different types of methodologies of treatment, but also it cost a lot, not for ordinary people. The laws of republic of Kazakhstan protects children from alcohol consumption “Article 37. Protection of the child against harmful influence of alcoholic production and tobacco products

  • 3. All about work
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 05.05.2010

    However, in а court case which reached the House of Lords in 1994, it was decided that the hours thresholds applying to part-timers amounted to sex discrimination under European laws because the vast majority of part-timers in the UK are women and the majority of full-time workers are men; The judgment аррlied only to entitlement to redundancy рay and compensation for unfair dismissal, but the government realized that it had implications for other employment rights as well. As а result, the 1aw has been amended and from 6 February 1995, the hours thre- sholds have been removed from UK employment law. This means that part-timers now have the same rights as full-time workers in аll these areas:

    • right to complain of unfair dismissal;
    • right to statutory redundancy payments;
    • right to а written statement of employment;
    • right to return to work after fu11 period of maternity leave;
    • right to а written statement of reasons for dismissal;
    • right to time off for trade union dutгes and activities;
    • right to time off to look for work or arrange training in redundancy;
    • right to guarantee payments;
    • right to notice of dismissal;
    • right to payment on medical suspension.
  • 4. Bases of English grammar
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 11.12.2009

    Поскольку все фирменные знаки зарегистрированы и защищены согласно закону, никто больше не может произвести тот же самый продукт под таким фирменным знаком. Очень трудно создать новый фирменный знак, так как больше чем 365000 марок были зарегистрированы в октябре 2000 года американской Доступной Организацией, тогда как Оксфордский словарь состоит из 615100 слов. Так некоторые марки лидеры используются компаниями для того, чтобы начать производство нового продукта в новой категории. Например, жареный картофель Bochkarev.

  • 5. British Monarchy
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 29.09.2010

    Parliamentary procedure. Each session begins with the State Opening of the Parliament, if a part has the majority, the Queen reads the speech. A debate, a vote is taken. If no clear majority hung parliament, dangerous situation, can lead to a parliament crisis. Most of the year special routine. Proceedings are public, televised, press admitted, then publish the proceedings on the following day in Hansard (it was the first man who published). Business, order of business, parliamentary business; question time 1 hour, MPs ask Ministers and other MPs questions, prepared 48 hours, by opposition to reveal the weakness in the Government. The main debate: bills are introduced by the Government, Ministers mostly. The bill is introduced in a form of a motion, any Minister can move something; the question is open to debate. At the end of the debate the Speaker asks MPs if they accept a motion, sometimes the matter is decides on the spot. Approved by a majority, rare a division is called: aye/no lobbies vote by walking, a bell is rung, appoint tellers stay on a/n lobbies, each MP walk to the lobby and they are counted; have very little time. The bill goes through some stages: first reading debated in detail, when is complicated, the House goes into committee, special committee remains (e.g. the Committee of Defense), others leave. 3rd time passed or rejected, if passed > the HL > the Queen for the Royal Assent > law. Bills are drafted by consultation with professional bodies. Sometimes the proposals take the form of white paper (states that the Government wants to know the attitude of public); if wants public discussion green paper. The standing committees.

  • 6. Business finance
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 22.05.2010

     

    1. Bank overdraft - cheap and easy to obtain, а bank overdraft is rерауаblе on demand. This allows а business to meet its short-term commitments and it only pays interest on the amount and for the period that it is in overdraft.
    2. Short-term loan - а loan given for specific purposes rather than „St for use as working capital. Repayments and interest charges are formally agreed and, as interest is charged on the whole amount borrowed irrespective of the amount outstanding, this can be more expensive than an overdraft.
    3. Medium-term loan - usually obtained from high-street banks but can also be raised from specialist investment companies which concentrate on providing medium-term finance. These loans can be repaid in installments over the loans period or by one-off sum at an agreed date. Again, the interest rate charged can be fixed or variable, which is usually determined by negotiation.
    4. Long-term loans - used to purchase capital assets such as buildings о other businesses that have а long 1ife. Long-term loans usually have а fixed rate о interest attached and are only given after an independent survey of the asset. In addition, а comprehensive report on the business's past and future expected performance is compiled. А mortgage loan is one that is usually secured on land о buildings for periods of 20 years or longer.
    5. Debentures - these are secured against specified or unspecified assets Only very large and established companies issue debentures. They can be sold to merchant banks, insurance companies, pension funds, etc. Debentures can only by issued to members of the public by рubliс limited companies.
    6. Issuing shares - an established business mау be аblе to issue further share: to its existing shareholders at а favourаblе rate in order to obtain more funds Alternatively, if the company is а рiс it can рlасе the shares with а financial institution which will sell them, or they can be traded directly on the stock exchange.
    7. Government аnd European Union support - financial help in the form of grants or subsidies is also available from а variety of sources, such as national and lосаl governments, the European Union.
  • 7. Custom service
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 30.07.2010

    1. Убедитесь в том, чтобы заполнить ваш (обязательное) таможенную декларацию и следуют красный канал, если вы несете в клетку или ручной клади любые из следующих характеристик: наличными свыше 50,000.00 рублей (500 минимальных размеров оплаты труда в соответствии с Федеральный статут по состоянию на 22 октября 2003). В этом случае на сумму, превышающую утвержденных 50,000.00 руб должен быть размещен на депозитном счете в соответствующем Федеральная таможенная служба Отдела, что превышение максимально разрешенного количества 50,000.00 руб только быть вывезены из русский Федерацию в качестве единовременного пособия;

  • 8. Cпецифика национального речевого поведения
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 19.11.2011

    Роль разговора/беседы в этих культурах имеет также специфические национальные черты. При этом следует отметить, что отношение к разговору у разных народов рознится. Так, для русских важен так называемый «разговор по душам», иными словами, понимание и сострадание, что отражается в наборе следующих речений: душевно поговорили, отвести душу разговором, душа-человек, как на духу, душа нараспашку и пр. Именно такой тип разговора наиболее импонирует русским. Французы очень чувствительны к форме общения, красноречию, эстетическому аспекту разговора. Если в Англии искусство разговора сводится к умению молчать, причем в этом англичане усматривают сдержанность и корректность, то во Франции, где очень любят и умеют блеснуть словом, молчащий человек социально убивает себя. Разговор у французов носит непринужденный характер и идет с исключительной быстротой. Беседы французов похожи на игру словами, даже в современном разговоре простых французов слышны отголоски салонных бесед времен «бэль-эпок» начала 20 века. Излияний души не услышишь, данная слабость неуместна. Во французских высказываниях, которые функционально можно перевести как «излить душу», «vider son sac» - букв. «опустошить свой мешок», «deballer» - букв. «распаковаться», «confesser» - букв. «исповедаться», нет упоминания о душе. В Испании тоже любят поговорить. Причем не обязательно знать человека, чтобы разговаривать с ним часами. Иногда в конце беседы собеседники даже не знают имен друг друга. Но существуют запретные темы. В Испании не принято говорить о смерти, о деньгах, особенно, если они у вас есть. Никто не говорит «я зарабатываю много» или «я зарабатываю прилично», скорее «не жалуюсь» или «живу помаленечку». Англичане в гостях будут, скорее всего, вести разговоры о своих увлечениях, искать точки соприкосновения со своими собеседниками именно в этой области и почти никогда не станут касаться того, что является главным делом их жизни, особенно если на этом поприще они чего-то достигли. Так что при знакомстве не стоит рассчитывать на беседу о том, что вас в этом человеке больше всего интересует, о вещах, которые хотелось бы, прежде всего, выяснить. Англичане придерживаются правила «не быть личным», то есть не выставлять себя в разговоре, не вести речи о себе самом. Считается дурным тоном неумеренно проявлять собственную эрудицию и вообще безапелляционно утверждать, что бы то ни было. В Англии возведена в культ легкая беседа, способствующая приятному расслаблению ума, а отнюдь не глубокомысленный диалог и тем более не столкновение противоположных взглядов.

  • 9. Economics as human art
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 16.01.2010

    Economics is as old as the human race: it is probably the first art which man acquired. When some cavemen went out to hunt while others remained to defend the fire or when skins were traded for flint axes we had economics. But economics as an academic discipline is relatively new: the first major book on economics Adam Smith´s “The Wealth of Nations” was published in 1776. Since that time the subject has developed rapibly and there are now many branches of the subjects such as microeconomics, international economics and econometrics as well as many competing schools of thought.

  • 10. Emblems of the UK
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 12.11.2010

    In the Royal Arms three lions symbolize England, a lion rampant Scotland, and a harp Ireland. The whole is encircled and is supported by a lion and a unicorn. The lion has been used as a symbol of national strength and of the British monarchy for many centuries. The unicorn, a mythical animal that looks like a horse with a long straight horn, has appeared on the Scottish and British royal coats of arms for many centuries, and is a symbol of purity.

  • 11. Exercises on lexicon and the English grammar
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 04.03.2011

     

    1. Telephone Conversation with the British Firm 1 person (I) in Present or Future Indefinite Tense, Active Voice;
    2. Continental Equipment. Can I help you?
    3. Id like to speak to Mr. Cartwright?
    4. Mr. Cartwright? Whos calling, please?
    5. This is Victor Klimenko, from TST Systems.
    6. Hold on, please. Ill find out if he is in.
    7. What is it, Miss Elliot?
    8. Mr. Klimenko wants to talk to you, sir.
    9. Im very busy at the moment. Ask him to phone later.
    10. Yes, sir.
    11. Oh … wait a minute, Miss Elliot. Who is Mr. Klimenko?
    12. He said he was from TST Systems.
    13. From TST System? … Oh, ask him what his telephone number is. Ill ring him back.
    14. Hello? Is that TST Systems?
    15. Yes
    16. This is John Cartwright from Continental Equipment. May I speak to Mr. Klimenko?
    17. Yes. Klimenko speaking … .
    18. Did you want to speak to me?
    19. Yes, Mr. Cartwright. Im the new Commercial Director of TST Systems. Ive pleasure in informing you that we carefully studied your materials and decided to accept your proposal.
    20. Thank you. Mr. Klimenko. Goodbye.
    21. Goodbye Mr. Cartwright.
    22. The contract in Past Tense, Passive Voice;
  • 12. Family and relatives
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 31.01.2010

    Karlsson's Grandmother: Ok! Ok! He is right. He is with me since the age of five. But I had too much work about the house and had no time to bring you up carefully. That's why, children, he usually does whatever he wants. I shouted at him, punished him, but it didn't work. And one day he said that he wanted to live as a grown-up alone in the city. I had to agree with it or he could just disappear to nowhere. So I send him money, food every week, take him on summer holidays. But my dear Karlsson still lives absolutely alone in his parent's house. I worry about him a lot and the worst thing is that he doesn't like to come to school.

  • 13. Free word groups. Phraseological units
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 06.11.2010

    The term «idioms» generally implies that the essential feature of the linguistic units under consideration is idiomaticity or lack of motivation. Uriel Weinreich expresses his view that an idiom is a complex phrase, the meaning of which cannot be derived from the meanings of its elements. He developed a more truthful supposition, claiming that an idiom is a subset of a phraseological unit. Ray Jackendoff and Charles Fillmore offered a fairly broad definition of the idiom, which, in Fillmores words, reads as follows: «…an idiomatic expression or construction is something a language user could fail to know while knowing everything else in the language». Chafe also lists four features of idioms that make them anomalies in the traditional language unit paradigm: non-compositionality, transformational defectiveness, ungrammaticality and frequency asymmetry.

  • 14. Functions of Management
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 09.05.2010

    Three ways of looking at motivation are: needs, rewards and effort. The needs approach stems from the notion that peoples' unsatisfied needs drive their behavior. Figure out a person's needs, satisfy the needs and the person will be motivated. For example, a person with a high need to satisfy goals is motivated by production targets. The rewards approach is based on the expectation that rewarded behavior is repeated. Giving a person a bonus for excellent performance during a difficult harvest period encourages the person to make a special effort during the next difficult harvest. The effort approach to motivation is based on the expectation that effort brings the worker what he or she wants. The thought that working hard leads to advancement and new career opportunities is consistent with the effort approach. The effort approach includes a presumption that the employer is fair, i.e., effort is recognized and rewarded. Managers cannot reduce motivation to a simple choice of one of these approaches. Each of the three approaches contributes to an understanding of motivation and how motivation varies person to person and over time.

  • 15. Historical Development of Word Meaning – Semantic Change
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 06.06.2012

    What Skills Does a Student of History Develop?does a well-trained student of history, schooled to work on past materials and on case studies in social change, learn how to do? The list is manageable, but it contains several overlapping categories.Ability to Assess Evidence. The study of history builds experience in dealing with and assessing various kinds of evidence-the sorts of evidence historians use in shaping the most accurate pictures of the past that they can. Learning how to interpret the statements of past political leaders-one kind of evidence-helps form the capacity to distinguish between the objective and the self-serving among statements made by present-day political leaders. Learning how to combine different kinds of evidence-public statements, private records, numerical data, visual materials-develops the ability to make coherent arguments based on a variety of data. This skill can also be applied to information encountered in everyday life.Ability to Assess Conflicting Interpretations. Learning history means gaining some skill in sorting through diverse, often conflicting interpretations. Understanding how societies work-the central goal of historical study-is inherently imprecise, and the same certainly holds true for understanding what is going on in the present day. Learning how to identify and evaluate conflicting interpretations is an essential citizenship skill for which history, as an often-contested laboratory of human experience, provides training. This is one area in which the full benefits of historical study sometimes clash with the narrower uses of the past to construct identity. Experience in examining past situations provides a constructively critical sense that can be applied to partisan claims about the glories of national or group identity. The study of history in no sense undermines loyalty or commitment, but it does teach the need for assessing arguments, and it provides opportunities to engage in debate and achieve perspective.in Assessing Past Examples of Change. Experience in assessing past examples of change is vital to understanding change in society today-it's an essential skill in what we are regularly told is our «ever-changing world.» Analysis of change means developing some capacity for determining the magnitude and significance of change, for some changes are more fundamental than others. Comparing particular changes to relevant examples from the past helps students of history develop this capacity. The ability to identify the continuities that always accompany even the most dramatic changes also comes from studying history, as does the skill to determine probable causes of change. Learning history helps one figure out, for example, if one main factor-such as a technological innovation or some deliberate new policy-accounts for a change or whether, as is more commonly the case, a number of factors combine to generate the actual change that occurs.study, in sum, is crucial to the promotion of that elusive creature, the well-informed citizen. It provides basic factual information about the background of our political institutions and about the values and problems that affect our social well-being. It also contributes to our capacity to use evidence, assess interpretations, and analyze change and continuities. No one can ever quite deal with the present as the historian deals with the past-we lack the perspective for this feat; but we can move in this direction by applying historical habits of mind, and we will function as better citizens in the process.Is Useful in the World of Workis useful for work. Its study helps create good businesspeople, professionals, and political leaders. The number of explicit professional jobs for historians is considerable, but most people who study history do not become professional historians. Professional historians teach at various levels, work in museums and media centers, do historical research for businesses or public agencies, or participate in the growing number of historical consultancies. These categories are important-indeed vital-to keep the basic enterprise of history going, but most people who study history use their training for broader professional purposes. Students of history find their experience directly relevant to jobs in a variety of careers as well as to further study in fields like law and public administration. Employers often deliberately seek students with the kinds of capacities historical study promotes. The reasons are not hard to identify: students of history acquire, by studying different phases of the past and different societies in the past, a broad perspective that gives them the range and flexibility required in many work situations. They develop research skills, the ability to find and evaluate sources of information, and the means to identify and evaluate diverse interpretations. Work in history also improves basic writing and speaking skills and is directly relevant to many of the analytical requirements in the public and private sectors, where the capacity to identify, assess, and explain trends is essential. Historical study is unquestionably an asset for a variety of work and professional situations, even though it does not, for most students, lead as directly to a particular job slot, as do some technical fields. But history particularly prepares students for the long haul in their careers, its qualities helping adaptation and advancement beyond entry-level employment. There is no denying that in our society many people who are drawn to historical study worry about relevance. In our changing economy, there is concern about job futures in most fields. Historical training is not, however, an indulgence; it applies directly to many careers and can clearly help us in our working lives.Kind of History Should We Study?question of why we should study history entails several subsidiary issues about what kind of history should be studied. Historians and the general public alike can generate a lot of heat about what specific history courses should appear in what part of the curriculum. Many of the benefits of history derive from various kinds of history, whether local or national or focused on one culture or the world. Gripping instances of history as storytelling, as moral example, and as analysis come from all sorts of settings. The most intense debates about what history should cover occur in relation to identity history and the attempt to argue that knowledge of certain historical facts marks one as an educated person. Some people feel that in order to become good citizens students must learn to recite the preamble of the American constitution or be able to identify Thomas Edison-though many historians would dissent from an unduly long list of factual obligations. Correspondingly, some feminists, eager to use history as part of their struggle, want to make sure that students know the names of key past leaders such as Susan B. Anthony. The range of possible survey and memorization chores is considerable-one reason that history texts are often quite long.is a fundamental tension in teaching and learning history between covering facts and developing historical habits of mind. Because history provides an immediate background to our own life and age, it is highly desirable to learn about forces that arose in the past and continue to affect the modern world. This type of knowledge requires some attention to comprehending the development of national institutions and trends. It also demands some historical understanding of key forces in the wider world. The ongoing tension between Christianity and Islam, for instance, requires some knowledge of patterns that took shape over 12 centuries ago. Indeed, the pressing need to learn about issues of importance throughout the world is the basic reason that world history has been gaining ground in American curriculums. Historical habits of mind are enriched when we learn to compare different patterns of historical development, which means some study of other national traditions and civilizations.key to developing historical habits of mind, however, is having repeated experience in historical inquiry. Such experience should involve a variety of materials and a diversity of analytical problems. Facts are essential in this process, for historical analysis depends on data, but it does not matter whether these facts come from local, national, or world history-although it's most useful to study a range of settings. What matters is learning how to assess different magnitudes of historical change, different examples of conflicting interpretations, and multiple kinds of evidence. Developing the ability to repeat fundamental thinking habits through increasingly complex exercises is essential. Historical processes and institutions that are deemed especially important to specific curriculums can, of course, be used to teach historical inquiry. Appropriate balance is the obvious goal, with an insistence on factual knowledge not allowed to overshadow the need to develop historical habits of mind.to certain essential historical episodes and experience in historical inquiry are crucial to any program of historical study, but they require supplement. No program can be fully functional if it does not allow for whimsy and individual taste. Pursuing particular stories or types of problems, simply because they tickle the fancy, contributes to a rounded intellectual life. Similarly, no program in history is complete unless it provides some understanding of the ongoing role of historical inquiry in expanding our knowledge of the past and, with it, of human and social behavior. The past two decades have seen a genuine explosion of historical information and analysis, as additional facets of human behavior have been subjected to research and interpretation. And there is every sign that historians are continuing to expand our understanding of the past. It's clear that the discipline of history is a source of innovation and not merely a framework for repeated renderings of established data and familiar stories.study history? The answer is because we virtually must, to gain access to the laboratory of human experience. When we study it reasonably well, and so acquire some usable habits of mind, as well as some basic data about the forces that affect our own lives, we emerge with relevant skills and an enhanced capacity for informed citizenship, critical thinking, and simple awareness. The uses of history are varied. Studying history can help us develop some literally «salable» skills, but its study must not be pinned down to the narrowest utilitarianism. Some history-that confined to personal recollections about changes and continuities in the immediate environment-is essential to function beyond childhood. Some history depends on personal taste, where one finds beauty, the joy of discovery, or intellectual challenge. Between the inescapable minimum and the pleasure of deep commitment comes the history that, through cumulative skill in interpreting the unfolding human record, provides a real grasp of how the world works.say that Bilbo's breath was taken away is no description at all. There are no words left to express his staggerment, since Men changed the language that they learned of elves in the days when all the world was wonderful. Bilbo had heard tell and sing of dragon-hoards before, but the splendour, the lust, the glory of such treasure had never yet come home to him..R.R. Tolkien, «The Hobbit»the history of semantic change had to be summed up as one process, it would be that of specialization. The Anglo Saxons 1500 years ago made do with perhaps 30,000 words in their complete vocabulary, while Modern English has anywhere from 500,000 to a million words, depending on whether or not scientific vocabularies are included.

  • 16. History of english language
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 22.01.2010

    The first pre-written or pre-historical period, which may be termed Early Old English, lasts from the West Germanic invasion of Britain till the beginning of writing, that is from the 5th to the close of the 7th c. It is the stage of tribal dialects of the West Germanic invaders (Angels, Saxon, Jutes and Frisians) The tribal dialects were used for oral communication, there were no written form of English. The second historical period extends from the 8th c. till the end of the 11th. The English language of that time is referred to as Old English or Anglo-Saxon; it can also be called Written OE. The tribal dialects gradually changed into local or regional dialects. Towards the end of the period the differences between the dialects grew and their relative position altered. OE was a typical OG language, with a purely Germanic vocabulary, and few foreign borrowings; it displayed specific phonetic peculiarities. As far as grammar is concerned, OE was an inflected language with a well-developed system of morphological categories, especially in the noun and adjective. The third period, known as Early Middle English, starts after 1066, the year of the Norman Conquest, and covers 12, 13, and half of the 14th c. It was the stage of the greatest dialectical divergence caused by the feudal system and by foreign influences Scandinavian and French. The dialectical division of present day English owes its origin to this period of history. Under Norman rule the official language in England was French. The local dialects were mainly used for oral communication and were but little employed in writing. Early ME was a time of great changes at all levels of the language, especially in grammar and lexis. English absorbed 2 layers of lexical borrowings: the Scandinavian element in the North-Eastern area and the French element in the speech of townspeople in the Soth-east. Phonetic and grammatical changes proceeded at a high rate, unrestricted by written tradition. The forth period from the later 14th c. till the end of the 15th embraces the age of Chauser. We may call it Late or Classical Middle English. It was the time of the restoration of English to the position of the state and literary language and the time of literary flourishing. The main dialect used in writing and literature was the mixed dialect of London. The phonetic and grammatical structure had incorporated and perpetuated the fundamental changes of the preceding period. Most of the inflections in the nominal system in nouns, adjectives, pronouns had fallen together. The verb system was expanding, as numerous new analytical forms and verbal phrases on the way to becoming analytical forms were used alongside old simple forms. The fifth period Early New English lasted from the introduction of printing to the age of Shakespeare, that is from 1475 to c. 1660. The first printed book in English was published by William Caxton in 1475. This period is a sort of transition between two outstanding epochs of literary efflorescence: the age of Chaucer and the age of Shakespeare. The growth of the vocabulary was a natural reflection of the progress of culture in the new, bourgeois society, and of the wider horizons of mans activity. Extensive phonetic changes were transforming the vowel system, which resulted n the growing gap between the written and the spoken forms of the word. The inventory of grammatical forms and syntactical constructions was almost the same as in Mod E, but their use was different. The abundance of grammatical units occurring without any apparent restrictions, or regularities produces an impression of great «freedom of grammatical construction». The six period extends from the mid-17th c. to the close of the 18th c. In the history of the language it is often called «the age of normalization and correctness». This age witnessed the establishment of «norms». The norms were fixed as rules and prescriptions of correct usage in the numerous dictionaries and grammar-books published at the time and were spread through education and writing. The neo-classical period discouraged variety and free choice in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. Word usage and grammatical construction were subjected to restriction and normalization. The morphological system, particularly the verb system, acquired a more strict symmetrical pattern. The formation of new verbal grammatical categories was completed. The English Language of the 19th and 20th c. represents the seventh period in the History of English Late New English or Modern English. The classical language of literature was strictly distinguished from the local dialects and the dialects of lower social ranks. The dialects were used in oral communication and, as a rule, had no literary tradition. In the 19th and 20th c. the English vocabulary has grown on an unprecedented scale reflecting the rapid progress of technology, science and culture and other multiple changes in all spheres of mans activities. Linguistic changes in phonetics and grammar have been confined to alterations in the relative frequency and distribution of linguistic units^ some pronunciations and forms have become old-fashioned or even obsolete, while other forms have gained ground, and have been accepted as common usage.

  • 17. Hobby and keenness
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 13.06.2010

    Some of the individuals social and psychological needs are not met through the pursuit of everyday responsibilities. The function of a hobby is to provide ways in which some of these needs can be met to insure balanced and enriched living. The choice of hobby is determined by unconscious wishes and desires. The choice is conditioned by experience and environmental factors. What a hobby does for the person depends on the foregoing plus the satisfaction obtained through participation. Some of the values of hobby are:

    1. Hobbies are the means for relaxation to the person who has limited leisure - like the medical practitioner. His hobby may be the only recreation possible at times when the demands for his professional service leave him with little leisure.
    2. The pursuit of hobbies can be an enemy of boredom brought about by too much leisure.
    3. Hobbies provide a means for vigorous release of emotions.
    4. Hobbies serve as a way of meeting the needs of people in period of frustration.
    5. Hobbies offer many opportunities for creative expression.
    6. Hobbies serve as a means for compensation, such as excelling in the hobby pursuit compensating for failing to reach desired goals on the job.
    7. Pursuing a hobby means acquiring knowledge and leaning skills. It satisfied the desire for leaning.
    8. When unwanted leisure creates anxiety the pursuit of a hobby may serve to help restore emotional balance.
    9. Hobbies stir the imagination and lead to new experiences.
    10. Hobbies can help in meeting the needs for social acceptance and recognition.
    11. Hobbies can provide a refuge from people when time for contemplation is needed.
    12. For the adolescent hobbies are a good way to try out career interests.
    13. For the person retired from earning a livelihood the hobby pursuit becomes a way of adjustment. It can give new meaning and balance to the changed way of life.
    14. Hobbies provide a means of satisfying the desire to collect knowledge and objects.
    15. For many people a well-chosen hobby growing from innate desires, needs and abilities makes joyful contributions to the art of living. When peoples lives are affected by hobby pursuits the total community life reflects this influence.
  • 18. Human resousce management
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 03.05.2010

    Work is done by реорlе: what does work mean to them? Again, this question is more соmрlех than it might seem. One aspect of the meaning of work for individuals is that bу their occupations they are defined as реорlе. In other words, when реорlе want to place other реорlе, to put them into meaningful categories, the first question they ask is “What does he/she dо?” А person's occupation can say а great deal about him as а person. “Не is а systems analyst”, “She is а social worker” conjure uр а whole range of expected attributes ways of talking, thinking, behaving, etc. - in the minds of those who ask the question. Occupation' is also а powerful determinant of social status - the prestige, positive or negative judgment а person has in the eyes of others. Occupations on the higher levels of the occupational hierarchy confer аll kinds of benefits besides the high earnings that usually go with high status. Doctors are listened to with respect on аll kinds, of issues which have nothing directly to dо with medicine, and рrоbablу саn easier get their cars serviced or work done on their houses, since association with them also confers status. Road sweepers, sewage workers and kitchen hands, on the other hand, mау be less 1ikely to mention their occupations outside work because the status of these jobs is low. Indeed, they will probably be more successful socially if don't, mention what they dо.

  • 19. Imitating modelling of a cattle-breeding complex on basis Cedar Bog
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 27.06.2010

    Setting a task of modelling. There is a cattle herd structured on the basic of age. The herd consists of Heifers, Calves, Milk cows, Cows, Bulls. Each Animal has its Age. The daily increase depends in weight of an animal which defines the weight of it depends on the age. So, for example, at achievement of the certain age (≈500 days) calves become bulls and pass from Calves in Bulls, but not all of them. Only the quantity which is enough for reproduction of the herd. The others remain calves until they fatten the necessary weight (≈1000 kg). As soon as it occurs, they are slaughtered. The similar situation is with heifers. Only at achievement of the certain age (≈450 days) they are divided into two categories: milk cows and cows. Cows are bred for meat production, MilkCows - for reproduction of herd and production of milk. According to financial opportunities a farmer defines an initial livestock of the cattle, and then makes a plan of reception of a livestock of the cattle in the future. It is required to model the change of an annual turnover of the herd and its reproduction.

  • 20. Immortal poets оf ukrainian Literature
    Контрольная работа Иностранные языки добавлен 01.11.2010

    One of the innovators of all genres of literature was Ivan Franko. He raised the post-Shevchenko Ukrainian poetry of the late 19-th and early 20-th century to new heights. He did the same in prose. We always remember the volume of poetry "Heights and Depths", the novel "Boryslav is laughing" the drama "Stolen Happiness", etc. He devoted much attention to translations from foreign languages. His merits as a thinker and scholar were great in many fields: the history and theory of literature, folklore, political economy, history, ethnography.