Информация по предмету Биология

  • 1. "Клетка"
    Другое Биология добавлен 09.12.2008

    Схема строения животной клетки по данным электронного микроскопа.

  • 2. γ-Аминомасляная кислота - тормозной медиатор ЦНС
    Другое Биология добавлен 03.08.2010

    γ-аминомасляная кислота является основным ингибиторным трансмиттером (передатчиком) в ЦНС. Она осуществляет нейрональную трансмиссию в 1/3 всех синапсов головного и спинного мозга. ГАМК играет важную роль в регуляции двигательных функций. При этом особенностью нейротрансмиттерной организации супраспинальных двигательных центров (в первую очередь базальных ганглиев и коры мозжечка) является большое количество ГАМК-ергических нейронов, оказывающих тормозное влияние на активность спинальных интер- и мотонейронов через ингибиторные ГАМК-ергические системы, которые, переключаясь в зрительном бугре, церебральной коре и/или двигательных ядрах мезодиэнцефальной области и мозгового ствола, идут в составе руброспинального, вестибулоспинального и ретикулоспинального трактов. В спинном мозге ГАМК выполняет функции ингибиторного трансмиттера как на пресинаптических рецепторах, локализованных на терминалях афферентных проекций, так и на постсинаптических рецепторах мотонейронов и интернейронов. (ГАМК-рецепторы)

  • 3. "Золотой ус" или каллисия душистая
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.01.2009

    Я работаю с лекарственными растениями уже почти четверть века, в моей практике было много разных случаев, и невеселых, когда никак и не чем мы не смогли помочь человеку, и счастливых, когда предложенное лечение (в том числе и травами, или сборами) было проведено вовремя и успешно. Но и забавных и курьезных историй хватает. Например, когда панацеей объявили болиголов пятнистый (Conium maculatum), растение из семейства сельдерейных (Apiaceae). Пришли две женщины, принесли определить достоверность собранного ими сырья. Оказалось, что они собрали купырь лесной (Anthriscus sylvestris), растение того асе семейства, и очень похожего по описанию на болиголов. И когда оказалось, что они собрали не то, то они стали сокрушаться: "Мужья же убьют нас, когда узнают, что мы для настойки израсходовали 6 литровых бутылок водки!". Или случай, когда пришел ко мне "знахарь" определить, что за растение он использует для лечения алопеции (облысения). Оказалось - сныть обыкновенную (Aegopodium podagraria), растение из семейства сельдерейных (Аршсеае). Совершенно серьезно Он нам сказал, что-но-сит листочки этого чудодейственного растения во всех карманах своей одежды и при этом излечивается от потери волос на голове. Но давно известен факт - если то или иное средство пациенту помогает - так почему же не использовать его? А если уже потеряна вера, и нет почти никакой надежды - то надо хвататься не только за соломинку, или за паутинку, даже просто за идею, но попробовать самое невероятное средство, - а вдруг да поможет!

  • 4. «Белые пятна» в генетике белой пегости
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.01.2009

    Другая проблема, мучающая заводчиков многих пород - остаточные белые пятна - паховые, подмышечные, «медальоны». Их тоже долго рассматривали как результат действия того же аллеля S, только «задавленный» генами-модификаторами. Однако, насколько мне известно, при случайных подборах модификаторов (скажем в сибирской породе), скрещивая особей с «медальонами» и однотонных животных, среди братьев и сестер которых имелись настоящие биколоры, никому не удавалось получить не то что биколоров, но и тип распределения белых пятен, схожий с миттед. Зато эти самые «медальоны» неожиданно появлялись в потомстве однотонно окрашенных животных, среди предков которых на протяжении не то что четырех - десятка колен биколоров не просматривается! На этом основании было предложено считать аллель «остаточной пегости» рассматривать как наиболее рецессивный аллель серии S - s i. Такое предположение заводчиков в целом удовлетворяло, поскольку «остаточные пятна» рассматривались как недостаток и особи с этим дефектом в племенную работу не шли. Может быть, изредка и шли, но спаривали-то их с нормально окрашенными, однотонными особями. При таком положении дел простой рецессивный аллель, этот гипотетический s i, давно бы «ушел» из породной популяции - например, русских голубых или абиссинских кошек. И только в Новосибирске, под руководством заводчицы и канд.биол.наук С.И Мезиной, поставили ряд спариваний животных с остаточной белой пегостью между собой. Результаты оказались замечательные - в пометах присутствовали как потомки с «медальонами», так и вовсе без оных. Причем у тех, кто остаточную белую пегость имел, ее степень значительно не увеличилась. Вспомним к тому же, что остаточная пегость этого типа вызвана по-видимому, генами, действующими на заключительной стадии дифференциации пигментных клеток - в отличие от генов локуса S. Так что «остаточная пегость» - даже и не «пегость» вовсе, а белая пятнистость, вызвана самостоятельным генным комплексом, не имеющим к локусу S отношения.

  • 5. AIDS
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.01.2009

    Положение о том, что вирусы представляют собой полноценные организмы, позволило окончательно объединить все три названных группы вирусов - вирусы животных, растений и бактерий - в одну категорию, занимающую определенное место среди живых существ, населяющих нашу планету. Тот факт, что их не удалось выращивать на искусственных питательных средах, вне клеток, не вызывал особого удивления, так как вирусы с самого начала были определены как строгие внутриклеточные паразиты. Это свойство признавалось не уникальным, присущим только вирусам, поскольку внутриклеточные паразиты известны и среди бактерий, и среди простейших. Как и другие организмы, вирусы способны к размножению. Вирусы обладают определенной наследственностью, воспроизводя себе подобных. Наследственные признаки вирусов можно учитывать по спектру поражаемых хозяев и симптомам вызываемых заболеваний, а также по специфичности иммунных реакций естественных хозяев или искусственных иммунизируемых экспериментальных животных. Сумма этих признаков позволяет четко определить наследственные свойства любого вируса, и даже больше - его разновидностей, имеющих четкие генетические маркеры, например: нейтропность некоторых вирусов гриппа, сниженную потогенность у вакциональных вирусов и т.п.

  • 6. Cинтез белка
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.01.2009

    иРНК синтезируется на участке ДНК по принципу комплементарности. Напротив азотистого основания аденин (А) на нити ДНК располагается урацил (У) на нити иРНК, напротив азотистого основания тимин (Т) на нити ДНК располагается аденин (А) на иРНК, напротив азотистого основания гуанин (Г) на нити ДНК располагается цитазин (Ц).

  • 7. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought Evolution
    Другое Биология добавлен 20.07.2010
  • 8. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought. Testosterone
    Другое Биология добавлен 30.04.2010
  • 9. Kитообразные и их особенности (Доклад)
    Другое Биология добавлен 09.12.2008

    Описанная организация китов как нельзя лучше приспособлена для их жизни в воде. Горизонтальный хвост, позволяющий животному подниматься и опускаться в воде, дает возможность получать пищу на разных глубинах; гладкость кожи облегчает движение чудовища, а толстый подкожный слой жира уменьшает его относительный вес; огромные легкие позволяют долго (до 30, 50, а по наблюдениям Пехуэль-Леше, даже до 80 мин.) оставаться под водой, а расширения артерий, замечающиеся у китов, сохраняют значительное количество очищенной крови, необходимой в тех случаях, когда животное по какой-либо причине долго лишено возможности набрать в легкие воздуха, нужного для окисления крови. Вследствие всего этого киты могут считаться настоящими обитателями моря. Большинсто их избегает даже близости берегов, а в пресной воде живут только некоторые дельфины. Остальные киты живут в соленой воде, предпринимая более или менее регулярные, короткие или дальние, путешествия по морям. При этом замечательно, что, несмотря на ежегодное жесткое преследование, они постоянно возвращаются в излюбленные места. “Береговые жители Исландии, - говорит Стенструп, - дают китам, постоянно приплывающим в известные заливы для рождения детенышей, собственные имена, и отдельные экземпляры их знакомы им, как известные им лица”. Рыбаки одной шотландской деревушки лет 20 сряду наблюдали одного полосатика, узнаваемого по дырке в спинном плавнике, пока, наконец, не убили его. Беннет рассказывает то же про одного кашалота, известного под названием “новозеландского Тома”, которого узнавали по огромному росту, свирепости и белой окраске горба. Плавают киты почти всегда большими стадами, состоящими преимущественно из самок с детенышами, под предводительством каких -нибудь старых самцов.

  • 10. Mammals
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.01.2009

    The macaques, a genus of some 13 to 20 species (there is disagreement among taxonomists on the actual number), are found in North Africa and throughout southern Asia from Afghanistan to Japan. The most familiar form is the rhesus monkey, which is often seen by tourists in the towns and cities of India. Fossils dating to six million years indicate that the macaques originated in northern Africa and once roamed over Europe as far north as London. These earlier macaques were not very different in appearance from the Barbary monkeys that survive today in Morocco, Algeria, and on Gibraltar. However, once the Macaques reached Asia, at least by three million years ago, they diversified into a variety of forms. Few are as distinctly different as the lion-tails, with their black coats, silver facial ruffs, and strongly arboreal habitats. Lion-tails are one of the two macaque species that are listed as in danger of extinction, but we may realistically expect the Tibetan, Formosan, and Sulawesian species to fall into that category before the year 2000.

  • 11. Nuclear Radiation
    Другое Биология добавлен 22.09.2010
  • 12. Summary on the subject: Gender Issues and Hopewell Culture
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.03.2010

    Studied since the discovery of the conspicuous mounds in Ross County Ohio, the Hopewell have been an archaeological enigma to many. The tradition is so named for the owner of the farm, Captain Hopewell, where over thirty mounds were discovered. Earlier studies focused more on the exotic grave goods such as precious metals, freshwater pearls, many of these objects had come from all corners of the continent from the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico, and north to the mid-Atlantic coastline (some say Hopewellian influence reached Nova Scotia). Earlier scholars of the Hopewell (1950s through 1960s) were well aware of the influence of the “Interaction Sphere”, yet concluded that the Hopewell, in terms of lifestyle were a cult and had no influence on daily life. Later studies suggest otherwise, as more and more information surfaces along with new insightful interpretations. It is widely accepted that the Hopewell are the “next generation” of the Adena. That is to say that the Adena gave rise to the Hopewell, who had, as speculated migrated into the Ohio River Valley from Illinois. The Hopewell have been described as a more elaborate and flamboyant version of the Adena. Whether the Hopewell overpowered the Adena or simply mingled with and mixed into the culture, is not certain, yet there has been no evidence of warfare to support the former. The result was a cultural explosion encompassing a vast majority of North America east of the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic coast. The Hopewell flourished in the Middle Woodland from 200 B. C. to AD 500. The environment was nearly what it is today. Temperate with lakes, streams, wetlands and flood-plains, the people took advantage of the seasonal weather in the Ohio River Valley via foraging as well as hunting and gathering. The cultivation of domestic strains of beans and maize was well on its way as it was implemented in small amounts, catching on later in the time period. The vegetation was a prairie/forest mix of deciduous trees, walnut, oak, various grasses and shrub. The fauna of the region included many species of waterfowl, turkey and other species in great abundance that are found today (perhaps in more abundance than found today). Larger fauna included buffalo, bison, deer, and elk and smaller animals such as rodents, raccoons, beaver and the like. Aquatic life included freshwater mussels and clams, many fishes (bass, catfish, etc) and turtles. As we will see, the people made abundant use of these flora and fauna as food, clothing, container, ceremonial and ornamental objects. As for changes through time in the environment, it is theorized (by some) that it did in fact shift to a wetter one, perhaps driving the people to higher ground or otherwise drier climates. Core settlement, as noted was along the Ohio River and its estuaries on flood-plains, as well as on or near wetlands. Major areas of population density include Newark and Chillicothe as well as Marietta. These areas provided a lush environment of flora and fauna species that were widely exploited over the centuries by the inhabitants. Living quarters, although scarcely studied, consist of scatterings of small villages with larger settlements located near and around major mound complexes. Some of these smaller villages seem to have been occupied seasonally while settlement was more than likely permanent in the larger loci surrounding the mounds. Some dwellings have been found to consist of saplings stuck into the ground in a circle, brought together in the center and covered with elm bark or mats of woven grasses. Post molds from various areas in Ohio and Illinois indicate oval patterns as well as rectangular long-houses with rounded corners. Larger houses ranged from 18 to 25 feet long and one was as large as 44x48 feet, suggesting a large gathering place, perhaps for trading, council meetings or ceremonial practices. The dress of the people reflected their beliefs, trading practices and even wealth. Ornaments were worn head to foot. Womens hair were pinned back with dowels of wood or bone in a bun or knot and a long sort of ponytail. When nursing, women wore their hair braided and tied up in a shorter ponytail that was held together by a mesh or net-like bag. Typical male hairstyle was a sort of mohawk on top with their hair pulled back into a bun in the back. As for male dress, a warrior wore a loincloth of dyed material with patterns on it (resembling a diaper; for lack of better description). He carried a long spear, an atl-atl, wearing various necklaces of bone, shell and stone beads including bear claws, shark tooth and other exotic items. The closest that these ancient north Americans came to an iron age is revealed in their use of copper as breast plates and helmets in warfare. Members of both sexes wore earspools (yo-yo shaped earrings) of copper as well as bracelets and necklaces. Mica was cut and shaped into various ornaments for headdresses in the form of animals, birds of prey talons, geometric figures, human hand, and bear claw. Mica would be integrated into clothing and on garments that would sparkle and reflect light, somewhat like sequins. Not much more is known about dress, due to the fact that textiles deteriorate rapidly in the archaeological record. Very little is known of social and political customs; ideas being drawn from ethnographic analogy (of Iroquois, the possible descendants) as well as being pieced together from archaeological contexts. More than likely the people operated under matrilineal kinship. They lived in long-houses dominated by the oldest female member of the family and when a couple was married, the husband would move into the wives house and become a part of their social unit. These new husbands had very little if any say in household matters. The children “belonged" to or were affiliated with their mothers family, the males owing allegiance to that unit. There were, however male chiefs who represented households and villages in tribal affairs. Evidence for hereditary monarchy is briefly described from a report in the 1950s. It documents that a number of skeletons found in some mound structures had a rare physical trait. This trait was a bony growth in the ear that was genetically transmitted. Peoples found to harbor this growth were found in association with vast riches of pearls, beads, precious metals, large amounts of mica and the like, quite possibly the “inbred" mark of royalty within a tribe or tribes. The subsistence base of the Hopewell consisted of hunting, gathering and to a lesser extent cultivation of local plant species, depending upon where they lived. Hunting was done primarily with spears and projectile points, with the Indians making use of an instrument called and atl-atl. One would attach a spear to the atl-atl and hurl it at the target, the implement providing not only a more powerful throw, but giving the spear a more finely tuned trajectory. Also used at this time were the bow and arrow, a big step in technological innovation at the time. This is evident in the archaeological record with the finding of smaller projectile points such as the Squibnocket Triangle. As for throwing spears, larger projectile points were used, resembling the Jacks Reef Corner Notched, broad knife blades and corner notched projectile points being preferred as well as being typical of the Hopewell. Associated stone tools were found that manufactured and maintained these weapons such as shaft straighteners. These were rocks that were about palm-sized and had a carved groove running down the center with which one would work a stick or small sapling through over and over to smooth away notches and small stems. One would hunt by stalking, say a deer. The hunter would move very slowly through the undergrowth wearing a decoy, perhaps antlers and/or head or skin of the animal. Once in range he would hurl the spear attached to an atl-atl to kill the animal. Other hunting methods were implemented such as the dead fall. The Indians would set a log up in a tree and when an animal pulled on a piece of bait it would trigger the log to fall and kill the animal. Snaring was also practiced using saplings, the animal being caught and possibly starving to death. Among the animals hunted were bison, deer, turkey, beaver, muskrat, duck, raccoon and elk. Freshwater fishes such as bass and catfish were caught using hooks made from seashells, and freshwater clams and mussels were harvested. As for plants, many, such as gourds (for their seeds and used as containers), sumpweed, goosefoot, sunflower, knotweed, little barley and maygrass were cultivated. Pigweed, lambsquarter and grapes were also collected. Tobacco was widely grown, evidenced by pollen core samples and the presence of pipes in the archaeological record. Elk scapula and flint hoes were used to cultivate gardens. A recent study has revealed that Middle Woodland environments had a vast quantity of exploitable food sources. For example, in one year an area of ten square miles could produce 182k-426k bushels of acorns, 100-840 deer, 10k-20k squirrels, 200 turkeys and many species of duck. At a site in Scoville, 92% of meat was from deer, 4% from turkey, 72% of nuts were hickory and 27% were walnuts. This site was not occupied from spring to mid-spring and middle to late fall, at the exact time of waterfowl migration, indicating that they left the area to hunt them. Surplus venison, bison, elk and other meats were smoked, dried and stored in pits lined with leather or bark. Fruits and vegetables were dried and stored as well as maize which was kept in bark barrels. Cornbread, succotash and hominy (a boiled cornmeal porridge) were baked/cooked. Maple trees were tapped to make syrup and sugar. Publications of the 1950s and 1960s claim that there was a strict division of labor. Men would hunt, fish, make weapons, canoes, bark barrels, snowshoes, paddles (oars), cleared land and participated in the harvest. It states that women would do the gardening, cooking, caring for children, gathered wild plants, made pottery, wove cloth, tailored clothing and trapped smaller animals. These seem to be sexist assumptions, as women could practice many of the “mens work” as well as the fact that men would also be involved in many activities slated towards women such as caring for the children, pottery-making and weaving. Objective approaches to interpretation of past activities should always be taken, for we do not have all of the facts about these and other ancient peoples and never may. Now we come to trade, which along with burial practices has put the Hopewell on the archaeological “map” so to speak. Trade, on a continental scale had made their presence known, spreading and absorbing ideas from the Rocky Mountains to the East Coast, this has been named the “Hopewell Interaction Sphere. ” There were artisans (possibly a separate class) who had individual specialties in different raw materials. These raw materials included copper (seemingly the choice metal of the people over gold and silver), stone, bone, and flint-knappers, specialists in mica and highly skilled ceramists. Ceramics underwent a change through time and were traded extensively. Normally they were tempered with gritty sand or pulverized limestone and paddled with a cord paddle or a wrapped stick. There were squat jars used in burials that were smaller and thicker rimmed and diagonally hatched or crosshatched (1-2% of most finds), and conical or spherically expanding flat-based pots with a flared mouth, used for cooking and storage, generally a utilitarian ware. Rocker stamping done with seashells was a popular design along with geometric patterns. Designs below the neck were, as mentioned, geometric patterns, broad shallow grooves that were made with a dull pointed tool (antler or stone tool). Flamingo, spoonbill and duck were common motifs (possibly noting their importance as a subsistence base) and the design was emphasized by texturing the figure or the background using a rocker-stamp technique with shells in a zigzag fashion. Other than bird motifs, concentric circles, wavelike patterns and geometric designs are incised on the pottery. Vase-like shapes, rounded off square vessels and trapezoidal forms have been found. The pottery was traded throughout the interaction sphere, with particular designs being favored in various regions. Uses include storage of foods, cooking vessels, and mortuary objects (broken ritually, perhaps to release the “spirit" of the vessel). Other clay objects found are highly stylized and detailed figurines in human form. They give us an idea of typical dress, custom and hairstyle (mentioned above). Women wore short sleeved robes tied at the waist with a wide sash, animal skin boots as well as wrist and arm bands with patterns on them. Men wore leather bib-like shirts and a type of loincloth (also mentioned above). Figurines discovered depict a woman standing with an object broken in half in her two hands, a woman carrying an infant on her back, a woman sitting with her hand on her lap and one of a woman nursing an infant. A male figurine depicts him sitting and holding a staff with two hands as if meditating. All of the peoples eyes are closed, evoking reflection and/or deep thought. They are highly lifelike and great attention to detail is paid as one can discern jewelry, headdress or hairstyle, clothing and ornament. The purpose of the figurines could be decoration or trade good evoking cultural values and norms. Pipestone, imported from Missouri was used for a variety of objects such as mortar and pestle, beads and small bowls. However, its main use was for animal (sometimes human yet that was primarily an Adena feature) effigy platform pipes (sometimes made of clay). They consisted of a flat rectangular base with a hole through the middle and a very lifelike depiction of various animals on top. Effigies included that of birds of prey, beaver, frog (or toad), a cougar or wildcat, bear and heron. Some are just plain old bowls. A large hole was borne into the top and tobacco or other herbs were smoked. Although I have not come across any speculation of why particular animals were chosen, I feel as though they are representative of particular clans or lineages, perhaps even moieties. Copper was the metal of choice for the Hopewell. It was imported from the Lake Superior region (along with silver). Copper was fashioned into rings, necklaces and bracelets, earspools, beads, panpipes, ax-heads, breast plates, masks and projectile points. Helmets were also made and decorated with antler and other objects. It was fashioned by cold-working and heating, pounding it into sheets to be cut and shaped into various forms. These objects have been found in Tennessee, New York, Iowa and Missouri. Mica, as described above was used for various ornaments quite possibly even mirrors, was mined in the southern Appalachians. Obsidian, a glassy volcanic mineral obtained from Yellowstone, was professionally worked was made into large ceremonial bifaces as well as knives and other blades. Animal-related objects include turtle shells used for containers and such, sharks teeth, barracuda jaw, conch shells (used as containers and gorgets), and Busycon (giant sea snail, shell used for cups) were from the Gulf of Mexico along with alligator teeth and skulls. Local freshwater pearls from mussels were used as beads for necklaces, anklets and armlets or were sewn onto clothing. Bear and wolf teeth from the Rocky Mountains were used as pendants or beads, as well as mandibles from these animals. In one burial, the mandible of a wolf was found inserted into a gap in a skeletons teeth. Many of these objects were found in the main Hopewell concentration areas of Illinois and Ohio. Galena, a type of lead ore was used to make face-paint. Recorded findings at a site name 22 different types of exotic materials, 16 of them being minerals, yet only two native to Ohio. Value in terms of manufacture and symbolic meaning went hand in hand, as these objects displayed high prestige among the people. Several trading centers include Illinois, Scioto (Ohio), Missouri/Kansas, as well as other areas about the region. One researcher states that it was a big festival when the traders arrived home, there were games, dancing, food and music for two or three days, also stating that the Hopewell were less likely to be war-like, being more interested in trade. Reciprocity plays a role in exchange with the theory of the “Big Man. ” These individuals were pillars of the community, possessing great wealth and prestige. They would acquire large amounts of goods and then lend them to others in times of need. The lend-ees would then be obligated to the “Big Man,” perhaps having to work harder to pay back the favor. This, along with burial customs is the overall effect of the Hopewell interaction sphere facilitating the so-called “Big Idea." It was a philosophy, a way of life be it not all encompassing in the lives of distant trade partners, yet affecting them through ritual ceremonialism (in some areas as evidenced by presences of mounds) and trade-good manufacture. This dispersal reached Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, New York, the Northeast and eastern Rocky Mountain states and into the deep south. The best-known aspects of the Hopewell are their ceremonial and burial practices centering on earthworks and burial mounds. Earthworks included animal effigy mounds (coinciding with animal platform pipes. Correlation?), geometric shapes, and a particular recent find, the Great Hopewell Road. Found in Ohio, it runs from Newark to Chillicothe, in a straight line through swamps and streams, thought to be a spiritual or pilgrimage route, rather than one of trading. Burial mounds were usually enclosed by a raised embankment, symbolizing a sacred place. Earthworks were found in conjunction with burial mounds, near burial mounds or even distances away, some taking up hundreds of acres. The great “Serpent Mound" is a good example, yet is thought of as Adena. As for mortuary customs, three quarters of the bodies had been cremated, full fleshed burial was probably a privilege of higher ranked individuals, they were buried in full flexed position. Structures called Charnel Houses were erected where the dead were de-fleshed and then taken for cremation. First, brush was cleared from the burial area, including trees and topsoil. Clay was then lain down and then an inch of sand that was compacted. A large wooden structure (some with no roofs, possibly to expose flesh to the elements for removal) was built, sometimes with smaller rooms inside to accommodate others or extra grave goods and furniture. Cremations were done in clay lined pits dug into the floor after the bodies had been stripped of flesh and left there or placed inside the log cabin structure. They were then surrounded by high-quality grave goods mentioned above, artisans or craftsmen being interred with large amounts of their medium of specialty or trade including pearls, mica and obsidian. One mound was found with 12,000 pearls, 35,000 pearl beads, 20,000 shell beads, nuggets of copper, meteoric iron, silver, sheets of hammered gold and copper, and iron beads. These houses were left standing or were burnt down and then covered with a mound taking up to and including one million basket-fulls of earth. This was done periodically, layering burial on top of burial, perhaps indicating lineage, that it was that clans mound. Some of the skeletons had copper noses affixed to their skulls (nasal cavities). The mounds were probably reserved for those in high status positions, sizes ranging from ten to fifty feet high and larger. The number of these earthworks in Ohio alone reaches 10,000, however, many have been lost in this and other areas due to plowing and erosion. The Hopewell decline is as much a mystery as its origins and practices. The Hopewell exchange systems seem to have deteriorated around AD 500; Moundbuilding ceased, art forms were no longer produced. War and mass murder is unlikely, for there is no evidence for fighting (none even during the era). Perhaps it was the decimation of big-game herds of buffalo, deer and elk due to the technology of the bow and arrow. Support for this theory lies in the disappearance of atl-atl weights around the same time as the collapse. This, in conjunction with colder climatic conditions could have driven the animals north or west, as weather would have a detrimental effect on plant-life, drastically cutting the subsistence base for these foods. Along with this, food production of maize and other hardier plants would have been more important than trading exotic goods. Another theory suggests that they eventually dispersed for unknown reasons, moving perhaps south, integrating with the Mississippian culture or to the northeast, lending to the ancestral Iroquois theory. Whatever the case may be, the Hopewell have left their indelible mark on Ancient Native North American Culture in a way Archaeologists and Historians have never encountered.

  • 13. The cloning
    Другое Биология добавлен 09.12.2008

    Human cloning creates many denials. First of all, formation of human personality in based not only on biological inheritance, but is also defined by social and cultural environment. The reconstruction of events that influenced on the protoplast is not possible when cloning a man. Therefore, one will never get the same characteristics as his protoplast. Second of all, when cloning, the strict program predestine less variety of cooperation between the developing organism and the changes of the surrounding conditions. Third of all, practically all the religious doctrines stand that the conception and the birth of man have to occur in the course of nature.

  • 14. The evolution
    Другое Биология добавлен 09.12.2008

    Speaking of the Evolution theory it would be wrong to avoid the great work of Darwin. Charles Darvin lived in the time of rapid society development when natural science was on the up-grade. There were many scientific inventions. The epochal work “Origins of species” has been republished seven times during the authors life. It became known to many scientists from other countries and has been translated into the majority of European languages. The driving forces of evolution, according to Darwin, are heritable change and natural selection. Evolution theory says that all living things are related to one another through common ancestry from earlier forms that differed from the present forms. According to the theory, variability among individuals in a population of sexually reproducing organisms is produced by mutation and genetic recombination. The mutation becomes a base of new words of organisms structures and functions formation, and the heritance anchors them. The resulting genetic variability is subject to natural selection in the environment.

  • 15. Абелия
    Другое Биология добавлен 15.03.2011

    Растения рода Абелия выращивают в открытом грунте. Используются как в одиночных, так и в небольших групповых посадках, так же применяются для создания живых изгородей. Благодаря остающимся на цветоножке пурпурным чашелистикам, кустарники сохраняют декоративность даже после цветения. Сажают альбелию осенью или в начале весны. К почве только одно требование, лишь бы она была хорошо дренирована. Так же желательно удобрить землю органическими веществами 4-5 кг/м. Абелия крупноцветковая хорошо переносит известкование. Обрезка обычно не требуется, удаляют только сухие, поврежденные или некрасиво расположенные ветки. Живые изгороди из вечнозеленых видов обрезают в конце цветения, а из листопадных - в феврале или марте.

  • 16. Абиогенез
    Другое Биология добавлен 09.12.2008

    Образование биологических полимеров. По мере смягчения условий на Земле стало возможным образование сложных органических соединений полимеров. Не исключено, что синтез полимеров катализировался на поверхности минеральных глин. Экспериментально показано, что раствор аминокислоты аланина в водной среде в присутствии особого вида глинозема и АТФ может давать полимерные цепочки полиаланина. Органические молекулы имеют большую молекулярную массу и сложную пространственную конфигурацию. Такие высокомолекулярные комплексы, окруженные водной оболочкой, могут объединяться в коацерваты. Дальнейшая прогрессивная эволюция предбиологических структур могла происходить только при усложнении обменных процессов и в условиях пространственного разделения различных синтетических и энергетических процессов внутри коацерватов. Более прочную изоляцию внутренней среды от внешних воздействий могла осуществить лишь биологическая мембрана.

  • 17. Абиогинез. Возникновение жизни на Земле
    Другое Биология добавлен 09.12.2008

    Образование биологических полимеров. По мере смягчения условий на Земле стало возможным образование сложных органических соединений полимеров. Не исключено, что синтез полимеров катализировался на поверхности минеральных глин. Экспериментально показано, что раствор аминокислоты аланина в водной среде в присутствии особого вида глинозема и АТФ может давать полимерные цепочки полиаланина. Органические молекулы имеют большую молекулярную массу и сложную пространственную конфигурацию. Такие высокомолекулярные комплексы, окруженные водной оболочкой, могут объединяться в коацерваты. Дальнейшая прогрессивная эволюция предбиологических структур могла происходить только при усложнении обменных процессов и в условиях пространственного разделения различных синтетических и энергетических процессов внутри коацерватов. Более прочную изоляцию внутренней среды от внешних воздействий могла осуществить лишь биологическая мембрана.

  • 18. Абсорбционная спектроскопия
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.01.2009

    Абсорбционная спектроскопия изучает спектры поглощения электромагнитного излучения атомами и молекулами вещества в различных агрегатных состояниях. Интенсивность светового потока при его прохождении через исследуемую среду уменьшается вследствие превращения энергии излучения в разл. формы внутр. энергии в-ва и (или) в энергию вторичного излучения. Поглощат. способность в-ва зависит гл. обр. от электронного строения атомов и молекул, а также от длины волны и поляризации падающего света, толщины слоя, концентрации в-ва, т-ры, наличия электрич. и магн. полей. Для измерения поглощат. способности используют спектрофотометры-оптич. приборы, состоящие из источника света, камеры для образцов, монохроматора (призма или дифракционная решетка) и детектора. Сигнал от детектора регистрируется в виде непрерывной кривой (спектра поглощения) или в виде таблиц, если спектрофотометр имеет встроенную ЭВМ. Применение абсорбционной спектроскопии основано на след. законах.

  • 19. Абсорбция газов
    Другое Биология добавлен 12.01.2009

    При регенерации отдувкой плохо р-римым газом предельная глубина регенерации не ограничена давлением и т-рой в десорбере, но зависит, как и при отдувке парами абсорбента, от расхода отдувочного агента. Его миним. расход находят из условия соблюдения ур-ния (5) не только на выходе р-ра из десорбера, но и в любом его сечении. Верх, сечение противоточного аппарата, где газ выходит из оегенератора, часто является лимитирующим. Тогда = G2Ф*, где Ф* = р*пар/p2*(t,x2,в)-отношение давления паров абсорбента к давлению газа над р-ром. Если отдувка производится плохо р-римым газом, то Ф * = = (Р p2,в*)/p2,в. При отдувке парами кипящего р-рителя, когда т-ра в критич. сечении десорбера задана, Ф = = pпар/(Р - pпар). Окончат. расход отдувочного агента можно определить только после построения рабочей и равновесной линий, нахождения местоположения в аппарате критич. сечения и оптимизации абсорбционно-десорбционного цикла.

  • 20. Август Вейсман – основатель неодарвинизма
    Другое Биология добавлен 10.08.2010

    Ход мыслей Вейсмана таков. Простейшие одноклеточные существа по самой природе потенциально бессмертны: они размножаются путем деления, и тело одной такой особи при размножении целиком переходит в тела получающихся из нее новых особей, чем обеспечивается непрерывность жизни в той же форме. Нормальной, т. е. вытекающей из чисто внутренних причин, смерти у подобных низших существ еще нет. Откуда же берет свое начало смерть многоклеточных животных и растений, которые, несомненно, произошли от одноклеточных бессмертных существ? Это произошло в связи с разделением труда в их теле, в частности, с появлением двух сортов клеток: соматических, обслуживающих функцию питания и другие стороны жизнедеятельности организма, и половых, или пропагаторных, предназначенных для размножения. Так как сохранение бессмертия за всеми элементами многоклеточного организма было бы не экономно, то оно, т. е. бессмертие, и сделалось уделом лишь половых клеток, которые столь же бессмертны (конечно, потенциально), как и одноклеточные существа, а соматические клетки утратили эту способность - «смерть стала возможной, и мы видим, что она действительно появилась». Таким образом, по мнению Вейсмана, естественная смерть возникла лишь с появлением многоклеточного строения, благодаря обособлению половых элементов, для которых только и необходимо бессмертие, от всех остальных - т. е. «только с точки зрения полезности мы и можем понять необходимость смерти» - явления приспособления многоклеточных существ.