• 41. Games activity at the foreign language lesson as one of the basic ways of learning English at primary school
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 22.04.2012

    Currently, the main principle of the modern educator is not only focused on the impact of each student, his personal settings, but also optimization of the joint activities of students. Great help in providing this training and educational games. They activate the learning process and compared with the traditional form of the classes have some advantages., in pedagogy, as well as in many other fields of science, is changing the practices and working methods, in particular, all the more widespread of various games.of all, the implementation of gaming techniques directly related to the number of common social and cultural processes to search for new forms of social organization and cultural relations between the teacher and students. The need to improve students' communication culture in the didactic process is dictated by the need to improve the cognitive activity of students, stimulate their interest in the subject.the processes occurring in a country that embraced all spheres of our lives: increased contacts with foreign countries, the opportunity to communicate with other people at all levels (inter-state communication, tourism, student exchanges and student, etc.) This, in turn, necessitated the study of foreign languages. Сommunication in any language requires a large vocabulary, which is accumulated over several years. It follows that to study the language should begin in early childhood. This caused a search for new methods of teachers to enable children to effectively and efficiently, and most importantly with interest to learn a foreign language. Given the fact that interest is the best stimulus to learning, to try to use every opportunity to relieve the child through play activities in learning the language.use of games in the English lessons promotes communicative activity character education lessons focus on the psychological development of students rechemyslitelnoy means the language is spoken, optimization of intellectual activity of students in the learning process, the complexity of learning, development and intensification of its forms of group work. We all know that is easier to memorize something that is interesting, but it is interesting that exciting, does not cause boredom. In an entertaining form of a game you can work out and repeat the course material, greatly add to your active vocabulary, and strengthen the skills to get the correct spelling of English words.game - a huge incentive to succeed where sometimes ineffective many traditional exercises. The lesson can be an unforgettable journey into the world of the English language, to enable not only strong, but weak students show their creativity. Even the most insignificant success - a huge step towards knowledge.my work I want to dwell in detail on the use of language games in English class and share their experiences and best practices in this area.is difficult to remember the spelling, especially if they are not written by the rules. And during the game, the competition is faster. Many well known since childhood game "Hangman": given the first and last letters of the word, and dashes denote missing letters. Who will restore the first floor - the one and the winner.

  • 42. Gymnastics
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 15.11.2001


    1. Uneven bars is the only event for women the only event in which the hands are almost constantly in use, gripping the rails.
    2. Vaulting uniquely involves the element of flight of the four events in womens gymnastics.
    3. A beginner must spend many hours learning to move around on the beam in comfort walking, running, skipping, leaping.
    разновысокие брусья
    1. The vaulting runway is sixty to eighty feet long.
    2. The intricate movements prescribed for uneven bars comprise a number of fear producing elements, as do routines in all the events.
    3. The balance beam adventure begins with the working surface of the beam itself.
    1. In gymnastic vaulting there are two pieces of equipment: the horse and takeoff board.
    2. Floor exercises is commonly regarded as the most beautiful event in gymnastics.
    3. Uneven bars is a relatively new event in womens gymnastics having been performed for the first time at the 1952 Olympics.
    1. Somersault is a leap or fall in which one turns heels over head before landing on ones feet.
    2. To skip is to jump lightly and quickly.
    3. The best gymnasts perform cartwheels, back handsprings, and somersaults on the beam.
    Ex. 4. Read the text. Insert the missing terms from the list beam, six, four, leaps, somersault, floor exercises, balance, spins, vaulting horse, balances, uneven bars, gymnastics

  • 43. House and home in the world outlook of different cultures
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 27.09.2008

    I am going to look at the Slavonic, Chinese and Madagascarian traditions concerning home. Slavonic because Belarus is a Slavonic country; Chinese because their traditions are very popular in our country as well as in the whole world; Madagascarian to compare these two with something extremely exotic. I must mention that Slavonic traditions are close to those in other European countries as Europe has been Christian since the earliest times; Chinese traditions are also widespread in other Asian countries; and Madagascarian ones are stuck to in many African countries and on the isles of the Indian Ocean. Thus, comparing the three types of traditional culture I shall compare the outlook of three large regions of the world. It is rather difficult to find the roots of this difference; they probably lie in the mentality of nations worked up for thousands of years. Slavonic traditions are based on the Christian way of life, though one still can see there a strong influence of popular beliefs. The basis for the Chinese way of life is the understanding of the Universe as a mixture of different kinds of energy. As for Malagasies, they live in accordance with the belief that spirits rule the world. So any aspect of building a house has its own rules different from those in other cultures and sometimes even opposite to them.

  • 44. Industrial development of the African countries
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 14.05.2008

    Environmental groups such as Greenpeace claim that the deforestation caused by making way for oil palm plantations is far more damaging for the climate than the benefits gained by switching to biofuel. The world's centres for oil palm production are Indonesia and Malaysia where rapid deforestation and the drying out of asssociated peatlands are, Greenpeace claim, releasing huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thereby speeding climate change.Greenpeace identified Indonesian peatlands, unique tropical forests whose dense soil can be burned to release carbon emissions, that are being destroyed to make way for palm oil plantations. They represent massive carbon sinks, and they claim their destruction already accounts for four percent of annual global emissions. Greenpeace recorded peatland destruction in the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, home to 25 percent of Indonesia's palm oil plantations. There are plans to expand the area under concession by more than 11,000 square miles, which would deforest half of the province. They claim this would have devastating consequences for Riau's peatlands, which have already been degraded by industrial development and store a massive 14.6 billion tons of carbon, roughly one year's greenhouse gas emissions.

  • 45. Internet Explorer - создание Web-страниц
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 23.07.2007

    Первым делом создается папка, в которой будет находиться до размещения в Интернет, будущий сайт. В этой папке должны находиться еще и “подпапки” предназначенные для картинок, музыкальных файлов прочего. Полезно также выделить отдельную папку для каждого раздела сайта. В корневом каталоге должна находиться главная страничка сайта. Существует еще одно правило: размер странички должен укладываться в размер одного экрана. Т.е. если сайт рассчитан на пользователей 15 дюймового экрана то разрешение должно быть 600х800, а для 17 дюймового 1024х786. Сначала создается структура документа. При создании структуры указываются имена страниц (не файлов). Затем страница заполняется нужными картинками и текстом. В конце, когда страница создана, ее нужно сохранить в нужной папке. Имя файла для главной страницы должно быть index.html . Далее созданные страницы объединяют с помощью ссылок. При связке в общий документ ссылки можно спрятать под любой видимый объект (картинки, меню, кнопки и т.д.) .

  • 46. Linguistic Аspects of Black English
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008


    1. Швейцер. А.Д.Социальная дифференциация английского языка в США. М.: Наука, 1983.
    2. Госполитиздат, 1951.
    3. Дэвидсон Б. Черная мать Африка в годы испытаний., М.: Госполитиздат, 1984.
    4. Аврамова С. Ю. Африка: 4 столетия работорговли., М.: Госполитиздат, 1992.
    5. Аврамова С. Ю. Африка: Колониализм-Антиколониализм. М.: Наука, 1990.
    6. Social and Regional Varieties of Present Day English. Tarty State University, 2000.
    7. Crystal D. How Languages Are Works? N.Y.: Penguin Books, 2001.
    8. Crystal D. The English Language. N.Y.: Penguin Books, 2001.
    9. Baugh C. and Cable T. English As a World Language. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 2002.
    10. Duisebayeva F.S. Linguistic Aspects of Black English- В сб.: A. 2007.
    11. Baugh C. and Cable T .History of The English Language. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 2002.
    12. Crystal D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. London, 2002.
    13. Reznik. R.V. Sookina. T.S. Reznik. T.V. A History of The English Language. М., 1984.
    14. Campie N.L. The Worlds Major Language. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 2003.
    15. Rastorguyeva. T. A. History of English. М.: Наука, 1990.
    16. Carroll E.R. Dialects of American English. N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1999.
    17. Leonard F.D. Essays on Language and Usage. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 2003.
    18. Ostlev. N. Empires of The World. N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1996.
    19. Kristeva. J . Language The Unknown An Introduction Into Linguistics. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 1999.
    20. Robert B.F. The English Language. N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1992.
    21. McCall .M. Language Nation And Power. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 2001.
    22. Finkelman P .and Wallenstein. P. The Encyclopedia of American Political History. N.Y.: Penguin Books, 2001.
    23. The Concise Encyclopedia of Democracy. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 2000.
    24. Kenneth G. W. The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1993.
    25. Daniels. R Coming to America. A History of Immigration And Ethnic City in American Life. N.Y.: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.
    26. Schorr. A.L. Welfare Reform. N.Y.: Failure and Remedies, 2001.
    27. Merriam- Websters Dictionary of English Usage. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 1994.
    28. Kishsclar. K., Thomas D. Women And Power in American History. N.Y.: Blackwell Publishers, 1970.
    29. Brogan. H. The Penguin History of The USA. N.Y.: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.
    30. Scott D. G. Landmark Events in U.S. History. The Declaration of Independence. N.Y.: Blackwell Publishers, 2006.
    31. Nancy A. D. and Stewart E. T. American Diversity. N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1995.
    32. Smitherman G. Word from the Mother. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 2006.\
    33. Dillard. J.L. Black English. N.Y.: Taylor&Francis, 1975.
    34. William L. W., Mason T., Leemann A. Principles of Linguistic Change Volume II . N.Y.: Blackwell Publishers, 2006.
    35. Douglass F.Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. N.Y.: Oxford Paperbooks, 1999.
    36. http://www.mail.ru/Black English.
    37. http://www.rambler.ru/Black English
    38. www.com.gleason@rrnet.com, Cosby on Ebonics.
    39. http://www.Google.ru.black English
  • 47. Manual for doing an educational research
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 31.03.2012

    Rank scores show the position one student or a person takes in comparison to others who have the same experience. Ranking list can be used at schools where all the school-leavers will be ranked according to their grades from the highest to the lowest. The perception of ranking list can vary according to the scale. For example if there are 50 applicants for a position and they are ranked on the scale from 0 till 5, there will be no difference between applicants sharing the same rank, but if the same applicants are ranked from 0 till 50, then much more information will be takes into consideration and the difference within 5 or 10 points can be crucial.of central tendency in descriptive statistics are used to calculate the average among all the scores. Within these measures it is possible to identify further calculations. Mean is measured by dividing the sum of all possible scores into the score group of students got. Median is what can be found in the middle of score distribution, while mode is the most common amount of scores students get. If the group of students presents on the average level without a big difference of knowledge level, then the median and the mode can be equal. But if there are mane extreme points, then these data will be different. Standard deviation is the most used calculation in statistic data. There is a special formula to calculate it, but it is based on the mean score.after the data collection process a researcher can find out that some data are missing. Missing data means that a researcher planned to get special amount of data from different sources (participants, documents or other information) but either because of carelessness or some unpredictable situations the plan did not work. If the expected participants are students, it can happen that some of them do not come to school because of sickness, there is always a human unpredictadness. In this case if many participants are missing, probably it will be better to postpone the data collection process for few days. It is always better if everything works according to the plan, but if some data are missing, then the idea of the whole research and later results can be useless. But even if some data are missing, the researcher must be honest and write it in the study, but never try to cheat by giving wrong information.analysis process can be always conducted on two levels: multilevel or one level grouping. For example a researcher collected data about students perception of teachers work with seven-graders. On the one level grouping a researcher will concentrate only on these particular students and on one or several chosen teachers. But if the data are analyzed on a multilevel then the researcher has to look at the situation in a wider way and look at teachers work on the whole school level.statistical data is also a long and quite complicated process. Usually in quantitative research studies there is a huge amount of information which needs to be analyzed. More and more often it is done with the help of the computers. Nowadays there are several computer programmes made for data analysis, such as SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) or SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and others. The usage of these programmes is not very easy and it is better to have some experience in working with them. If a researcher is inexperienced, it can take a long time of him to get used to it; that is why some students prefer to search for help by hiring computer consultant. Data analysis process is one of the final stages and it is recommended to check the data for accuracy before submitting it. The data must be checked very carefully, from the very beginning of typing data, and then different formulas for calculation and results.the data analysis is finished a researcher should take care of the study and keep it a safe place. It is recommended to have several copies of it and also still save the raw material just in case if later he or she decides to wants to have a look at it or show it for the committee. But it is not common to re-analyze the data, it is better not to make any correction after the process is completed.

  • 48. Methods of teaching speech
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    In schools, however, pupils often have to speak on a topic when they are not yet prepared for it. As a result only bright pupils can cope with the task. In such a case the teacher trying to find a way out 'gives his pupils a text which covers the topic. Pupils learn and recite it in class. They reproduce the text either in the very form it was given or slightly transform it. Reciting, though useful and necessary in language learning, has but little to do with speech since speaking is a creative activity and is closely connected with thinking, while reciting has to do only with memory. Of course pupils should memorize words, word combinations, phrases, sentence patterns, and texts to "accumulate" the material and still it is only a prerequisite. The main objective of the learner is to be able to use the linguistic material to express his thoughts. This is ensured by the pupil's ability to arrange and rearrange in his own way the material stored up in his memory. Consequently, while assigning homework it is necessary to distinguish between reciting and speaking so that the pupil should know what he is expected to do while preparing for the lesson to reproduce the text or to compile a text of his own. His answer should be evaluated differently depending on the task set. If the pupil is to recite a text, the teacher evaluates the quality of reproduction, i. e., exactness, intonation and fluency. If the pupil is to speak on a subject, the teacher evaluates not only the correctness of his speech but his skills in arranging and rearranging the material learnt, i. e., his ability to make various transformations within the material he uses while speaking. The teacher should encourage each pupil to speak on the subject in his own way and thus develop pupils' initiative and thinking.

  • 49. Modern technologies in teaching FLT
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 22.01.2008


    1. Adair-Hauck, B., & Donato, R. (1994). Foreign language explanations within the zone of proximal development. The Canadian Modern Language Review 50(3), 532-557.
    2. Anderson, A., & Lynch, T. (1988). Listening. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    3. Armstrong, D. F., Stokoe, W. C., & Wilcox, S. E. (1995). Gesture and the nature of language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
    4. Arndt, H., & Janney, R. W. (1987). InterGrammar: Toward an integrative model of verbal, prosodic and kinesic choices in speech. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    5. Asher, J. J. (1981). Comprehension training: The evidence from laboratory and classroom studies. In H. Winitz (Ed.), The Comprehension Approach to Foreign Language Instruction (pp. 187-222). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
    6. Bacon, S. M. (1992a). Authentic listening in Spanish: How learners adjust their strategies to the difficulty of input. Hispania 75, 29-43.
    7. Bacon, S. M. (1992b). The relationship between gender, comprehension, processing strategies, cognitive and affective response in foreign language listening. Modern Language Journal 76(2), 160-178.
    8. Batley, E. M., & Freudenstein, R. (Eds.). (1991). CALL for the Nineties: Computer Technology in Language Learning. Marburg, Germany: FIPLV/EUROCENTRES.
    9. Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    10. Faerch, C., & Kasper, G. (1986). The role of comprehension in second language learning. Applied Linguistics 7(3), 257-274.
    11. Felder, R. M., & Henriques, E. R. (1995). Learning and teaching styles in foreign language education. Foreign Language Annals 28, 21-31.
    12. Felix, U. (1995). Theater Interaktiv: multimedia integration of language and literature. On-CALL 9, 12-16.
    13. Fidelman, C. (1994). In the French Body/In the German Body: Project results. Demonstrated at the CALICO '94 Annual Symposium "Human Factors." Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.
    14. Fidelman, C. G. (1997). Extending the language curriculum with enabling technologies: Nonverbal communication and interactive video. In K. A. Murphy-Judy (Ed.), NEXUS: The convergence of language teaching and reseearch using technology, pp. 28-41. Durham, NC: CALICO.
    15. Fish, H. (1981). Graded activities and authentic materials for listening comprehension. In The teaching of listening comprehension. ELT Documents Special: Papers presented at the Goethe Institut Colloquium Paris 1979, pp. 107-115. London: British Council.
    16. Garrigues, M. (1991). Teaching and learning languages with interactive videodisc. In M. D. Bush, A. Slaton, M. Verano, & M. E. Slayden (Eds.), Interactive videodisc: The "Why" and the "How." (CALICO Monograph Series, Vol. 2, Spring, pp. 37-43.) Provo, UT: Brigham Young Press.
    17. Gassin, J. (1992). Interkinesics and Interprosodics in Second Language Acquisition. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics 15(1), 95-106.
    18. Hoven, D. (1997a). Instructional design for multimedia: Towards a learner-centred CELL (Computer-Enhanced Language Learning) model. In K. A. Murphy-Judy (Ed.), NEXUS: The convergence of language teaching and research using technology, pp. 98-111. Durham, NC: CALICO.
    19. Hoven, D. (1997b). Improving the management of flow of control in computer-assisted listening comprehension tasks for second and foreign language learners. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Retrieved July 25, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://jcs120.jcs.uq.edu.au/~dlh/thesis/.
    20. Richards, J. C. (1983). Listening comprehension: Approach, design, procedure. TESOL Quarterly 17(2), 219-240.
  • 50. Most striking traits of peoples character
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2007

    Education is very important in our life. An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. He always tries to learn, find out, discover more about the world around him. He get knowledge at school, from books, magazines, from TV educational programs. The pupils can get deeper knowledge in different optional courses in different subjects and school offers these opportunities. They can deepen and improve their knowledge by attending different optional courses in different subjects. The result of the educative process is the capacity for Further education. Nowadays the students of secondary schools have opportunities to continue their education by entering, gymnasiums, lyceums, colleges. But the road to learning is not easy. There is noroyal road to learning. To be successful in studies one must work heard. It's for you to decide to learn and make progress or not to learn lose your time. The role of foreign languages is also increasing today. Thanks to the knowledge of foreign languages one can read books, magazines in the original, talk to foreigners, translate various technical articles. Moreover, joint ventures which have recently appeared in our country need specialists with profound knowledge of foreign languages like English, German or French. To know foreign languages is absolute necessary for every educated person, for good specialists. Our country is transferring to a market economy. Research and innovations should improve living, working conditions of our people. That is why it is so important to be persistent in students. English is a world language. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce and business. It's the language of international aviation, shipping and sports. It's also the major language of diplomacy. Geographically it is the most widespread language on earth, second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it hearing a foreign language is- not an easy thing. It's a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and practice. A foreign language is not just a subject learnt in the classrooms. It's something which is used in real life situations. There are many reasons why we begin to study foreign languages. First of all it's an effective medium of international communication. I'm convinced if we are working in any brunch of science we must read books and magazines in other languages. Learning foreign languages opens up opportunities and careers that didn't even exits some years ago. Knowing foreign languages can help us to find a job in such fields as science and technology, foreign trade and banking, international transportation communication, teaching librarian science and others. A more general aim is to make our intellectual and cultures. Learning a foreign language including learning also culture, traditions and mode of thought of different people. Of course speaking and writing in a foreign language is a difficult art and it has to be learned. Needless to say that English has become very popular today. About 350 million people speak English as its first language. About the same numbers use it as a second language. It's an official language in 44 countries. It's the dominant language of medicine, electronics and space technology, of international business and advertising, of radio. It has replaced French in the world of diplomacy and German in the field of science. As for me, I'm completely convinced that to know a foreign language is absolutely necessary for all educated person and modern specialists. Everything depends on our own efforts.

  • 51. MS Excel
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 16.10.2007

    Процесс создания диаграммы с помощью мастера включает несколько шагов. После выполнения каждого шага вы можете перейти к следующему, нажав кнопку Далее, или вернуться к предыдущему, нажав кнопку Назад. Вы можете в любое время отказаться от построения диаграммы, нажав кнопку Отмена. Можно также нажать кнопку Готово, чтобы пропустить оставшиеся шаги и построить диаграмму, основываясь на введенной к данному моменту информации.

    1. Первое окно диалога мастера диаграмм предоставляет набор рисунков с типами диаграмм. Выберите тип Гистограмма в левой части окна и вид Обычная гистограмма в правой части окна. Нажмите кнопку Далее.
    2. Во втором окне мастера диаграмм вы можете подтвердить или задать данные, которые нужно отобразить на диаграмме. Так как мы выделили данные перед нажатием кнопки Мастер диаграмм, поэтому поле Диапазон уже содержит ссылку на диапазон, где хранятся исходные данные. Примечание: при задании диапазона, содержащего исходные данные для диаграммы, имеет смысл включать в него все заголовки, которые идентифицируют ряды данных и категории диаграммы. Мастер диаграмм вставит текст этих заголовков в диаграмму.
    3. Используя переключатели Ряды данных, установите Ряды в столбцах. Примечание: Вкладка Ряд позволяет удалять или добавлять ряды данных из диаграммы. Нажмите кнопку Далее.
    4. В третьем окне Мастера диаграмм устанавливаются различные параметры для создаваемой диаграммы. Во вкладке Заголовки назовите диаграмму «Результаты тестирования». Во вкладке Линии сетки добавьте основные линии по оси X и Y. Во вкладке Легенда разместите легенду справа от диаграммы. Нажмите кнопку Далее.
    5. В последнем окне диалога Мастер диаграмм, для создания внедренной гистограммы, установите переключатель в поле Поместить диаграмму на имеющемся листе. Нажмите кнопку Готово.
    6. Измените размеры гистограммы:
    7. выделите ее щелчком мыши;
    8. перетащите в нужном направлении один из восьми маркеров выделения.
  • 52. National features of cuisine and table manners
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 22.12.2006

    Ukrainian cooking uses black pepper, red pepper, salt, bay leaf, parsley and dill (usually in spring and summer), garlic and onion. Staples include potatoes, cabbage, fish, pork, beef and sausage. Ukrainian people eat many dishes made of potato. During the Soviet era, there were chronic shortages of food. However, as Ukraine is an agricultural country, today there is much meat in the market (beef, pork, chickens, turkey) as well as cheese, butter, bread and milk. However, for some items, notably cheese, prices are still very high. The core of the Ukrainian cuisine originates in the peasant dishes based on grains and staple vegetables like potatoes, cabbage, beets and mushrooms. Meat is an important ingredient in most Ukrainian dishes, and it is prepared in different ways, either as stewed, boiled, fried or smoked. Popular Ukrainian snacks include the varenyky and the most appreciated traditional dish is pig fat called salo. The fact that Ukrainians preserve and age salo as one of their most prized national cuisine elements should give you an idea about the overall style of the Ukrainian cuisine it is not a suitable one if your goal is to stay thin. Borscht originated in Ukraine and it is the national soup although bortsch is now an international dish that is also very popular in surrounding regions, such as parts of Russia and Romania. Ukrainian restaurants are not the number one place to go when you are looking for a traditional Ukrainian meal the best way to experience the Ukrainian cuisine is at a home made meal. [6., 110]

  • 53. Norton Commander. Меню и конфигурация
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.06.2008

    (F4) - редактирование файла. С помощью этой команды можно осуществить простейшее редактирование файла. Команды редактирования указаны в подсказке в разделе DELETE. Подсказка редактора вызывается нажатием (F1). При использовании этой функции следует соблюдать осторожность в случае смешанных (текстовых и бинарных) файлов, так как неосмотрительное изменение файла может сделать его совершенно непригодным для дальнейшего использования. После внесения исправлений в файл в верхней строке рядом с именем файла появляется символ «*», указывающий на то, что файл был видоизменен и не записан. При попытке выйти из этого режима с помощью (F10) или (Esc) NORTON COMMANDER предупредит о том, что файл был модифицирован и не записан на диск. Запись файла на диск с прежним именем производится командой (F2). При этом резервная копия с расширением .bak не создается, что необходимо всегда помнить. В режиме редактирования возможна также функция поиска заданной последовательности символов ((F7)). Если файл содержит коды, не соответствующие буквенно - цифровым символам и некоторым управляющим кодам, то считывание прекращается. Максимальный размер файла -порядка 25 Кб.

  • 54. Oxford's teachhing methods of english language
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009


    1. The learners are watching a recorded university lecture on acid rain. They are taking notes and will write a summary of the content, using dictionaries (bilingual and monolingual as appropriate). Earlier the teacher had elicited from them some of the key words used in the lecture, their meaning and usage, and listed them on the board.
    2. Small groups of learners are trying to match some cut-out newspaper headlines with the relevant articles. The teacher is going round monitoring each group. Earlier they listened to, discussed and noted some news items on the radio which introduced some of the vocabulary they are encountering.
    3. Individual learners are scattered about outside the classroom asking people pre-prepared questions about their opinions on a new sports centre that is proposed in the area. They are talking in the interviewees' mother tongue, and will then report their findings to the rest of the class in English with the rest of the students taking notes on the matter they present.
    4. Half the class are reading about the early life of a writer they have chosen to study. The other half are reading about the same writer's later life. They make notes of what they had learnt about unknown part of writers life.In pairs they'll tell each other what they have found out and then they'll each write an obituary.
    5. In small groups, the learners are looking at examples of different types of text. Their aim is to identify what they are and note any differences in style, formality, length, print-size, comprehensibility, grammar patterns, etc. The examples include: a recipe, a newspaper article, computer instructions, diary entries, an extract from a novel, a letter to some English friends.
  • 55. pH в живых организмах
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 12.10.2006

    Потребление большого количества животных жиров, сладкого, алкоголя, кофе и никотина, а также частые стрессы приводят к нарушению этого равновесия, а именно - "переокисляют" организм. Из тканей кислые продукты обмена полностью не выводятся, а задерживаются в межклеточной жидкости в виде солей, провоцируя развитие многих болезней. Кстати, пресловутый целлюлит - тоже следствие нарушения кислотно-щелочного равновесия организма. Поправить баланс, а значит, и защитить себя от недугов помогут правильное питание и специальные очистительные процедуры.

    Эти пищевые продукты восстанавливают кислотно-щелочной баланс, поэтому их следует чаше включать в рацион питания:
    листовые салаты
    проросшие злаки
    почти все виды овощей
    орехи, миндаль
    вода без газа
    Картофель образует в организме избыток щелочи, что делает его незаменимым продуктом при "переокислении". Щелочные напитки (такие, как молочная сыворотка, зеленый чай, щелочная минеральная вода) также очень полезны.
    Эти пишевые продукты не следует слишком часто включать в меню, так как они "переокисляют" организм:
    мясо и рыба
    изделия из белой муки
    кофе, черный чай
    лимонад, содержащий сахар
    кондитерские изделия
    Кстати, не все, что имеет кислый вкус, превращается в организме в кислоту! Например, при переваривании кислого яблока образуются главным образом щелочные соединения!
    Как определить избыток кислоты в организме? Для этого в аптеках продаются cпециальные полоски, которые определяют кислотно- щелочной показатель мочи. Цифра ниже 7 говорит о том, что в вашем организме имеется избыточная кислота. Показатель выше 7 свидетельствует о том, что у вас все в порядке. Процедура измерения проводится утром после сна и затем несколько раз в течение дня. Это позволяет проследить тенденцию кислотно-щелочного состояния вашего организма.

  • 56. Pipeline transport of Russia. Transneft
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 15.11.2008

    By 1990, the economic and political changes in the life of the country had led to a stop in construction of the new trunk pipelines. In late 1991, the USSR disappeared from the map of the world. Fifteen new states had distributed between themselves common property, including oil pipelines. The universal oil pipeline system was left only in Russia. In some of the countries only part of the trunk pipelines were left. Other countries were engaged in the Russian oil transit, which was accompanied by complete reorganization of the oil industry, Russia included. Glavtransneft was being reorganized into the Transneft joint-stock company. By that time, Transneft was operating 49.6 thousand km of oil trunk pipelines with diameters 400...1220 mm, 404 pump stations, 934 tankers with the total capacity 13.2 million m3. The operation of the oil pipeline system was implemented by 11 joint-stock companies of the oil trunk pipelines. From 1992, the company rendered services related to the oil transportation in accordance with the tariffs established by the federal executive power structures. The introduction of tariffs had ensured steady operations in the changing economic conditions, whereas all oil producers enjoyed equal rights in their oil transportation along the trunk pipelines. However, the load of АК Transneft trunk pipelines accounted at the time for mere 45% of the planned load.

  • 57. Places of interest in Kyiv
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 27.03.2007

    Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine and one of the biggest cities in Europe. It has been standing on steep hills overlooking the Dnipro River for more than 1,500 years. According to the ancient legend, Kyiv was founded by the three brothers Kyi, Schek and Khoryv and their sister Lybid, and it was named after the eldest brother Kyi. Since then, Kyiv has developed into a valuable center of East Europe attracting foreign businesses and investors to its economic and natural potential. As an important administrative center, Kyiv is a place for Ukrainian Presidential Administration, Verkhovna Rada, Parliament, and nearly all ministries and governmental departments. Its financial part consists of the National Bank of Ukraine around the world, as well as investment companies and funds, representative offices of foreign financial institutions, exchange markets, and more than 220 commercial banks. In Kyiv, more than 2,000 objects belong to historical, cultural, and architectural monuments.

  • 58. Renaissance
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    The Renaissance (French for "rebirth"; Italian: Rinascimento), was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. It encompassed the revival of learning based on classical sources, the rise of courtly and papal patronage, the development of perspective in painting, and advancements in science. The Renaissance had wide-ranging consequences in all intellectual pursuits, but is perhaps best known for its artistic aspect and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who have inspired the term "Renaissance men". There is a consensus, though not a unanimous one, that the Renaissance began in Florence in the fourteenth century. Various theories have been proposed to explain its origin and characteristics, focusing on an assortment of factors, including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at this time including its political structure and the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has always been debate among historians as to the usefulness of the Renaissance as a term and as a historical age. Some have called into question whether the Renaissance really was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for the classical age. While nineteenth-century historians were keen to emphasise that the Renaissance represented a clear "break" from Medieval thought and practice, some modern historians have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras. Indeed, it is now usually considered incorrect to classify any historical period as "better" or "worse", leading some to call for an end to the use of the term, which they see as a product of presentism. The word Renaissance has also been used to describe other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Byzantine Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man shows clearly the effect writers of antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius's De architectura, da Vinci tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual enquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance thinkers sought out learning from ancient texts, typically written in Latin or ancient Greek. Scholars scoured Europe's monastic libraries, searching for works of antiquity which had fallen into obscurity. In such texts they found a desire to improve and perfect their worldly knowledge; an entirely different sentiment to the transcendental spirituality stressed by medieval Christianity. They did not reject Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the Renaissance's greatest works were devoted to it, and the Church patronized many works of Renaissance art. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Artists strove to portray the human form realistically, developing techniques to render perspective and light more naturally. Political philosophers, most famously Niccol? Machiavelli, sought to describe political life as it really was, and to improve government on the basis of reason. In addition to studying classical Latin and Greek, authors also began increasingly to use vernacular languages; combined with the invention of printing, this would allow many more people access to books, especially the Bible. In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity, and through novel approaches to thought.

  • 59. Schooling in Great Britain
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 16.09.2008

    The University of London, for instance, includes internal and external students, the latter coming to London only to sit for their examinations. Actually most external students at London University are living in London. The colleges in the University of London are essentially teaching institutions, providing instruction chiefly by means of lectures, which are attended mainly by day students. The colleges of Oxford and Cambridge, however, are essentially residential institutions and they mainly use a tutorial method which brings the tutor into close and personal contact with the student. These colleges, being residential, are necessarily far smaller than most of the colleges of the University of London.

  • 60. Teaching English Grammar
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008


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