Иностранные языки

  • 81. Double Entry Types of Balance Sheet
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 23.11.2009

    The balance sheet gives you this view of your equity so that you can see what equity would be if all the cash that is currently committed were already spent. As you review this figure, bear in mind the following:

    1. Some commitments are firmer than others. For example, a salary commitment for a Classified Civil Service employee will certainly be used, unless the person leaves or reduces work hours. On the other hand, if you have a blanket purchase order, you might have established it for a maximum amount, planning to spend that amount only if absolutely necessary. The first encumbrance is "firm," the second less so. Consequently, you must know your operation well in order to interpret "equity with encumbrances."
    2. Depending on the type of fund, monies are received at different points during the year. For example, Endowment Income and Expense funds receive the major portion of their funding in July. Earnings funds, on the other hand, usually receive revenues at regular intervals during the year. Thus an Endowment Income and Expense fund that has negative "equity with encumbrances" in the early part of the fiscal year is probably of concern, whereas an Earnings fund can begin the year with negative "equity less encumbrances" because it will earn money during the year to offset the commitment
  • 82. Double Standards in Modern Politics
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 25.05.2010

    Critics charge that savvy dictators such as Uganda's president Yoweri Museveni have manipulated U.S. foreign policy by appealing to its need to fight terrorism. Others suggest U.S. should adopt a policy of realpolitik and work with any type of government who can be helpful.

    • Other criticisms. The U.S. has been criticized for its historical treatment of native Americans. For example, the treatment of Cherokee Indians in the Trail of Tears in which hundreds of Indians died in a forced evacuation from their homes in the southeastern area, along with massacres, displacement of lands, swindles, and breaking treaties. It has been criticized for the war with Mexico in the 1840s which some see as a theft of land. It was the first and only nation to use a nuclear bomb in wartime. It failed to admit Jews fleeing persecution from Europe at the beginning of World War II, as well as immoral policy for the Vietnam War.
    • Lack of vision. Brzezinski criticized the Clinton presidency as having a foreign policy which lacked "discipline and passion" and subjected the U.S. to "eight years of drift." The short-term election cycle coupled with the inability to stick with long term decisions motivates presidents to focus on acts which will appease the citizenry and avoid difficult long-term choices.
    • Presidency is over-burdened. Presidents have not only foreign policy responsibilities, but sizeable domestic duties too. In addition, the presidency is the head of a political party. As a result, it is tough for one person to manage disparate tasks, in one view. Critics suggest Reagan was overburdened, which prevented him from doing a good job of oversight regarding the IranContra affair. Brzezinski suggested in Foreign Affairs that President Obama is similarly overburdened. Some suggest a need for permanent non-partisan advisers.
    • Dollars drive foreign policy. There are indications that decisions to go to war in Iraq were motivated by oil interests; for example, a British newspaper The Independent reported that the "Bush administration is heavily involved in writing Iraq's oil law" which would "allow Western oil companies contracts of up to 30 years to pump oil out of Iraq, and the profits would be tax-free." Whether motivated by oil or not, U.S. policy appears to much of the Arab world to have been motivated by oil. Some critics assert the U.S. decision to build the Panama Canal was motivated largely by business interests despite claims that it's motivated to "spread democracy" and "end oppression." Andrew Bacevich suggests policy is directed by "wealthy individuals and institutions." Some critics say U.S. foreign policy does reflect the will of the people, but blames the people for having a "consumerist mentality" which causes problems. In 1893, a decision to back a plot to overthrow the rulership of Hawaii by president Harrison was motivated by business interests in an effort to prevent a proposed tariff increase on sugar; Hawaii became a state afterwards. There was speculation that the Spanish-American War in 1898 between the U.S. and Spain was motivated by business interests in Cuba.
    • Presidents may lack experience. Since the constitution requires no prior experience in diplomacy, government, or military service, it is possible to elect presidents with scant foreign policy experience. Clearly the record of past presidents confirms this, and that presidents who have had extensive diplomatic, military, and foreign policy experience have been the exception, not the rule. In recent years, presidents had relatively more experience in such tasks as peanut farming, acting and governing governorships than in international affairs. It has been debated whether voters are sufficiently skillful to assess the foreign policy potential of presidential candidates, since foreign policy experience is only one of a long list of attributes in which voters tend to select candidates. The second Bush was criticized for inexperience in the Washington Post for being "not versed in international relations and not too much interested."
    • Presidency has too much authority. In contrast to criticisms that presidential attention is divided into competing tasks, some critics charge that presidents have too much power, and that there is the potential for tyranny or fascism. Some presidents circumvented the national security decision-making process. Critics such as Dana D. Nelson of Vanderbilt in her book Bad for Democracy and columnist David Sirotaand Texas law professor Sanford Levinsonsee a danger in too much executive authority.
    • Difficulty removing an incompetent president. Since the only way to remove an incompetent president is with the rather difficult policy of impeachment, it is possible for a marginally competent or incompetent president to stay in office for four to eight years and cause great mischief. In recent years, there has been great attention to this issue given the presidency of George W. Bush, but there have been questions raised about the competency of Jimmy Carter in his handling of the Iran hostage crisis. Ironically, a president who was arguably the most skillful in foreign policy, Richard M. Nixon, was impeached, but for offenses linked with domestic politics.
    • President may be incompetent. The presidency of George W. Bush has been attacked by numerous critics from both parties as being particularly incompetent, short-sighted, unthinking, and partisan. Bush's decision to launch the second Iraq War was criticized extensively; writer John Le Carre criticized it as a "hare-brained adventure." He was also criticized for advocating a policy of exporting democracy. Brzezinski described Bush's foreign policy as "a historical failure." Bush was criticized for being too secret regarding foreign policy and having a cabal subvert the proper foreign policy bureaucracy. Other presidents, too, were criticized. The foreign policy of George H. W. Bush was lackluster, and while he was a "superb crisis manager," he "missed the opportunity to leave a lasting imprint on U.S. foreign policy because he was not a strategic visionary," according to Brzezinski. He stopped the first Iraq War too soon without finishing the task of capturing Saddam Hussein. Foreign policy expert Henry Kissinger criticized Jimmy Carter for numerous foreign policy mistakes including a decision to admit the ailing Shah of Iran into the United States for medical treatment, as well as a bungled military mission to try to rescue the hostages in Teheran. Carter waffled from being "both too tough and too soft at the same time."
    • Congress excluded from foreign policy. Critic Robert McMahon thinks Congress has been excluded from foreign policy decision making, and that this is detrimental. Other writers suggest a need for greater Congressional participation.
    • Lack of control over foreign policy. During the early 1800s, general Andrew Jackson exceeded his authority on numerous times and attacked American Indian tribes as well as invaded the Spanish territory of Florida without official government permission. Jackson was not reprimanded or punished for exceeding his authority. Some accounts blame newspaper journalism called yellow journalism for whipping up virulent pro-war sentiment to help instigate the Spanish-American War. Some critics suggest foreign policy is manipulated by lobbies, such as the pro-Israel lobby, although there is disagreement about the influence of such lobbies. Nevertheless, Brzezinski wants stricter anti-lobbying laws.
    • Alienating allies. There is evidence that many U.S. allies have been alienated by a unilateral approach. Allies signaled dissatisfaction with U.S. policy in a vote at the U.N. Brzezinski counsels listening to allies and exercising self-restraint.
    • U.S. foreign policy manipulated by external forces. A Washington Post reporter wrote that "several less-than-democratic African leaders have skillfully played the anti-terrorism card to earn a relationship with the United States that has helped keep them in power" and suggested, in effect, that foreign dictators could manipulate U.S. policy for their own benefit. It is possible for foreign governments to channel money through PACs to buy influence in Congress.
    • Ineffective public relations. One report suggests that news source Al-jazeera routinely paints the U.S. as evil throughout the Mideast. Other critics have faulted the U.S. public relations effort.As a result of faulty policy and lackluster public relations, the U.S. has a severe image problem in the Mideast, according to Anthony Cordesman. Analyst Mathews said that it appears to much of the Arab world that we went to war in Iraq for oil, whether we did or not. In a 2007 poll by BBC News asking which countries are seen as having a "negative influence in the world," the survey found that Israel, Iran, United States and North Korea had the most negative influence, while nations such as Canada, Japan and the European Union had the most positive influence.
    • Ineffective prosecution of war. Amy Chua thinks the Iraq war has been managed inefficiently, with wasteful spending. One estimate is that the second Iraq War along with the so-called War on Terror cost $551 billion, or $597 billion in 2009 dollars. Boston University professor Andrew Bacevich has criticized American profligacy and squandering its wealth. There have been historical criticisms of U.S. warmaking capability; in the War of 1812, the U.S. was unable to conquer Canada despite several attempts and having superior resources; the U.S. Capitol was burned and the settlement ending the war did not bring any major concessions from the British.
    • Problem areas festering. Critics point to a list of countries or regions where continuing foreign policy problems continue to present problems. These areas include South America, including Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Brazil. There are difficulties with Central American nations such as Honduras. Iraq has continuing troubles. Iran, as well, presents problems with nuclear proliferation. Pakistan is unstable, there is active conflict in Afghanistan. The Mideast in general continues to fester, although relations with India are improving. Policy towards Russia remains uncertain. China presents an economic challenge. There are difficulties in other regions too. In addition, there are problems not confined to particular regions, but regarding new technologies. Cyberspace is a constantly changing technological area with foreign policy repercussions. Climate change is an unresolved foreign policy issue, particularly depending on whether nations can agree to work together to limit possible future risks.
    • Ineffective strategy to fight terrorism. Critic Cordesman criticized U.S. strategy to combat terrorism as not having enough emphasis on getting Islamic republics to fight terrorism themselves. Sometimes visitors have been misidentified as "terrorists." Mathews suggests the risk of nuclear terrorism remains unprevented.
    • Historical instances of ineffective policies. Generally during the nineteenth century, and in early parts of the twentieth century, the U.S. pursued a policy of isolationism and generally avoided entanglements with European powers. After World War I, Time Magazine writer John L. Steele thought the U.S. tried to return to an isolationist stance, but that this was unproductive. He wrote: "The anti-internationalist movement reached a peak of influence in the years just before World War II." But Steele questioned whether this policy was effective; regardless, isolationism ended quickly after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Analysts have wondered whether the U.S. pursued the correct strategy with Japan before World War II; by denying Japan access to precious raw materials, it is possible that U.S. policy triggered the surprise attack and, as a result, the U.S. had to fight a two-front war in both the Far East as well as Europe during World War II. While it may be the case that the Mideast is a difficult region with no easy solutions to avoiding conflict, since this volatile region is at the junction of three continents; still, many analysts think U.S. policy could have been improved substantially. The U.S. waffled; there was no vision; presidents kept changing policy. Public opinion in different regions of the world thinks that, to some extent, the 9/11 attacks were an outgrowth of substandard U.S. policy towards the region. The Vietnam War was a decade-long mistake.
  • 83. Ecological problems
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    There are a lot of places on our planet that need immediate help. Our country is not exception. The nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which took place on April 26, 1986., has seriously aggravated the ecological situation in Belarus. That catastrophe can be considered as the largest disaster of the 20th century. As the result of that accident 18% of territories of our republic were contaminated by radioactive elements. The agriculture of our country suffered great losses. More than 20% of the population has also suffered. A death rate among children has increased considerably. The wide researches are carried out, but health state of the people living in polluted areas, is worsened. The level of thyroid gland cancer has increased, the immunity of children and women is weakened, many diseases appear out only a few years later. Everyone understands that this catastrophe is a threat to health of our nation, and though years have already passed, the results will be shown on the future generations.

  • 84. Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 25.06.2010

    The structure of workers of the innovative enterprises is not homogeneous. So, along with science officers in these organisations engineers, and also technicians and laboratorians work. Besides, and work of scientists is not homogeneous for the maintenance. It can include original and typical works, and also the works of organizational character connected with the coordination and the control over activity of experts. Certainly, as the work schedule cannot be universal for all categories of workers of scientific division and even for experts of one category. At introduction of new types of operating schedules it is necessary to pay attention not only to a kind of work of experts, but also on economic gains (expenses on heating, illumination, rent of premises, a food of workers, payment of parking places etc.) and technical possibilities (presence of phones, faxes, personal computers etc.) . Besides, new types of operating schedules can be considered and as original not monetary methods of stimulation of productivity. So, for example, according to German researchers, about 20 % of workers a flexible operating schedule consider as a primary factor of positive motivation. As a whole the work schedule is characterised by stability. Usually people work 5 days in a week, 40 hours per week, from 9 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock in the evening, have standard lunch time. Along with obvious advantages, such mode has also lacks: traffic jams, turns at lifts are created. Besides, people often have stresses because are late for work, they have conflicts to the chief. As new types of an operating schedule usually name: the flexible hours, the compressed working week (the summarised working day), a partial employment. The flexible operating schedule is understood as the work schedule at which the worker can choose time of arrival-leaving in certain limits which are established by a management. The compressed working week represents the work schedule in which there is an exchange between quantity of the hours fulfilled daily, and quantity of the working days within a week. So, the usual number of hours can be fulfilled not for five days, and for four (for ten hours daily) or for three days (for twelve hours daily). The Partial employment (partial hiring)? It is work with performance of the same duties, but during smaller time. The greatest distribution to the scientific organisations the flexible hours (have got flexible time, flexible working hours). It is under construction in the different ways: and #61485; the Daily choice of time of the beginning and the work termination; and #61485; Variable duration of the working day; and #61485; Allocation of the general (присутственного) time (i.e. Time established by the head when all employees should be on work). Depending on flexibility degree, it is possible to allocate various types of schedules. We will consider them in a direction from least to the most flexible. All of them are used in practice. The flexible cycle demands from workers of a choice of certain time of the beginning and the work termination, and also work under this schedule during the certain period (for example, weeks). The sliding schedule allows to change time of the beginning and the work termination, but thus it is necessary to work a full time? 8 hours. Variable day allows to change duration of the working day (for example to work one day of 10 hours, and another? 6 hours but so that as a result in a weekend it has turned out only 40 hours or for a month of 160 hours). The sliding schedule and variable day are most effective in a branch science. Abroad analogue it are laboratories of industrial firms and a private small-scale business. Very much the flexible hours demand presence of workers during the general time (for example, from 10 o'clock in the morning to 2 o'clock in the afternoon, but only on Monday and Friday). Flexible placing allows to change not only hours, but also a work arrangement? It is possible to work at home, in branches, etc. The flexible hours cannot be used in the event that the work period depends on work of any equipment, for example, for the workers performing skilled and experimental works. The great value, along with a choice of an optimum operating mode for the scientist has time effective utilisation. It is possible to allocate three reasons aggravating congestion: and #61485; Small degree of delegation of responsibility; and #61485; incorrectly selected priorities; and #61485; too big absorption in daily efforts. For optimisation of use of time principles of Pareto and Eisenhower have great value. In 1897 The Italian economist Pareto has invented the formula showing that all blessings are distributed non-uniformly. In most cases the greatest share of incomes or the blessings belongs to a small number of people. M.S.Lorentz (the American economist) has illustrated this theory with the diagramme. The doctor D. M.Dzhuran has applied the diagramme to classification of problems of quality on not numerous essentially important and numerous insignificant and named this method the analysis of Pareto. Application of a principle of Pareto is expedient and at working hours planning. In this case means that concentration of attention on the vital activity most of all influences achievement of desirable results. The rule 20/80 from here follows: concentration of 20 % of time on the most important problems can lead to reception of 80 % of results. The others of 80 % of time provide only remained 20 % of results. Eisenhower's principle is important for definition of the importance of problems. Eisenhower subdivided problems on their importance and promptness into problems And, In and С "A-problems": very important and urgent? To carry out immediately. "In? Problems": important, not urgent? To define, in their what terms it is necessary to carry out." S-problems ": less important, but urgent? To delegate. Affairs which are not neither important, nor urgent should not distract attention of the head. In connection with the aforesaid, the great value gets definition of optimum parities between workers of various qualification. Optimum it is possible to consider such parity at which science officers do not carry out functions unusual for them. There are recommendations according to which optimum parity between technicians and engineers should make 0,3 / 1 at performance of researches and 1,7 / 1 at performance of developmental works. On the average this parity should make 1 / 2. Questions of formation of target groups in scientific personnel In a general view understand as group of two and more persons who co-operate with each other in such a manner that each person influences others and simultaneously is under the influence of other persons. It is noticed that association of workers in groups allows to solve a number of problems: As much as possible to use creative potential; to involve workers in managerial process. Target groups (time creative collectives), created of engineers and science officers have the features in comparison with quality mugs as before groups more difficult purposes are put. Practice of formation of target groups of the scientists working in various research divisions of firm is extended. Creation of such groups for working out of any one important problem gives the chance to be beyond existing departments and laboratories that is the important factor of increase of an efficiency of scientific research. Target groups of experts (time creative collectives) differ from circles of quality that operate on the basis of in advance formulated problem and always carry a temporality. They can be created for different terms: from 2-3 and more years. It defines also selection of participants of groups. Groups are created as for study of separate organizational or technical questions, and for the decision of difficult cardinal problems. The overall performance of groups is influenced by following factors: the size, structure, group norms, unity, a conflictness, the status and a functional role of its members. Before formation of target group (time creative collective) it is necessary to carry out the morphological analysis which leads to splitting of the general problem into a number of subtasks and reveals possible alternatives of their decision. Each subtask breaks into stages. To generate collective of executors, it is necessary to have the list of all subtasks which should be solved in the course of work performance; characteristics of each subtask with definition of requirements to their potential executors. Besides it is necessary to have a databank on all possible executors of work. At division of a task in view into subtasks each executor should know the concept of designing of all object. The new tendency is allocation of personnel services for needs of the time organizational structures which are engaged in process of innovations. Such personnel services also carry a temporality and move on divisions according to stages of realisation of the project. The actual organizer of work on attraction and personnel development is the head of the innovative enterprise who embodies the idea and is financially interested in innovation introduction. The head of division defines quantity of executors of each subtask, recognising that one executor performs from two to three stages of work. Selection of executors is carried out proceeding from complexity of performed work. Thus the potential of executors should be a little above, than demanded. At a stage of working out and realisation of the ideas which have been put forward by target groups, sometimes there are the so-called design groups, different in the big scales of carried out works and большей number of executors. In any target group select the most prepared experts. But even at the most careful selection almost always there is a distinction between them on readiness degree to performance of a problem assigned to them. In this connection training of less skilled executors at more qualified should be provided. Short-term employment on which each expert has an opportunity better will sometimes be organised to imagine sense of a collective problem and the basic approaches to its decision. Still большее value gets preliminary training at creation of the design groups which work has more long-term and complex character. In these cases for experts special seminars can be held. The seminar program should cover acquaintance of its participants with features of the organisation of works in design group, with specificity of planning, with establishment principles приоритетности in performance of works, methods of search of optimum decisions on the basis of the analysis of real situations. The attention is given also to working off of practical skills of teamwork in group. At a seminar there is an acquaintance of experts to the future project head which should spend some employment. It allows it to come into contact and to prepare participants of design group for forthcoming activity. Upon termination of a seminar to its participants the special certificate on the right to work over the project can stand out. In the USA creation of interfirm target and design groups is observed also. Usually in their structure experts from the external research organisations are involved. As a result of such cooperation from firm innovative structures in which are occupied both members of groups, and scientific shots can separate. In this case it is possible to define the innovative enterprise as target group which is created for industrial development and adjustment of sale of production based on the new technical concept.

  • 85. Economic crisis
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 09.05.2011

    Radically change the conditions of the last two or three decades, accompanied by a significant expansion of information resources, increased knowledge on the organization of social and economic processes together with the deepening of regional specialization imposes requirements for the evaluation of comprehensive development of the region and requires proper evaluation of the transition region as a complex set of zobmezhenoyu phenomena, essential for learning or research of the complex, qualitative evaluation of its individual components to complete its comprehensive general characteristics that meet the objectives of sustainable development. According to the evaluation criteria of comprehensive regional development along with economic, social, environmental and criteria should be balance, proportionality, stability, controllability. Real reflection of institutional contradictions and problems is incomplete and secondary employment, poor flow of labor reallocation between sectors of economic activity, the practice of granting administrative leave due to low capacity utilization, territorial uncontrolled circulation of labor. In regions of Ukraine growth in total labor turnover and labor mobility observed uAvtonomniy Republic of Crimea, Kyiv, Sevastopol and in Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Kharkiv regions. From half-day (week) occupied much of the staff of leading regional industries of transport and communications, industry, construction, high labor turnover has been generated in the field of hotels and restaurants, trade, repair services.

  • 86. Economic sanctions
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    Support âîîðóæ ё ííûõ of groups and groups on ё ìíèêîâ for intrusion on territory of other state. At last, among kinds of illegal application âîîðóæ ё ííîé of force the support âîîðóæ ё ííûõ of gangs and groups on ё ìíèêîâ for intrusion on territory of other state should be mentioned with the purpose of interference in his(its) internal businesses, in particular(personally) with the purpose of suppression occurring in í ё ì íàöèîíàëüíî-îñâîáîäèòåëüíîãî of movement(traffic). Åù ё in the agreements about íåíàïàäåíèè, çàêëþ÷ ё ííûõ the Soviet Union with other states in 20-th and 30-th years, provided the obligations of each party to not admit and to interfere with organization and activity on the territory âîîðóæ ё ííûõ of groups putting by the purpose struggle on territory of other party against å ё of government, for an overthrow state building, against integrity å ё of territory or appropriating(giving) to themselves a role of government by all or part å ё of territory. In the London conventions on definition(determination) of aggression of a 1933 of the party consider as one of kinds âîîðóæ ё ííîé of aggression support by the state, « rendered âîîðóæ ё ííûì to gangs, which being are formed(educated) on his(its) territory, have intruded on territory of other state, or failure(refusal), despite of requests of the state which has undergone to intrusion to accept on own territory all measures, dependent on him,(it,) for deprivation of named gangs of the help or protection » (item 5 of an item. II). In the project of the code of crimes against the world and safety of mankind accepted the Commission of the international law a UN on å ё of 6-th session in a 1954, as one of such crimes specified « organization by authorities of any state or encouragement by them of organization âîîðóæ ё ííûõ øàåê within the limits of his(its) territory for intrusion territory of other state, or assumption of use by such âîîðóæ ё ííûìè øàéêàìè of his(its) territory as operative base or basic point for intrusion on territory of other state, no less than direct sharing(participation) in such intrusion or support those » 1.

  • 87. Economic system. Changes in economic situation of Russia
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    A traditional economy is an economic system in which resources are allocated by inheritance, and which has a strong social network and is based on primitive methods and tools. It is strongly connected to subsistence farming. In the majority of countries traditional economy has been replaced by command economy, market economy or mixed economy. However, it is found today mainly in underdeveloped, agricultural parts of South America, Asia, and Africa. There are some advantages and disadvantages in a traditional economy. Advantages: a traditional economy fosters the sense of community, as it causes little friction among members and provides a sense of security and psychological comfort. Subsequently, there is a relatively low unemployment rate and low crime rate. A traditional economy allows for a greater degree of autonomy as no money or little is given to the government and there is no competition. Disadvantages: a traditional economy does not allow for much economic growth and development as changes are very slow and there is a lack of social mobility. A traditional economy does not take advantage of technology and there is relatively little promotion of intellectual and scientific development. With no incentives for entrepreneurs, the consumer choice is diminished, which leads to a lower standard of living.

  • 88. Economics as human art
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 16.01.2010

    Economics is as old as the human race: it is probably the first art which man acquired. When some cavemen went out to hunt while others remained to defend the fire or when skins were traded for flint axes we had economics. But economics as an academic discipline is relatively new: the first major book on economics Adam Smith´s “The Wealth of Nations” was published in 1776. Since that time the subject has developed rapibly and there are now many branches of the subjects such as microeconomics, international economics and econometrics as well as many competing schools of thought.

  • 89. Economics. Demand, supply, and elasticity
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 15.11.2007

    The false-cause fallacy often arises in economic analysis of two correlated actions or events. When one observes that two actions or events seem to be correlated, it is often tempting to conclude that one event has caused the other. But by doing so, one may be committing the false-cause fallacy, which is the simple fact that correlation does not imply causation. For example, suppose that new tape-recorder prices have steadily increased over some period of time and the new tape-recorder sales have also increased over this same period. One might then conclude that an increase in the price of new tape-recorders causes an increase in their sales. This false conclusion is an example of the false-cause fallacy; the positive correlation between the two events does not imply that there is any causation between them. In order to explain why both events are taking place simultaneously, one may have to look at other factors for example, rising consumer incomes, inflation, or rising producer costs.

  • 90. Education and qualifications
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 06.10.2010

    During the interview look directly at the interviewer and answer all of his/her questions as specifically as you can. Ask any questions that you have about the job, such as hours, salary, or job benefits. Write down these questions before you go to the interview. Before you leave, there should be a clear understanding about all aspects of the job.

  • 91. Education in the Middle Ages
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.08.2010
  • 92. Effective communication in different cultures
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.04.2012

    use good manners in everyday communication (e.g. not have food in your mouth when speaking)- use respectful language: use kind words and not swear, use certain form of an utterance (when asking for something say 'May I please have that' - not 'give me that.')- use a proper tone in your voice so as not to be condescending to the other person- look at the person (make eye contact)- say greeting words, say good-bye, sorry and thank you when it is necessary- introduce yourself/a new person- not interrupt when someone else is speaking- listen when someone else is speaking and hear what they are saying- apologize and ask for forgiveness when impoliteness happens, and try not to do it againexist some theories of politeness, one of those being Brown and Levinsons whose basic notion is face, or individuals self-esteem [1]. In other words, it implies peoples desire, on the one hand, for freedom to act (negative face), and, on the other hand, to be liked, approved of and included (positive face) [3]. Successful social interaction requires that speakers pay attention to both negative and positive face of their interlocutor; when either is potentially at risk, the speaker must take steps to minimise the threat by saying something in a way that offends as little as possible. So we can state that the greater the imposition and the greater the social distance between participants, the more face-work is required [3].speech act that is a potential threat to an interlocutors face is the request [3]. Politeness is connected with mitigating a direct form of asking for something and expressing an idea non-directly which means one applying a different grammatical form in the sentence, in this case the form of a question, most often a modal one. If you want somebody to bring you a definite book you would sooner say Can you bring me the book? rather than Bring the book. The two phrases are likely to leave quite a different impression on one and the same hearer, the former perceived naturally as a request to bring the book, the latter a command. Phrase #1 serves a good start for a probably successful minidialogue. Phrase #2 can make a native speaker doubt the interlocutors intentions and make him or her think of the speaker as a rude person., we can say that speaking politely means saying sentences of the kind Could you…?, Can you…? and so on. However, once we recall such an enormously important speech feature as intonation we could be struck how significantly it may change our view of politeness. Just pronounce the same sentence Can you bring the book for me? with different intonation imagining that you are irritated or annoyed by your interlocutor who wont bring you the book though he had promised to. If you try this difference when speaking to people, the effect is sure to be different. Intonation is surprisingly powerful in making a conversation either a failure or success. Will you please sit down can be pronounced with a lot of variations of voice tone, timbre, loudness, accentuation and tempo and at the same time the speaker will have a certain intention which is going to be reflected in these changes of the intonation of the whole phrase.is first to be perceived by ear, rather than the verbal component of an utterance. So any utterance or just sentence has intonation because even if it is not pronounced it is meant to either out loud or in the inner speech. Intonation is a complex phenomenon consisting of pitch, or speech melody, intensity, or loudness, tempo, or rate of speech, sentence stress, or accentuation, and rhythm (though different linguists distinguish different number and quality of the components). It is not only melodic characteristics that can make an utterance polite or impolite. For example, if in reply to my having given her what she had asked for, my friend will say Thank you rather quickly and quickly as well will leave me, I wouldnt consider such Thank you polite. There are general rules of speaking politely that must exist in various cultures. They include speaking not very loudly (using moderate intensity); speaking not very fast; speaking with a certain melody (e.g. using not very high tone); speaking with not very high emotion but in a more or less reserved way; not using gruff and rude gestures.each language has a set of special rules of polite speaking including rules of usage of vocabulary, grammatical forms and intonation patterns. The way politeness is expressed in the English language must be very interesting to know for non-native speakers. There exists a real problem with the word please which can be considered a politeness marker though does not necessarily make an utterance polite. English (as well as Russian) children are taught that it is the magic word to be used when asking for something. How does this magic word relate to politeness? According to Francis Lide, please is a word more optional than necessary for polite communication [2]. If we take a modal question with will inserting there please and say something like Will you please sit down the most likely situation for this sentence would be when the speaker is angry at someone who refuses to sit down and would be pronounced with emphasis on almost each word [2]. According to Anne Wichmann, please occurs mainly in requests, but not all types of request require please [3]. The Compact Oxford English Dictionary says please serves to add urgency and emotion to a request. On the other hand, the addition of please can be considered a further way of softening the force of requests, particularly if they are in the form of imperatives, in which case the force of command is reduced to that of a request [3]. Please typically occurs in standard situations for example in service encounters, where the right to ask for something and the obligation to give it is inherent in the event [3]. It also occurs when what is being requested is a minimal imposition on the hearer (such as passing the salt at table, e.g. Can you pass the sour cream please). In situations where the imposition is greater or the rights and obligations of the participants are not self-evident, please does not occur [3].

  • 93. Emblems of the UK
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 12.11.2010

    In the Royal Arms three lions symbolize England, a lion rampant Scotland, and a harp Ireland. The whole is encircled and is supported by a lion and a unicorn. The lion has been used as a symbol of national strength and of the British monarchy for many centuries. The unicorn, a mythical animal that looks like a horse with a long straight horn, has appeared on the Scottish and British royal coats of arms for many centuries, and is a symbol of purity.

  • 94. Employment
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 27.03.2006

    Most people like to think that personality can change, particularly the more negative features. But date affected over 50 years gives a clear message: still stable after all these years. Personal crises can affect the way we cope with things: we might take up or drop drink, drugs. Skills can be improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather different rates. People can be groomed for a job. Of course, people can be sent on training courses, diplomas, but better to select for what you actually see rather than attempt to change it.

  • 95. English football lexis and its influence on Russian
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 18.12.2011

    The most frequent goal scoring phrases with net consists of the (recurring strings of words that may or may not have linguistic integrity) the back/ roof/ corner of the net .These occurred mostly in the constructions hit/find the back of the net and [Verb] the ball/cross (etc.) into the roof/corner of the net. While the former is usually used simply as a synonym to score a goal, as in an example below, the later construction is a neat way of describing how and by whom a goal was scored, and where the ball went in.or later we had to start hitting the back of the net.verb slot for the back of the net is mostly filled by the verbs hit and find, whereas the roof/corner of the net occurs with a wide variety of transitive and intransitive verbs. Curl (закрутить в ворота), hammer (заколотить в ворота), poke (затолкать в ворота) and sidefoot only constitute a handful of the more than 50 types found. Some of these verbs, like hammer, are metaphorical, while others like sidefoot can be argued to be metonymic.Scunthorpe withstood the pressure and scored in injury time with the very last kick of the match, Jan Helliwell curling a free kick into the corner of the net. [13, 147]roof/corner of the net construction is similar to empty net and own net below in that there is a core in the constructions, which is hard to specify, with slots allowing almost limitless variation. For the roof/corner of the net there is a real-world limitation to the number of specifiable places where a ball can hit the net, while no such limitations appear to apply to the number of ways a ball can be conveyed into it.next phrase, (the ball) in the net, occurs with a restricted set of verbs, normally only have, put and get. Like the metonymic constructions above, the ball reaching the net is highlighted as a salient feature of scoring. Two distinct meanings are expressed with this phrase, the first of which refers to the superficially simple task of scoring the goals (usually with put or get).told me he needs somebody to put the ball in the net.second meaning (usually with the verb have) relates to cases where the goal is disallowed.had the ball in the net after 65 minutes but the effort was disallowed.Snarrocks men had the ball in the net in injury time but only after Alex Mathie had bundled Leighton over the time., it is mentioned explicitly that the goal did not count, with phrases like was ruled offside or was disallowed but sometimes more implicit means are used, where readers have to infer that that a free-kick was awarded to the defending side.Snarrocks men had the ball in the net in injury time but only after Alex Mathie had bundled Leighton over the time.phrases are motivated by metonymy, their meanings are not always predictable. Similarity, some knowledge of the conversations of football reporting for readers to be able to interpret phrases such as the ball in the net expressing meanings particular to the field. [13, 148]goal-scoring phrase with net is based on empty net (пустые ворота). An/the empty net is the metonymic expression used when there are no defending players obstructing the passage to the goal. The net is empty net does not, as in the previously discussed phrases, refer to the meshed fabric at the back of the goal, but rather to the goalmouth.Voyley sealed Stokes fate when he rounded keeper Runnie Sinclair to stroke the ball into an empty net with a minute to go.phrase is another illustration of both the fixedness and variability of language. In the material similar to the back/roof/corner of the net above, it can be argued that there is a SPACE, but it presupposes familiarity of the length of a football match.the dying/closing minutes/на последних минутах and in the opening minutes/на первых минутах, referring to, respectively, to the final and the initial minutes of the match, are similar to the nth minutes in their origin in the conceptual metaphor TIME IS SPACE. The dying minutes also involves personification, since a sporting event is conceptualized as a living entity.put the ball in the net in the dying minutes but the goal was disallowed for offside.phrases in the dying/closing/opening minutes are virtually limited to sports, and to football in particular. These phrases could conceivably be used outside sport relating to events with fixed beginnings or ends, and where time is measured in minutes, but there were only few instances of this (referring to e.g. concerts)preposition from occurs in phrases expressing the number of minutes remaining in a game, as in minute(s) from time and minute(s) from the end.Nevin scored the third five minutes from time.

  • 96. English in business
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 31.01.2010

    a) Directive decision makers. These people are task-oriented and have a strong need for power, wanting to feel they are in control of others. They also have a low tolerance for ambiguity and prefer to keep things pragmatic and simple. They tend to take decisions on the basis of less information, using fewer alternatives. They need to feel that the decision is theirs to make and no one else's.

    1. Analytic decision makers. These people are also task-oriented. They need to achieve things and are highly motivated when dealing with a challenge. They are more tolerant of ambiguity than directive decision makers, and can tolerate higher information loads. They take time to analyze in more detail the various possible courses of action.
    2. Conceptual decision makers. Such individuals also have a strong need for achievement. But they are people-oriented and less analytical. They are comfortable with high information loads but their data collection methods may be through talking to people, especially experts. They tend to be more creative than the more analytical decision makers and think about what can produce the best results in the long term.
    3. Behavioural decision makers. These individuals have a strong people orientation. They tend to communicate easily, using simple and understandable messages(with low cognitive complexity). They consult with others, are open to suggestions and happy to compromise. They prefer a looser sense of leadership control. "I prefer everyone to "own" the decisions that are mine".
  • 97. English language for technical colleges
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 24.10.2009

    2 форма3 форма4 формаПереводto bewas/werebeenbeingбыть, находитьсяto bearborebornbearingнестиto beatbeatbeatenbeatingбитьto beginbeganbegunbeginningначинать(ся)to bendbentbentbendingгнутьto bindboundboundbindingпереплетатьto bitebitbitten/bitbitingкусатьto blowblewblownblowingдутьto breakbrokebrokenbreakingломатьto bringbroughtbroughtbringingприноситьto buildbuiltbuiltbuildingстроитьto burstburstburstburstingгореть, жечьto buyboughtboughtbuyingпокупатьto catchcaughtcaughtcatchingловитьto choosechosechosenchoosingвыбиратьto cutcutcutcuttingрезать, рубитьto divedived/dovediveddivingнырятьto dodiddonedoingделатьto drawdrewdrawndrawingрисовать, тащитьto drinkdrankdrunkdrinkingпитьto drivedrovedrivendrivingвестиto eatateeateneatingесть, кушатьto fallfellfallenfallingпадатьto feelfeltfeltfeelingчувствоватьto feedfedfedfeedingкормитьto fightfoughtfoughtfightingбороться, дратьсяto flyflewflownflyingлетатьto forbidforbadeforbiddenforbiddingзапрещатьto forgetforgotforgottenforgettingзабыватьto forgiveforgaveforgivenforgivingпрощатьto freezefrozefrozenfreezingзамораживатьto getgotgotgettingполучать, становитьсяto givegavegivengivingдаватьto gowentgonegoingидти, ехатьto growgrewgrowngrowingрасти, выращиватьto hanghunghunghangingвисеть, вешатьto havehadhadhavingиметьto hearheardheardhearingслышатьto hithithithittingударятьto holdheldheldholdingдержатьto hurthurthurthurtingповредитьto knowknewknownknowingзнатьto laylaidlaidlayingнакрыватьto leadleadleadleadingвестиto leapleapt/leapedleapt/leapedleapingпрыгать, скакатьto leaveleftleftleavingпокидать, оставлятьto lendlentlentlendingдавать взаймыto letletletlettingпозволятьto lielaylainlyingлежатьto lightlitlitlightingзажигатьto loselostlostlosingтерятьto makemademademakingделатьto meetmetmetmeetingвстречать (ся)to paypaidpaidpayingплатитьto putputputputtingкласть, ставитьto readreadreadreadingчитатьto rideroderiddenridingехать (верхом)to ringrangrungringingзвонить, звенетьto riseroserisenrisingподниматьto runranrunrunningбежатьto saysaidsaidsayingговорить, сказатьto seesawseenseeingвидетьto sellsoldsoldsellingпродаватьto sendsentsentsendingпосещать, отправлятьto shakeshookshakenshakingтрястиto shineshoneshoneshiningсветить, сиятьto shootshotshotshootingстрелять, сниматьto showshowedshownshowingпоказыватьto singsangsungsingingпетьto sinksanksunksinkingтонутьto sitsatsatsittingсидетьto sleepsleptsleptsleepingспатьto speakspokespokenspeakingговорить, разговариватьto spendspentspentspendingтратить, проводить времяto standstoodstoodstandingстоятьto stealstolestolenstealingворовать, украстьto stickstuckstuckstickingприлипатьto strikestruckstruckstrikingбить, ударятьto swearsworeswornswearingклястьсяto sweepsweptsweptsweepingмести, подметатьto swimswamswumswimmingплаватьto taketooktakentakingвзять, братьto teachtaughttaughtteachingучить, обучатьto teartoretorntearingрватьto telltoldtoldtellingсказать, сообщатьto thinkthoughtthoughtthinkingдуматьto throwthrewthrownthrowingбросать,

  • 98. English speaking countries
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 17.02.2010

    Canadians, of whom there are more tnan 30 million, become accustomed to the disproportional size of the country by the time they have studied its geography at school. Newcomers to Canada if they know nothing else about it know that it is capacious. But most cannot help but be impressed with even the most basik statistics on our planet`s second biggest nation, which is exceeded in area only by Russia. Occupying over 9,976,000 square kilometres, Canada extends from the Northwest Territories` Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island a relative hop and skip from the North Pole to Pelee Island in Ontario`s portion of Lake Erie and with the same latitude as central Spain. Canada`s neighbour across the Arctic Ocean is Russia. That is a north-south distance of 2,850 miles. The east to west span is 5,780 miles from Cape Spear, Newfoundland, to Mount St. Elias, the Yukon Territory six distinct time zones. Canada`s border with the United States is one of the longest: it extends 8,892 km and is broken by scores of entry-exit points between the two nations. It is near this frontier that some 85 per cent of the Canada`s populace is clustered.

  • 99. English Theoretical Grammar
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 22.01.2011

    3. It is doubtful whether the grammatical category of gender exists in Modern English for it is hardly ever expressed by means of grammatical forms. There is practically one gender-forming suffix in Modern English, the suffix ess, expressing feminine gender. It is not widely used (heir heiress, poet poetess, actor actress).

    1. The basic meaning of the category of number is the opposition of the singularity and the plurality of objects. The plurality implies an amount exceeding one. The singular number is conveyed by the basic form, i.e. by the form which has no endings and which coincides with the stem. The plural number is graphically conveyed by the s formant that materializes itself as a number of allomorphs (/s/, /z/, /iz/) depending on the character of the final sound of the stem (books, cats, dogs, potatoes, classes, bushes). However, there are other, unproductive means of forming the plural form (children, nuclei, phenomena, feet, mice). And finally, there are some nouns that do not possess the formal features of either plural or singular number (sheep, deer, swine, news, scissors, trousers).
    2. Of the two number forms, the singular number is compulsory for all nouns, except for pluralia tantum. The reason for this fact is that the singular number is capable of conveying not only the availability of quantity (one) but also the absence of quantitative measurements for uncountables. The plural form always conveys some quantitative relationship; it is due to this fact that the plural number is capable of conveying the concretion of an abstract notion: a noun denoting a generalized feature (a quality or a feeling) may also convey manifestations which are occasional (attentions, joys).
  • 100. English topics
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    My favorite foreign writer is O.Henry. He was born in 1862. O.Henry is one of the most widely published American authors. His works have been translated into many languages. The best of his stories were published in books: ''Cabbages and Kings'', "The 4 million", "Heart of West" and others. His credo was-art should be true, democratic, it should address contemporary life and embrace all aspects of life. O.Henry was an outstanding humorist. He worked out and enriched all the types of the short story: the anecdote, the adventure story, tales and sketches. He was most famous for his stories of city life. O.Henry wrote about 150 stories with a New York background. He was a born writer of great talent. In childhood I was deeply impressed by his story "The Last Leaf". Since then I bear in my heart the image of a young girl suffering from serious illness and her friends doing everything they can do to give her hope and bring her back to life. The author penetrates deeply into a person's soul and reveals its best qualities. His love for humanity, for common people, for critical attitude towards injustice attracts readers to this day.