Доклад пополнение в коллекции 24.09.2010
- 61. Computer System
Congress of the United States
Информация пополнение в коллекции 30.01.2011
Both houses facilitate business by a committee system, and each has a fixed number of permanent committees, called standing committees, the chief function of which is considering and preparing legislation. Each house may create an indeterminate number of impermanent committees, known as select committees, for investigations of profiteering in war contracts, of election frauds, and of subversive activities. These select committees, which expire when their purposes are fulfilled, are created on the theory that their investigations are useful in framing legislation. Since 1800, Congress has found it expedient to establish a number of joint standing committees. Temporary joint committees are also established occasionally by Congress. A notable one was the Joint Congressional Committee on Labor-Management Relations, created by the Labor-Management Relations (Taft-Hartley) Act of 1947, to observe the operation of that law and to make a final report on it to Congress on January 2, 1949. Differences between the two houses of Congress over legislation, usually in the form of amendments made by one house to bills initiated by the other, are generally reconciled in conference committees consisting of managers appointed by the presiding officers of the two houses. If no agreement is reached by the conference committees, the legislation in dispute fails.
- 62. Congress of the United States
Constellations of the star sky
Информация пополнение в коллекции 17.11.2009
Not all constellations can be found at once in the sky as many of them consist of weak stars, and only about 30 constellations are accurately allocated with the contours and bright stars. Constellations of the Big Dipper, Pegasa, Kassiopei, Voznichego, the Lion concern them and others. The areas occupied with constellations in the sky, and number of stars in them far are not identical. By the way, we will notice that distances between visible positions of stars in the sky are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds of an arch, and the areas occupied with constellations in the sky, - in square degrees. From bright constellations the greatest on the area is the constellation of the Big Dipper occupying the space in 1280 square degrees and numbering, besides seven bright stars of a ladle, 118 more stars, visible with the naked eye. The most small constellation is in southern hemisphere of the sky and it is not visible in territory of Russia is a beautiful bright constellation of the Southern Cross, the area in 68 square degrees, consisting of five bright and weaker 25 stars. The smallest constellation of northern sky usually do not know, as it consists only of 10 weak stars visible with the naked eye; it is called as constellation of the Small Horse, has the area in 72 square degrees and adjoins southwest border of constellation of Pegasa.
- 63. Constellations of the star sky
Информация пополнение в коллекции 16.11.2010
As consumer markets become more and more competitive, marketers need to understand very thoroughly both the needs and desires of their potential consumers; which product features can be combined to satisfy these needs and desires. A better knowledge of consumer behavior can enhance the companys understanding of itself and its environment. Product bought by habit and low involvement purchases such as health supplements tend to be purchased more frequently in which provide a greater opportunity for positive reinforcement and brand loyalty. With each successive purchase of the same brand, the chances of consumers buying again increases until there is a high probability that the consumer will continue to repurchase. It is important for marketing management to identify the position of its brand in the market and as the strategic implications of this applies to every aspect of the marketing strategy. Companies selling low-involvement, habitual products such as health supplements must ensure that their products are distributed extensively. This is because the health supplements industry produces high turnover and low margin products. Widespread distribution is important as consumers seeing the products often will help remind them to buy, and it also keeping with the fact that the most consumers purchase the health supplements from a particular store because of the stores convenience. Many health supplements companies have been successful in their distribution of their products. Healtheries has climbed to number on in personal products in the supermarkets, this success is attributed to the channel switching from chemists and health food shops to super market chains. (Marketing, 1999, p.23). Many consumers buy from stores like pharmacies and health food stores because they need to seek more information about the health supplements products; therefore, it is important that the retailers can provide information for their customers. The nature of advertising and promotion also differs according to the involvement level of the purchase. In low-involvement decision process, consumers engage in very little external search before they make a purchase. Therefore it is crucial that consumers immediately think of the companys brand when they recognise a problem.
- 64. Consumer behavior
Continental legal system
Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 10.08.2011
M. N in his work defines the general sources of the right for the legal systems, which are entered into Romano-German a legal family:legal acts led by the law.Romano-German countries of a legal family, it is considered that for the lawyer the best way of an establishment of the fair decision corresponding to the right is the reference to the law.in judgements the importance of the law in the romano-German legal system becomes obvious that to the judge in decision-making the supporting role is taken away. Actions of the judge here is better are defined by the term "submission to the law, i.e. his tusk is reduced to search and application of that rule of law which in the best way describes a disputable situation. all countries of the romano-German legal family there are hand-written constitutions behind which norms the higher legal authority expressed and admits in establishment of judicial control over constitutionality .to V.Knappa, some countries have refused judicial control over constitutionality of laws, for example the Netherlands, France where it was promoted by the reasons historical matters.estimate the practical importance of judicial control over constitutionality of laws, it is necessary to consider various factors. So, scales of this control it is, less, if the constitution concerns the category nonrigid, rather easily changed. These scales will be less and in those countries where the right to suspend the constitution is given executive power. Told concerns many countries of Africa and America. the majority of the continental countries are accepted and operate civil (either civil or trading), criminal, grazhdansko-remedial, criminally-remedial and some other codes. concept of norms accepted in a legislative order recognizes that in this system of norms containing the norms not only in certificates, accepted by a legislature, but also in the certificates proceeding from executive - administrative and administrative bodies. various countries of the Romano-German right character and the name of certificates far aren't identical. For example into France except laws in system of is standard - legal certificates enter the certificates published according to item 37 of the Constitution of France, on questions, not entering into legislation sphere. Besides to a kind of sources of the right concern ordonances- certificates Constitutions of France accepted according to item 38 the government (Ministerial council), Constitutions of the states of the European Union. According to item 76 of the Constitution of Italy legislative decreets concern system of regulatory legal acts. Also the decreets of the president which are valid the law, and regulations concern system of regulatory legal acts in Italy.- the rule of the behavior which has developed on the basis of constant and uniform repetition of given actual relationscustom rare enough in the Romano-German right, in own way the unique phenomenon which not only isn't welcomed understandably, but, on the contrary, is in every possible way limited, and in some national systems legislatively it is forbidden. a whole position of custom in Romano-German system it is right rather originally.can operate not only in addition to the law, but also except the law. Situations when the custom occupies position against the law (for example, in the navigating right of Italy where the sea custom prevails over norm of the Civil code) are possible. the custom has lost character of an independent source of the right on right Romano-German modern development.practice, judicial precedentsis such legally significant behavior of the power which took place at least one only time, but can be an example for the subsequent behavior of this power. Differently, legal precedent is a decision юрисдикционных and administrative bodies on concrete business which is accepted subsequently to the general obligatory rule at the permission of similar affairs. judgement based, for example, on analogy of the law or on the general principles, can be perceived by other courts after decision passage through cassation instance as actual precedent.researchers give particular attention to the granted kind of a source of the right.is caused, on the one hand, by the practical importance of precedent as source of the continental right, and with another - discrepancy, is more exact - uncertainty of its position, a place and a role of system of other sources of the roman-German right. same Marchenko M. N allocates three groups. The first group includes the countries which completely support precedent. In other legal systems precedent isn't perceived at all. And in the third group - Romano-German to system precedent takes rather uncertain place in right sources.precedent as one of right sources first of all it is necessary to pay attention, on historically developed in Romano's countries - the German right rather inconsistent traditions and customs. international contractsdevelopment of international communications the great value for systems of the right of the separate countries gets international law. In some states the big validity, than to internal laws is given to the international contracts. The constitution of Germany (1949) For example, establishes that the general norms of international law have advantage before laws and directly generate the rights and duties for inhabitants of federal territory (item 25). to interpretation of norms international the contract that it can be carried to the competence of supranational jurisdictions. In these cases at serious doubts in how such contract should be interpreted, national court it is necessary to refuse its interpretation. The state of affairs with Roman and Parisian contracts by which in 1951 and 1957 different European communities have been created is that. doctrineRomano - the German right the term the doctrine is used widely enough. In Marchenko's work as the doctrine understands the following: as the doctrine, the filosofsko-legal theory; as opinions of scientists-lawyers on those or other questions, concerning essence and the maintenance of various legal certificates, on questions of lawcreation and lawunderstanding; as proceedings of the most authoritative researchers in the field of the state and the right; in the form of comments of the various codes, separate laws, the annotated versions» (models) of various regulatory legal acts.doctrine develops receptions and methods of an establishment, interpretation and right realization. Besides creators be right can't be free from influence of legal doctrines: more or it is less realized, but it should take the part this or that legal concept, to perceive its offers and V.K.Babayev's recommendation. the countries of the romano-German legal family as it is possible to allocate the simple administrative circulars, specifying as the administration understands the rule of law and as she intends to apply it. Administrative officials frequently know the right only under office instructions which they receive in the form of circulars; and more often they prefer to be limited to these instructions not to have troubles from the higher heads.
- 65. Continental legal system
Control in management
Информация пополнение в коллекции 21.08.2010
- 66. Control in management
Creation of control system by a personnel how to begin with a zero
Информация пополнение в коллекции 27.10.2010
Thus, if we embark on the first point of our skilled strategy, namely selection, reception and planning of personnel, we must create the row of documents necessarily. In my opinion, it costs to begin from a request on the selection of personnel. These requests actively use to the shot and рекрутингові agencies during work with clients, but rarely internal managers from a personnel, although to no purpose. Yes, on creation of such to the form it is needed to spend little time, but he occupies itself fully. In fact a manager from a personnel clearly presents requirements to the open vacancy and knows that it is possible to offer to the potential candidates. In addition, important is that this request a manager from a personnel fills directly with a leader which then asserts her. Such step in the future will protect the department of work with a personnel from the unnecessary complaining on disparity of the selected candidates to the requirements declared before. In fact if a request is absent, these requirements can several times change, something can призабутися about something simply can forget to warn. And at presence of the ratified request a department from a personnel will know clearly, that is exactly required from a new worker. Thus, if to pass to practice, then such request for us contains next data:
- general information is about a vacancy (region and city, branch, department where vacant position, clear name of position, date of filling of request and term of her closing, appeared, even submissions: who a man submits and who will be in her submission);
- terms of work (address of job, graphic arts of work, duration of trial period, payment on a trial period and after him, compensative package);
- description of position (basic functional promises and other nuances which touch this position);
- requirements are to the candidate (general information: age, sex, education; personal and business lines, knowledge and skills);
- circle of persons which make decision in relation to a candidate;
- except for principal items, a request contains, yet such division as notes (he can be named variously). Here it costs to write some special things, mainly informal which touch a vacancy. For example, features of collective, feature of region and, in accordance with them, wish in relation to the features of candidate and other
- 67. Creation of control system by a personnel how to begin with a zero
Creon and Antigone: Origins of Conflict through the Concept of Relative Virtues
Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 19.09.2010
- 68. Creon and Antigone: Origins of Conflict through the Concept of Relative Virtues
Crimes of the business world
Доклад пополнение в коллекции 08.10.2010
- 69. Crimes of the business world
Доклад пополнение в коллекции 30.07.2010
- 70. Criminology
Criticism of Vladimir Propp’s Theory on Genesis of Magic Fairy Tales’ Structure
Информация пополнение в коллекции 03.12.2009
Since the world in its intrinsic definitions depends on a person, for the profound comprehension of the world it becomes obviously necessary to solve the problem of human essence. To put it otherwise, defining the world as projection of humanly significant senses on an objective reality places the emphasis on the very person. Hence in the research there were considered the typological approximations to a person. The first of them gives the person the naturalistic and essential definitions. Usually the essence of a person is defined by the list of the most significant indications, as it is considered, or by leading the concept person under a wider concept (an animal, a being) with its further concretization. Nevertheless, if to recognize, that any of the mentioned intrinsic features of a person is not characteristic for a concrete individual, it unambiguously leads to a conclusion, that the person, who is deprived even of these essential features, actually is not a person. Therefore, the definition of the person as an active animal making the tools of labour, a moral creature, and a being that has religion or a biped animal without feathers etc. cannot be considered satisfactory as there are legless invalids, people who made a vital principle of idleness, people frankly immoral or atheists.
- 71. Criticism of Vladimir Propp’s Theory on Genesis of Magic Fairy Tales’ Structure
Cultural and linguistic features of the use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English and Ukrainian
Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 29.05.2012
The private-scientific study of any object or subject of reality cannot be limited to their own units and categories, especially in the case of such a complex phenomenon as language. The comparison of languages reveals defects as monistic view of human nature, as a special human gift, which is the language [10, 21]. The comparison of language is an emergence in various spiritual and mental worlds of different nations, i.e. access to the substance of the highest order which is essentially multidimensional and unknowable to the end. According to O.S. Kubryakova the term concept is like an umbrella, he covers subject spheres of several research styles: first of all cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics which concerned about thinking and learning, storage and processing of information [9, 90]. Cognitive linguistics together with cognitive psychology are designed to answer the questions about how the human mind is organized and how language reveals the mental space, how other people and nations see the world and how these differences are expressed in their language and communication [11, 41]. The entire human cognitive activity can be regarded as having developed the ability to navigate the world and is associated with the need to distinguish objects. Thus, the formation of concepts related to the comprehension of the world and forming ideas about it.the end of XX century linguists have realized that a native speaker is a carrier of certain relevant conceptual systems. Each concept associations are important to human knowledge about the world and yet rejected unnecessary idea. The system concept creates the picture of the world showing the understanding of human reality, its special concept picture on which a person thinks about the world [11, 41].should be noted that the concepts are the result of two tendencies: the desire to display dialectical world, that is to reflect the world as it is, and the desire to construct the world in order to subordinate his will and desire of a man, that is to introduce the world easier, more rigid and deterministic to the extent that is necessary and sufficient for a person to solve practical problems.semantic space of a particular language consists of concepts and we can talk about the structure of knowledge under it. Cognitive linguistics are not guided by linguistic elements and units that are specific in origin, they appear as the guides of any information and fully or partly manifested in the language. To indicate these units used the term concepts.to the fact that modern scientific thought does not make a single definition of the phenomenon of concept we present different approaches to its interpretation. Typically, researchers offer different definitions of the concept. Thus, scientists working in the mainstream cultural studies (S.G. Vorkachev, V.I. Karasik etc.) consider that the concept is the main fact of ethnic and cultural conditionality in determining while other representatives of cognitive linguistics (O.S. Kubryakova, Z. Popova , I.A. Sternin etc.) emphasize, first of all, the mental essence of the concept and its belongings to the sphere of consciousness of the individual.to the literary dictionary: The concept (Latin Concipere - to form) is formulation, mental image, the general idea, the notion that dominates by the work of art or literary article[4, 373].encyclopedic dictionary treats concept as the phenomenon of the same order as the meaning of the word, but seen in another system connections like the value in the system of language, like the term in the system of logical relations and forms that are studied both in linguistics and in logic [12, 384].Encyclopedic Dictionary of Philosophy concept is treated as one of the logical forms of thinking in the opposite judgment and opinion, which consist of concepts. There is a distinction between the concepts that we use in everyday life and logical ones. It is noted that in the thinking of people or individuals concepts are formed not by perception and integration inherent in the group of subjects, the same signs, and because of initially perceived and done over again the concept of substantial properties of things [18, 354].lot of works are published on various issues of conceptology today including interpretation of the term concept. The definition of the concept we relied on the work corresponding to our understanding of the concept. Thus, S. Askoldov, one of the founders of the doctrine of the concept, defines it as mental formation that replaces us in the process of thinking uncategorized plurality of items of the same kind [1, 269]. Conceived in his opinion, the concept is not always a substitute for real objects it can replace some of the real object or action, such as the concept of justice and, in general, replace all sorts of highly accurate and only thinking function [2, 270].determining the types of concepts (cognitive and artistic) S. Askoldov, on the one hand, emphasized their unity (concepts of cognitive character only seemingly quite far from poetry. In fact, they feed their underground roots by irrational values and uncategorized element of poetic words and techniques [2, 268]) and on the other hand differentiated them as: [2, 274 - 275]
- 72. Cultural and linguistic features of the use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English and Ukrainian
Статья пополнение в коллекции 25.08.2006
Culture shock has several stages. The 1st stage is the incubation stage. During the first few weeks most individuals are fascinated by the new. This time is called the "honeymoon" stage, as everything encountered is new and exciting. This stage may last from a few days or weeks to six months, depending on the circumstances.
Afterwards, the 2nd stage presents itself. It is characterized by a hostile and aggressive attitude towards the host country. This happens due to the difficulties a person faces in daily life, such as communication or transportation problems.
- 73. Culture shock
Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 30.07.2010
1. Убедитесь в том, чтобы заполнить ваш (обязательное) таможенную декларацию и следуют красный канал, если вы несете в клетку или ручной клади любые из следующих характеристик: наличными свыше 50,000.00 рублей (500 минимальных размеров оплаты труда в соответствии с Федеральный статут по состоянию на 22 октября 2003). В этом случае на сумму, превышающую утвержденных 50,000.00 руб должен быть размещен на депозитном счете в соответствующем Федеральная таможенная служба Отдела, что превышение максимально разрешенного количества 50,000.00 руб только быть вывезены из русский Федерацию в качестве единовременного пособия;
- 74. Custom service
Cпецифика национального речевого поведения
Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 19.11.2011
Роль разговора/беседы в этих культурах имеет также специфические национальные черты. При этом следует отметить, что отношение к разговору у разных народов рознится. Так, для русских важен так называемый «разговор по душам», иными словами, понимание и сострадание, что отражается в наборе следующих речений: душевно поговорили, отвести душу разговором, душа-человек, как на духу, душа нараспашку и пр. Именно такой тип разговора наиболее импонирует русским. Французы очень чувствительны к форме общения, красноречию, эстетическому аспекту разговора. Если в Англии искусство разговора сводится к умению молчать, причем в этом англичане усматривают сдержанность и корректность, то во Франции, где очень любят и умеют блеснуть словом, молчащий человек социально убивает себя. Разговор у французов носит непринужденный характер и идет с исключительной быстротой. Беседы французов похожи на игру словами, даже в современном разговоре простых французов слышны отголоски салонных бесед времен «бэль-эпок» начала 20 века. Излияний души не услышишь, данная слабость неуместна. Во французских высказываниях, которые функционально можно перевести как «излить душу», «vider son sac» - букв. «опустошить свой мешок», «deballer» - букв. «распаковаться», «confesser» - букв. «исповедаться», нет упоминания о душе. В Испании тоже любят поговорить. Причем не обязательно знать человека, чтобы разговаривать с ним часами. Иногда в конце беседы собеседники даже не знают имен друг друга. Но существуют запретные темы. В Испании не принято говорить о смерти, о деньгах, особенно, если они у вас есть. Никто не говорит «я зарабатываю много» или «я зарабатываю прилично», скорее «не жалуюсь» или «живу помаленечку». Англичане в гостях будут, скорее всего, вести разговоры о своих увлечениях, искать точки соприкосновения со своими собеседниками именно в этой области и почти никогда не станут касаться того, что является главным делом их жизни, особенно если на этом поприще они чего-то достигли. Так что при знакомстве не стоит рассчитывать на беседу о том, что вас в этом человеке больше всего интересует, о вещах, которые хотелось бы, прежде всего, выяснить. Англичане придерживаются правила «не быть личным», то есть не выставлять себя в разговоре, не вести речи о себе самом. Считается дурным тоном неумеренно проявлять собственную эрудицию и вообще безапелляционно утверждать, что бы то ни было. В Англии возведена в культ легкая беседа, способствующая приятному расслаблению ума, а отнюдь не глубокомысленный диалог и тем более не столкновение противоположных взглядов.
- 75. Cпецифика национального речевого поведения
Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 09.02.2011
Залоговые отношения глагола в говорах в настоящее время не изучены достаточно систематично, и на основе имеющегося материала невозможно дать полное описание этих отношений с точки зрения их отличий от литературной нормы. Можно констатировать, однако, что специфика говоров в плане выражения категории залога - в употреблении некоторых форм причастий и возвратных форм глагола. Что касается выразителя возвратной формы-частицы -ся, то здесь фактический материал показывает, что возвратные формы глаголов в говорах очень разнообразны. В литературном языке возвратная частица употребляется в виде -ся после согласных и в виде -сь - после гласных: купалс'а (по старым орфоэпическим нормам после согласных [с] - купалса), уч'ус' (старая норма - учус). В ряде говоров находим варианты этой частицы: -си (-се,-си). В результате отвердения эти основные варианты привели к образованию разновидностей с [с]: се>сэ, Вариант -си характерен для средне- и южнорусских говоров; на территории распространения северно-русского наречия эти формы встречаются в районе Прионежья: пск. ударилси, спугалси, боимси, моск. ни ругайси, боимси, звалси, осталси. Пенз. ни балуйси, жалуйси, боялси; калужск. испугалси, запрягаимси; орд. ушибси, нарядилси; Курск. женилси.
- 76. Cтарославянский язык
Development of Composite Insulators for Overhead Lines
Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006
Brittle fractures, on the other hand, occur mostly near the interface between the insulation material and the end-fitting, and provided this area has been properly manufactured, the probability of their occurrence will be lower than that of electrical aging. To estimate service life from the electrical aspect, actual-scale composite insulators were exposed to electrical stress, and were subjected to an exposure test under a natural environment. A test chamber simulating environmental stress was also constructed, and accelerated tests were carried out according to international standards (IEC 61109 Annex C). Further, by comparing leakage current waveform and cumulative charge, which may be characterized as electrical aging, evaluation of composite insulator service life was carried out. Furthermore, since in Japan, a drop in insulation performance due to rapid pollution during typhoons is a familiar henomenon, an investigation was made based on the characteristics of leakage current obtained during a typhoon into the effect of rapid pollution on electrical aging in composite insulators.
- 77. Development of Composite Insulators for Overhead Lines
Die Umweltverschmutzung (Загрязнение окружающей среды)
Доклад пополнение в коллекции 03.05.2010
- 78. Die Umweltverschmutzung (Загрязнение окружающей среды)
Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and their Pragmatic Aspect
Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 14.02.2011
After this come details of a Platinum Plus credit card and some associated offers of free gifts. The letter closes with a copy of Mr. Moyes' signature, with his name and position (“Team Manager”) in print below. We can conjecture that the immediate writer of this letter is not Mr. Moyes, but someone with knowledge of financial products, employed by the club to help raise money from fans. I can be more confident that this is so, since it is only a few months since I received a near-identical letter, bearing the signature of the previous manager, Mr. Walter Smith. The writer assumes that he or she is addressing people who have at some point described themselves as supporters of Everton FC - the mail shot will have gone only to names on a database of such potential cardholders. Closer inspection suggests that the letter does not necessarily come from the club, as “Everton” appears in a typeface different from the surrounding text - prompting the thought that the card issuer (MBNA Europe bank Limited) is the real source of the letter, and has signed up various sporting clubs to endorse its product. The card issuer understands that recipients of such offers will rarely wish to apply for a new credit card, and therefore attempts to exploit my affection for Everton FC as a novel or sentimental reason to do so. The second half of the opening sentence may reflect a sense that most supporters do not receive “excellent benefits at the same time” - though perhaps the humour here is unintended. This kind of practical analysis is a good exercise. Sometimes a teacher will need to ask students to write it, but this will limit how much you can do. It would be better for members of a teaching group to spend five or ten minutes at least once a week, producing an unprepared spoken pragmatic reading of texts chosen at random by the teacher or student. Pragmatics as an explicit field of study is not compulsory for students taking Advanced level courses in English Language. But it is one of the five “descriptions of language” commended by the AQA syllabus B (the others are: lexis, grammar, phonology and semantics). In some kinds of study it will be odd if some consideration of pragmatics does not appear in your analysis or interpretation of data. In commenting on texts you are seeing for the first time, you may need to make use of some pragmatic concepts, as in this example, from Adrian Attwood:
- 79. Difficulties in Translation of Publicistic Headlines and their Pragmatic Aspect
Don't kill the World
Доклад пополнение в коллекции 05.01.2011
Air is polluted by gases released from different sources such as from the combustion of coal and oil to provide energy. For instance, coal is used as a heat energy source in some countries. It is also used in thermic power plants to obtain electrical energy. The hazardous effects of these pollutants can be reduced by their filtration and regulation in use. The best way of avoiding environmental pollution is the use of alternative safe energy sources such as wind power, solar energy and natural gases. Water is polluted by industrial wastes. Factories should take responsibility for the purification of their wastes before they release them into the water. Where the problem is sewage, treatment plants can be used where bacteria break down the sewage. The solid waste dumped on land can be recycled. The usable materials can be eliminated from waste and reprocessed again and again. I want to tell you about nuclear pollution. Kazakhstan is a nuclear-free country, but as a heritage of the former USSR it has 3 nuclear testing grounds. The largest on is Semipalatinsk testing ground. On August 29, 1949 the first nuclear explosion in the USSR was set off on the Semipalatinsk testing ground. Until 1963 tests were conducted mainly on the surface and in the atmosphere. The consequences of these tests shocked even cynics and the tests were carried out underground. In all 456 tests with a total explosive power of 17420 kit were blasted in Semipalatinsk. October 19, 1989 was the last date a test was carried out in this nuclear testing site. The ancient steppe, its way of life, numerous animals and plants, all became hostages of the warfare of the powerful forces. During the second half of the 80-s along with other processes that took place in various spheres of the changing society there was the surge for freedom. In 1988 an uprising with the demand to shut down the testing site grew into the international movement “Nevada-Semey” led by the well-known poet and public figure Olzhas Suleimenov. “Nevada-Semey” movement enlightened people send won the support and sympathy of the people all over the world. Meeting demonstrations, letters, appeals to governments, collections of thousands of signatures, picketing at the testing sites. At last the old system was forced to give away. The testing site is closed, but its trace still remains on our land. The region has the highest level of cancer diseases, changes in the genetic structure of people and animals, the shortest life span and the highest mortality rate. There are different opinions on the solving the present situation in the area, but one is clear: it is necessary to evaluate the ecological and moral damage of the nature and health. Kazakhstan cannot solve this problem single-handed. What is more it wouldnt be in the interest of Kazakhstan alone. It is an issue of global importance. I think that I have showed you only some ecological problem. We can see that we, only we can help our planet. You know, that the Earth is our planet. We have much natural recourses, which we must take care and pass them to our children. I want to tell you about ecology problem of my native town. Burabay, the name of one of the most picturesque corners of Kazakhstan, the land of wonderful songs and poetical legends. One gathers in impression that someone who said that it is better to see a place once than to hear of it a hundred times meant no other but this land. Nature has created here a fanciful world of colours, forms and sounds. There are many legends about Burabay. Now not only legends handed down from generation, but also excavations made by Kazakhstan archaeologists tell us that Sinegorye (Land of Blue Mountains) was inhabited by hunters, experienced stock-breeders and crop-growers, the Skythians mined gold here. Every stone, every forest path in area of Burabay is associated with some tradition. If you look into the distance at the outlines of the Blue Mountains, you will seem to see a giant who fell asleep amidst the forests. Yes, that is the mountain of the Sleeping Batyr. Height of that mountain, if to count up to the point of the helmet, is 836 meters. If you look from the Akylbai Pass in another direction, it will seem to you that you see a fossiled camel. That is mount Bura (Camel) about which the Kazakhs had composed a lot of legends. Height of mountain Bura is 690 meters. Rock Okjetpes, which is the Kazakh for “cannot be reached by an arrow” is associated with a legend as well. There is a very beautiful stone sphinx in Burabay. Our ancestors named this rock as Jumbaktas (the Mysrerious Rock). And really a mysterious rock! If you look at the rock from one side, it reminds the boat, and if you look on the other side it reminds the girl with the hair, fluttering on the wind. And if you drive a little further and look at the rock on one more side, you can see the old bowed women. Today everyone, who comes to Burabay, doesnt leave, without not looking on “dancing birches”. They look like the beautiful slender girls, turning in a whirl of cheerful and impetuous dance. It is fantastic! There is a particular place in Burabay. Place, where Abylai khan set his White Horde and lifted his White Banner. Since than that glade was called “Abylays Glade”. Presently the descendants consider this place as a holy place and tie the coloured knots on the branches of the white birches in the vicinity. The path, which leads from Abylay glade, passes on the slopes of Kokshetau and dives in a thicket of wood. If you go further, you will meet a throne on your way, as it cut out from the yellow stone. The real gold throne! Its named “Khan tagy”. With approach of the warm spring days, Abylay abandoned his winter-stay near Red wood and placed on this green glade. He left from Horde and had a rest in that natural throne, giving himself up to the contemplation. It came in a habit. Since then this skilled exhibit became to be called as Khan tagy. The people consider it sacred the parish usual adhere the rags of stuff on the branches of trees and ledges of stones near it. Unfortunately, in time of chauvinistic splash of red totalitarism, even the khans throne hasnt been left in inviolability. Anyone, who feels like it, can sit down on it, everybody contrived to break away “a bit on memory”, even beat out on the throne their names, so that “to remain in history”. It cant be helped?! Here is a small hut-size rocky conglomeration from a yellow granite to the west from lake Kumiskol. It attracts the eyes from apart. A stain darkens in the middle of it. If you come nearer and look more attentively, you can see the entrance to the cave. It is the cave of Kenesary. Today the cave, called by the name of Kenesary, is one of the sacred places, esteemed by the people. There are always many people here. On this place the faithful musulmans make prayers, devoted to the spirit of Kenesary. The Kokshetay upland, a anique corner of this countrys landscape, has long been called the Switzerland of Kazakhstan. Its granite cliffs of several hundred meters in height under the influence of winds, rains and the sun have obtained here the form of a quaint, picturesque obelisk. Along the mountain slopes and at their foothills there are high pines stretching towards the sun. The eldest of them are two hundred years of age. In the low grounds and valleys, on the coasts of blue lakes Burabay, Shchuchye, Big and Small Chebachye the pines are joined by a round dance of aspens and shrubs. The forest glades are of different colours. There are plenty of raspberries, wild strawberries, red bilberries and other berries, to say nothing of mushrooms. In the Burabay forests you can find deer, marals, bears, wild boars, roes, wolves, squirrels, foxes and hares. Beautiful elks happen to appear here as well. About two hundred species of birds make their habitat here. They include mallards, geese, partridges, grouse, teals, loons, grey herons, storks, snipes, lapwings and capercailzies. The blue lakes of Burabay abound with perchpike, carp, perch, wild carp, tench. Pikes chase young fishes, there splash crucians. These places were renowned for a healthy climate as early as the past century. Summer is not very hot here, and winter is much milder than in the open steppe. Dense forests purity the air and lavishey saturate it with the aroma of pine-needles and grasses. Burabay - a lake, a health resort, tourist camping-sites, young pioneer camps, holiday homes can be found on all the maps, in all the sanatoria quides. This is a big health resort zone famous for wholesome waters and medicinal muds, but mainly for its air so salutary for lung patients. There are 1515 lakes on the land of Kokshetau. Eighty of them are large, around which it is possible to carry out the baiga (the national game of the kazakhs). From these eighty lakes about ten are in the vicinity of Burabay, at the bottom of Kokshetau. Our great grandfathers told that “Ulken shalkar” (Large water expanse), “Kumiskol” (Silver lake), “Shabakkol”, “Kotyrkol” (Sore lake) and also “Shortankol” (Pike lake), “Kopakol” (Overgrown lake), “Shagalaly teniz” (Sea-bay sea) were at one time interconnected and fed each other. Lake Kotyrkol is one the distance 15-20 kilometers from Burabay, its very beautiful. In reality these two lakes are very close by the each other, between them only 20-30 steps, they are divided only by the eavth wall. The lake which is one the north is large, meandering, and the southern lake is small, narrow, extended in length. It is interesting, that the northern lake is pure, without the reeds and fish are large, greasy there. The southern lake is small, all in the reeds, in birds market and the fish are not found it. There are a forest and the boulders around the large lake. In old times there were brooks, which fell into it. In spring the thawed snow water from the different directions, forming the ravines and waterfalls, streams down onto the lake. And at the same time the water doesnt overflow the lake coast. It is always at one level. In such case, where thawed and spring water leave? It turns out that nature-mother forsaw everything. From the northern small lake the small rivers flows out. Its interesting that the reed at the small river is always of yellow colour. Thats why it is named Sarybulak, that is Yellow brook. It turns out that it lakes away the superfluous water from the lake Kotyrkol through the wood, bending around the Antigozha mountain and pours it in lake Burabay or lake Kumiskol, though lake Burabay is so supplied by the water. From all the neighbouring mountains flow the springs and brooks in it, and lake Sarybulak carries the superfluous water of lake Kotyrkol. Why then the water of lake Burabay, the deepest place of which doesnt exceed seven meters, doesnt overflow the coast? Even in this case the great nature forsaw the situation. Some brooks have their sources from the east coast of the lake and soon they merge and turn into the small fast mountain river, jumping on the stones. And
- 80. Don't kill the World