Иностранные языки

  • 41. Brief course on lexicology
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 15.11.2001

    Phraseological units might also be shared to:

    1. phrasemes two-member word-groups in which one of the members has specialized meaning dependent on the second component: “small hours”.
    2. Idioms the idiomaticity of the whole word-group; unusualness of collocability or logical incompability of member-words; usually homonymous with corresponding variable word-groups: red tape, to let the cat out of the bag.
  • 42. British education
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    The problem of learning languages is very important today. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time when the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. Foreign languages are needed as the main and most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet.
    Today English is the language of the world. Over 350 million people speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South African Republic. As a second language it is used in the former British and US colonies.
    It is the major international language for communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organization. It is the language of the literature, education, modern music, international tourism.
    Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is espicially urgent today. Learning a foreing language is not as easy thing. It is a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know English is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist.
    It is well known that reading books in the original , listening to the BBC news, communicating with the English speaking people will help a lot. When learning a foreign language you learn the culture and history of the native speakers. One must work hard to learn any foreign language.

  • 43. British Monarchy
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 29.09.2010

    Parliamentary procedure. Each session begins with the State Opening of the Parliament, if a part has the majority, the Queen reads the speech. A debate, a vote is taken. If no clear majority hung parliament, dangerous situation, can lead to a parliament crisis. Most of the year special routine. Proceedings are public, televised, press admitted, then publish the proceedings on the following day in Hansard (it was the first man who published). Business, order of business, parliamentary business; question time 1 hour, MPs ask Ministers and other MPs questions, prepared 48 hours, by opposition to reveal the weakness in the Government. The main debate: bills are introduced by the Government, Ministers mostly. The bill is introduced in a form of a motion, any Minister can move something; the question is open to debate. At the end of the debate the Speaker asks MPs if they accept a motion, sometimes the matter is decides on the spot. Approved by a majority, rare a division is called: aye/no lobbies vote by walking, a bell is rung, appoint tellers stay on a/n lobbies, each MP walk to the lobby and they are counted; have very little time. The bill goes through some stages: first reading debated in detail, when is complicated, the House goes into committee, special committee remains (e.g. the Committee of Defense), others leave. 3rd time passed or rejected, if passed > the HL > the Queen for the Royal Assent > law. Bills are drafted by consultation with professional bodies. Sometimes the proposals take the form of white paper (states that the Government wants to know the attitude of public); if wants public discussion green paper. The standing committees.

  • 44. British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 14.08.2010
  • 45. British slang and its classification
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 15.02.2010

    According to the British lexicographer, Eric Partridge (1894-1979), people use slang for any of at least 17 reasons:

    1. In sheer high spirits, by the young in heart as well as by the young in years; 'just for the fun of the thing'; in playfulness or waggishness.
    2. As an exercise either in wit and ingenuity or in humour. (The motive behind this is usually self-display or snobbishness, emulation or responsiveness, delight in virtuosity).
    3. To be 'different', to be novel.
    4. To be picturesque (either positively or - as in the wish to avoid insipidity - negatively).
    5. To be unmistakably arresting, even startling.
    6. To escape from clichés, or to be brief and concise. (Actuated by impatience with existing terms.)
    7. To enrich the language. (This deliberateness is rare save among the well-educated, Cockneys forming the most notable exception; it is literary rather than spontaneous.)
    8. To lend an air of solidity, concreteness, to the abstract; of earthiness to the idealistic; of immediacy and appositeness to the remote. (In the cultured the effort is usually premeditated, while in the uncultured it is almost always unconscious when it is not rather subconscious.)
    9. To lesson the sting of, or on the other hand to give additional point to, a refusal, a rejection, a recantation;
    10. To reduce, perhaps also to disperse, the solemnity, the pomposity, the excessive seriousness of a conversation (or of a piece of writing);
    11. To soften the tragedy, to lighten or to 'prettify' the inevitability of death or madness, or to mask the ugliness or the pity of profound turpitude (e.g. treachery, ingratitude); and/or thus to enable the speaker or his auditor or both to endure, to 'carry on'.
    12. To speak or write down to an inferior, or to amuse a superior public; or merely to be on a colloquial level with either one's audience or one's subject matter.
    13. For ease of social intercourse. (Not to be confused or merged with the preceding.)
    14. To induce either friendliness or intimacy of a deep or a durable kind.
    15. To show that one belongs to a certain school, trade, or profession, artistic or intellectual set, or social class; in brief, to be 'in the swim' or to establish contact.
    16. Hence, to show or prove that someone is not 'in the swim'.
    17. To be secret - not understood by those around one. (Children, students, lovers, members of political secret societies, and criminals in or out of prison, innocent persons in prison, are the chief exponents.)
  • 46. British types of English
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 19.02.2012

    The dialect word haway or howay means come on. In Newcastle it is often spelled and pronounced howay, while in Sunderland it is almost always haway (or ha'way; the latter spelling is prominent inSunderland A.F.C.'s slogan, "Ha'way The Lads"). The local newspapers in each region use these spellings) Pitmatic(originally "pitmatical"), also colloquially known as "yakka", is a dialect of English used in the counties of Northumberland and Durham in England. It developed as a separate dialect fromNorthumbrian and Geordie partly due to the specialised terms used by mineworkers in the local coal pits. For example, in Northumberland and Tyne and Wear the word Cuddy is an abbreviation of the name Cuthbert but in Durham Pitmatic cuddy denotes a horse, specifically a pit pony. In Lowland Scots, cuddie usually refers to a donkey or ass but may also denote a short, thick, strong horse., pitmatic, together with some rural Northumbrian communities including Rothbury, used a guttural R. This is now less frequently heard; since the closure of the area's deep mines, many younger people speak in local ways that do not usually include this characteristic. The guttural r sound can, however, still sometimes be detected, especially amongst elderly populations in more rural areas.in theory pitmatic was spoken throughout the Great Northern Coalfield, from Ashington in Northumberland to Fishburn in County Durham, early references apply specifically to its use by miners especially from the Durham district (1873) and to its use in County Durham (1930)."pitmatic" is an uncommon term in popular usage. In recent times, all three dialects have converged, acquiring features from more Standard English varieties. English as spoken in County Durham has been described as "half-Geordie, half-Teesside" (see the article about Mackem).Bragg presented a programme on BBC Radio 4 about pitmatic as part of a series on regional dialects) Multicultural London EnglishLondon English (abbreviated MLE), colloquially called Jafaican, is a dialect (and/or sociolect) of English that emerged in the late 20th century. It is spoken mainly in inner London, with the exception of areas such as Brent, Newham, Haringey and Enfield. According to research conducted at Queen Mary, University of London, Multicultural London English is gaining territory fromCockney.is said to contain many elements from the languages of the Caribbean (Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago), South Asia (Indian subcontinent), and West Africa, as well as remnants of traditional Cockney. Although the street name, "Jafaican", implies that it is "fake" Jamaican, researchers indicate that it is not the language of white kids trying to "play cool" but rather that "[it is] more likely that young people have been growing up in London exposed to a mixture of second-language English and local London English and that this new variety has emerged from that mix".is used mainly by young, urban working-class people.past tense of the verb "to be" is regularised, with "was" becoming universal for all conjugations, and "weren't" likewise for negative conjugations. This leaves "I was, you was, he was" etc., and "I weren't, you weren't, he weren't" etc.questions are limited to "isn't it", realised as "innit", and the corresponding "is it?".

  • 47. Bronchopulmonary system
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 25.04.2008

    One of the most frequent diseases of respiratory system is the dyspnea characterised changing of frequency, deepth and a rhythm of respiration. The dyspnea can be accompanied as a sharp acceleration of respiration, and degreasing it up to stopping. Pointed an inspiratory dyspnea(it is shown by difficulty of an inspiration, for example, at a tracheostenosis and large bronchuses), an expiratory dyspnea(are characterized by difficulty of an expiration, in particular, at a spasm stricture of fine bronchuses and admixed type. The dyspnea presents at many acute and chronic diseases of respiratory system. The cause occurrence in most cases arises with change of gas structure of a blood - incresing of the contents of a carbon dioxide and depression of the contents of the oxygen, accompanied shift pH bloods in the acidic side. The dyspnea is leading display of a respiratory insufiention - a condition at which the system of external respiration of the person cannot provide normal gas structure of a blood or when this structure is supported only by to excessive strains of all system of external respiration. The respiratory failure can arise was acutely (for example, at closing respiratory ways by an alien body) or to proceed chronically, for a long time (for example, at an emphysema of lungs).

  • 48. Buchhaltunq (бухгалтерия)
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 04.08.2010
  • 49. Business finance
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 22.05.2010


    1. Bank overdraft - cheap and easy to obtain, а bank overdraft is rерауаblе on demand. This allows а business to meet its short-term commitments and it only pays interest on the amount and for the period that it is in overdraft.
    2. Short-term loan - а loan given for specific purposes rather than „St for use as working capital. Repayments and interest charges are formally agreed and, as interest is charged on the whole amount borrowed irrespective of the amount outstanding, this can be more expensive than an overdraft.
    3. Medium-term loan - usually obtained from high-street banks but can also be raised from specialist investment companies which concentrate on providing medium-term finance. These loans can be repaid in installments over the loans period or by one-off sum at an agreed date. Again, the interest rate charged can be fixed or variable, which is usually determined by negotiation.
    4. Long-term loans - used to purchase capital assets such as buildings о other businesses that have а long 1ife. Long-term loans usually have а fixed rate о interest attached and are only given after an independent survey of the asset. In addition, а comprehensive report on the business's past and future expected performance is compiled. А mortgage loan is one that is usually secured on land о buildings for periods of 20 years or longer.
    5. Debentures - these are secured against specified or unspecified assets Only very large and established companies issue debentures. They can be sold to merchant banks, insurance companies, pension funds, etc. Debentures can only by issued to members of the public by рubliс limited companies.
    6. Issuing shares - an established business mау be аblе to issue further share: to its existing shareholders at а favourаblе rate in order to obtain more funds Alternatively, if the company is а рiс it can рlасе the shares with а financial institution which will sell them, or they can be traded directly on the stock exchange.
    7. Government аnd European Union support - financial help in the form of grants or subsidies is also available from а variety of sources, such as national and lосаl governments, the European Union.
  • 50. Cambridge
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 19.12.2010

    Thirty-three in one (College, University of Cambridge). Not so easy to understand at a glance that Cambridge - is not only a university but a great city. Even harder to realize that thirty-one college, located in Cambridge and its surroundings - it is the university itself. History of the creation of colleges rather bizarre - sometimes the reason to base the new college was just a whim of those in power, sometimes - a vow or other honor their commitments, sometimes - the imperative of our time, or even "social order" ... The first College Cambridge - Peterhouse - was founded in 1284 by Hugh de Balshamom, Bishop Or. The oldest of the university's buildings badly rebuilt in the XIX century, but still bears the traits of those distant days. He has a fun feature - from the window of one of the student bedrooms are constantly hanging rope. This tradition stems from the fact that the poet Thomas Gray, a former student of this college, so afraid of fire, which is always kept at the ready, this escape route. Current students belong to a quirk with sympathetic humor and contemporaries so mercilessly teased poor guy that he had to flee - to transfer to Pembroke College. Trinity Hall College was founded in 1350 by the Bishop of Norwich Beytmanom specifically to grow within the walls of canon law experts - to replace the seven hundred priests who had died during the Great Plague. College continued to specialize in the jurisdiction, and is still known as "lawyer". College of St.. Catherine opened a couple of him in 1473, when Trinity Hall no longer cope with growing up the flow of students - especially for already ordained priests, who could study there theology, philosophy and ancient languages. In 1441 at age 19, King Henry VI laid the foundation stone of King's College. For its construction was destroyed by a big chunk of the medieval city. College and "town" with its built nearly three hundred years, the game is worth it - here was created by one of the architectural masterpieces of world fame - the Chapel of the Holy Virgin. Sir Christopher Wren, famous architect, saw the vaulted ceiling of the chapel, said that he could create the same - but only if someone told him where to lay the first stone ... Trinity College merged from Miklehouse and Kingsholla at the behest of Henry VIII just six weeks before his death. The royal family of Great Britain is the official patron of the college. At the main gate of his coat of arms placed by Edward III, in a niche above it stands a statue of Henry VIII. With all due deference to the royal family, as a result of student pranks the statue disappeared one day and a scepter in his stead was inserted into a chair leg ... The great Trinity House, built in 1604, are portraits of the most famous teachers and college students - and of its walls came a lot of intellectuals scientists, politicians, writers and poets ... It is in the walls of this institution, Lord Byron "chip" their eccentric jokes with manual bear and a dip in the fountain, Milne wrote, "Children's folly" in the form of fairy tales about beast (later the protagonist of his books have become a teddy bear his son). And the apple tree near the main gate, the college, as is known, is a descendant of that very tree that dropped the apple that inspired Isaac Newton to formulate the law of attraction ... Two of the youngest college spirit born of the changing times. First Women's College was founded in 1873 in the nearby village of Cambridge, Girton. Students were taught there only in the presence of companions older age (usually relatives). Lecturers have been specially come to Girton in Cambridge. In 1875 was opened Nyunam Women's College, students who (also accompanied by a mentor) have visited a total of male students lecture. In 1881, women were allowed to pass the final examinations, but only in 1948 have made the assignment of degrees. Between 1972 and 1988, one after the other colleges became mixed, and women now occupy about a third of student places at Cambridge. The last men-only college at Cambridge was a College of St.. Magdalena. In connection with this event, students and professors, so long persist in our liberated age, the month wore on their sleeves black crape, and the flag of the college was half-mast in half. We have to think, however, that they move not misogyny, but the desire of originality ... Colleges difficult to "rank" - and how they compare on what grounds? According to the glory of graduates? According to legend? According to the treasures of libraries? The architectural monuments? Pembroke has a chapel - the first work of Christopher Wren, later shook the world with their cathedrals. Queens College stores the solar-lunar clock XVII century wooden bridge - a copy of "Mathematical Bridge, built in 1749 without any kind of Railways parts. One of the balls lovely Clare College bridge missing segment - think it's personal signature enraged architect Thomas Grambolda, which paid for the work ... all three shillings! Plaque in the chapel of Sidney Sussex College notes the burial place of the head of his most famous student - Oliver Cromwell. Gonville And Keyes College he is known for three gates symbolizing the academic stage in the life of a student: he enters the Gates of Humility, passes through the Gate of Virtue and goes through the Gate of Honor ... There is no reason to believe one college over another. And it is not so easy to believe that the university itself is not "above" all of them. Indeed, in some sense, a separate University of Cambridge does not exist. University - is thirty-one his college ...

  • 51. Changes and specimens of the English language
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 16.02.2010

    This simplicity, so characteristic of our modern English, as well as of the Saxon tongue, its proper parent, is attended with advantages that go far to compensate for all that is consequently lost in euphony, or in the liberty of transposition. Our formation of the moods and tenses, by means of a few separate auxiliaries, all monosyllabic, and mostly without inflection, is not only simple and easy, but beautiful, chaste, and strong. In my opinion, our grammarians have shown far more affection for the obsolete or obsolescent terminations en, eth, est, and edst, than they really deserve. Till the beginning of the sixteenth century, en was used to mark the plural number of verbs, as, they sayen for they say; after which, it appears to have been dropped. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, s or es began to dispute with th or eth the right of forming the third person singular of verbs; and, as the Bible and other grave books used only the latter, a clear distinction obtained, between the solemn and the familiar style, which distinction is well known at this day. Thus we have, He runs, walks, rides, reaches, &c., for the one; and, He runneth, walketh, rideth, reacheth, &c., for the other. About the same time, or perhaps earlier, the use of the second person singular began to be avoided in polite conversation, by the substitution of the plural verb and pronoun; and, when used in poetry, it was often contracted, so as to prevent any syllabic increase. In old books, all verbs and participles that were intended to be contracted in pronunciation, were contracted also, in some way, by the writer: as, "call'd, carry'd, sacrific'd;" "fly'st, ascrib'st, cryd'st;" "tost, curst, blest, finisht;" and others innumerable. All these, and such as are like them, we now pronounce in the same way, but usually write differently; as, called,carried, sacrificed; fliest, ascribest, criettst; tossed, cursed, blessed, finished. Most of these topics will be further noticed in the Grammar.

  • 52. Chemical element Niobium
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.01.2012

    is estimated that out of 44,500 metric tons of niobium mined in 2006, 90% ended up in the production of high-grade structural steel, followed by its use in superalloys. The use of niobium alloys for superconductors and in electronic components account only for a small share of the production.is an effective microalloying element for steel. Adding niobium to the steel causes the formation of niobium carbide and niobium nitride within the structure of the steel. These compounds improve the grain refining, retardation of recrystallization, and precipitation hardening of the steel. These effects in turn increase the toughness, strength, formability, and weldability of the microalloyed steel. Microalloyed stainless steels have a niobium content of less than 0.1%. It is an important alloy addition to high strength low alloy steels which are widely used as structural components in modern automobiles. These niobium containing alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.amounts of the element, either in its pure form or in the form of high-purity ferroniobium and nickel niobium, are used in nickel-, cobalt-, and iron-base superalloys for such applications as jet engine components, gas turbines, rocket subassemblies, and heat resisting and combustion equipment. Niobium precipitates a hardening γ''-phase within the grain structure of the superalloy. The alloys contain up to 6.5% niobium. One example of a nickel-based niobium-containing superalloy is Inconel 718, which consists of roughly 50% nickel, 18.6% chromium, 18.5% iron, 5% niobium, 3.1% molybdenum, 0.9% titanium, and 0.4% aluminum. These superalloys are used, for example, in advanced air frame systems such as those used in the Gemini program.alloy used for liquid rocket thruster nozzles, such as in the main engine of the Apollo Lunar Modules, is C103, which consists of 89% niobium, 10% hafnium and 1% titanium. Another niobium alloy was used for the nozzle of the Apollo Service Module. As niobium is oxidized at temperatures above 400 °C, a protective coating is necessary for these applications to prevent the alloy from becoming brittle.becomes a superconductor when lowered to cryogenic temperatures. At atmospheric pressure, it has the highest critical temperature of the elemental superconductors: 9.2 K. Niobium has the largest magnetic penetration depth of any element. In addition, it is one of the three elemental Type II superconductors, along with vanadium and technetium. Niobium-tin and niobium-titanium alloys are used as wires for superconducting magnets capable of producing exceedingly strong magnetic fields. These superconducting magnets are used in magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance instruments as well as in particle accelerators. For example, the Large Hadron Collider uses 600 metric tons of superconducting strands, while the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is estimated to use 600 metric tonnes of Nb3Sn strands and 250 metric tonnes of NbTi strands. In 1992 alone, niobium-titanium wires were used to construct more than 1 billion US dollars worth of clinical magnetic resonance imaging systems.is used as a precious metal in commemorative coins, often with silver or gold. For example, Austria produced a series of silver niobium euro coins starting in 2003; the color in these coins is created by diffraction of light by a thin oxide layer produced by anodizing. In 2008, six coins are available showing a broad variety of colors in the centre of the coin: blue, green, brown, purple, violet, or yellow. Two more examples are the 2004 Austrian 25 euro 150 Years Semmering Alpine Railway commemorative coin, and the 2006 Austrian 25 euro European Satellite Navigation commemorative coin. Latvia produced a similar series of coins starting in 2004, with one following in 2007.and some niobium alloys are used in medical devices such as pacemakers, because they are physiologically inert (and thus hypoallergenic). Niobium treated with sodium hydroxide forms a porous layer that aids osseointegration. Along with titanium, tantalum, and aluminum, niobium can also be electrically heated and anodized, resulting in a wide array of colors using a process known as reactive metal anodizing which is useful in making jewelry. The fact that niobium is hypoallergenic also benefits its use in jewelry.arc-tube seals of high pressure sodium vapor lamps are made from niobium, or niobium with 1% of zirconium, because niobium has a very similar coefficient of thermal expansion to the sintered alumina arc tube ceramic, a translucent material which resists chemical attack or reduction by the hot liquid sodium and sodium vapor contained inside the operating lamp. The metal is also used in arc welding rods for some stabilized grades of stainless steel.was evaluated as a cheaper alternative to tantalum in capacitors, but tantalum capacitors are still predominant. Niobium is added to glass in order to attain a higher refractive index, a property of use to the optical industry in making thinner corrective glasses. The metal has a low capture cross-section for thermal neutrons; thus it is used in the nuclear industries.Superconducting Radio Frequency (RF) cavities used in the free electron lasers TESLA and XFEL are made from pure niobium.high sensitivity of superconducting niobium nitride bolometers make them an ideal detector for electromagnetic radiation in the THz frequency band. These detectors were tested at the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, the South Pole Telescope, the Receiver Lab Telescope, and at APEX and are now used in the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory.

  • 53. Christmas in Britain (Рождество в Британии)
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 09.08.2010
  • 54. Cities around the world
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 25.08.2006

    What is Moscow famous for? Does it attract a lot of visitors?

    1. Moscow is famous for its historical places as the Red Square and the Kremlin, for its monasteries and the Bolshoi Theatre, for the beautiful architecture of its churches, buildings, bridges and even underground stations. The Arbat Street is very popular among foreigners. Its an ancient stone-paved street with lots of little shops and restaurants, plenty of market stalls selling all sorts of souvenirs from matreshkas and flags to fur hats.
    2. In the present it attracts more and more visitors from countries around the world, especially from Europe and the US. Most tourists come to visit Moscow during the summer, but some arrive here in the winter just to see the snow and enjoy a climate different from the one they are used to.
  • 55. City life
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 25.08.2006

    Which capital city would you most like to spend a weekend in?

    1. After I visited Paris last summer, Ive been dreaming of spending at least a weekend in the capital city of Spain, Madrid. Its been my dream since I started studying Spanish four years ago. It would be really nice simply to feel the atmosphere of Spain. I think it must be different from that of other European countries and therefore I cant even imagine what it is like there. So the trip is definitely to bring surprises and fascinating impressions.
    2. I would definitely go to the most popular place in Madrid El museo del Prado, also I would visit La Plaza Mayor (the Major Square) and one of the palaces. Maybe I would try and go to see corrida, although Im against cruel treatment of animals, but just once and just to get an impression of what it is in the real life, it would be ok. Besides, I would definitely experience Spanish night life, which I heard of so many times!
    3. No matter whether Ill be able to see a lot or not, It would be really nice to practice my Spanish, visit a totally new country and culture, and just get an impression of what Spain is like.
  • 56. Civil marriage in Russia
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 13.09.2010


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    20. Михеева А. Р. Сожительства и внебрачная рождаемость: признаки кризиса или стабильности социального ин-ститута семьи? // Семья в новых социально-экономических условиях : материалы междунар. науч.-практ. конф. (Н. Новгород, 210 окт. 1997 г.) / под ред. проф. З. М. Саралиевой. Н. Новгород, 1998. T. I. С. 126129.
    21. Морган Л. Г. Древнее общество или исследование линий человеческого прогресса от дикости через варварство к цивилизации. Л., 1934. С. 216305.
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    23. Dorien М. Dynamics in marriage and cohabitation. Amsterdam, 2006
    24. Jamieson L., Anderson M. Сohabitation and commitment: partnership plans og young men and women. The Sociological Review, aug, 2004
    25. Solot D., Miller M. Unmarried to each other. 2003
  • 57. Classic philosophy of quality
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 29.10.2010

    The main figure of such society is an user. His requirements (if they are socially safe) possess priority above possibilities of producer, and are on the defensive establishments of the state and society. Can be considered major achievements of "society of consumption":

    1. successive making reality of ideas of trade freedom, that resulted in international market of commodities and services creation an user in any country can acquire a commodity, produced in any country; investigation of it is the sharp intensifying of competition of producers, intensifying of their fight for upgrading products and competition prices, for the decline of terms of output of commodity to the market and at the same time strengthening of co-operation and collaboration in a production and advancement of commodities to the market;
    2. development of the systems of state and public defense of rights for users on high-quality products and services; these systems of defense not only allow an user to exact from a producer harm for of poor quality products and services but also warn the market entry of such products, and also limit monopolization of market a producer; investigation of it is a necessity of producer to give an user the system of proofs of quality of commodity yet till user this commodity purchased;
    3. high enough level of consciousness of users which agree to pay for quality and ready to co-operate with a producer in his increase.
  • 58. Classification and comparative analysis of English negative affixes
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 06.03.2011

    But it is known that some words can acquire several negative affixes and new words can seem semantically similar to language learners. It is a rude mistake to misuse the affixes. So on this stage of analysis appears a question, why some words are attached with a certain negative affix and others are attached with others. And it is also very important to find out how not to mix up some affixes with very similar meanings. The Longman dictionary contains an article comparing prefixes un-, in- and non-, which look very much alike at the first sight. “The difference between them is the degree to which they suggest the idea of the opposite rather than negative. Non- is usually just negative (for example, nonalcoholic drinks contain no alcohol), but un- is often used to suggest an opposite quality. Compare: He is applied for a nonscientific job (=not connected with science) in the Civil Service. | It was very unscientific (=showing too little attention to scientific principles) not to measure your results. Of the three prefixes (un-, in-, non-), in- tends most often to suggest opposite qualities. Compare: their inhuman (=very cruel) treatment of political prisoners | The archeologists discovered both human and non-human bones”. This explanation is a great help for language learners and also for the practical purposes of our work. [6]

  • 59. Commonwealth of Independent States
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 05.02.2011

    The creation of CIS signaled the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, according to leaders of Russia, its purpose was to allow a civilized divorce between the Soviet Republics. However, many observers have seen the CIS as a tool that would allow Russia to keep its influence over the post-Soviet states. Since its formation, the member-states of CIS have signed a large number of documents concerning integration and cooperation on matters of economics, defence and foreign policy. The CIS is headquartered in Minsk, Belarus. The chairman of the CIS is known as the executive secretary. All of the CIS's executive secretaries have been from Belarus or Russia. The current executive secretary is former Russian interior minister, Vladimir Rushailo.

  • 60. Comparative Analysis of Word Building in Prose and Poetry on the basis of E.A. Poe's works
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 21.05.2012

    Conversion is the derivational process whereby an item changes its word class without the addition of an affix. [1,89 ] Thus, when the noun sign shifts to the verb sign(ed) without any change in the word form we can say this is a case of conversion. However, it does not mean that this process takes place in all the cases of homophones [3, 68]. Sometimes, the connection has to do with coincidences or old etymological ties that have been lost. For example, mind and matter are cases of this grammatical sameness without connection by conversion-the verbs have nothing to do today with their respective noun forms in terms of semantics.is particularly common in English because the basic form of nouns and verbs is identical in many cases. It is usually impossible in languages with grammatical genders, declensions or conjugations. [11, 43]status of conversion is a bit unclear. It must be undoubtedly placed within the phenomena of word-formation; nevertheless, there are some doubts about whether it must be considered a branch of derivation or a separate process by itself (with the same status as derivation or compounding). [5, 88]this undetermined position in grammar, some scholars assert that conversion will become even more active in the future because it is a very easy way to create new words in English. There is no way to know the number of conversions appearing every day in the spoken language, although we know this number must be high. As it is a quite recent phenomenon, the written evidence is not a fully reliable source. We will have to wait a little longer to understand its whole impact, which will surely increase in importance in the next decades.is a characteristic feature of the English word-building system. It is also called affixless derivation or zero-suffixation. Saying that, however, is saying very little because there are other types of word building in which new words are also formed without affixes (most compounds, contracted words, sound-imitation words, etc.). [3,150] the notion of conversion is to re-classification of secondary word classes within one part of speech, a phenomenon also called transposition.consists in making a new word from some existing word by changing the category of a part of speech, the morphemic shape of the original word remaining unchanged. The new word has a meaning, which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easily associated with it. It has also a new paradigm peculiar to its new category as a part of speech. The term «conversion» first appeared in the book by Henry Sweet «New English Grammar» in 1891. Conversion is treated differently by different scientists, e.g. prof. A.I. Smirntitsky treats conversion as a morphological way of forming words when one part of speech is formed from another part of speech by changing its paradigm, e.g. to form the verb «to dial» from the noun «dial» we change the paradigm of the noun (a dial,dials) for the paradigm of a regular verb (I dial, he dials, dialed, dialing). A. Marchand in his book The Categories and Types of Present-day English treats conversion as a morphological-syntactical word-building because we have not only the change of the paradigm, but also the change of the syntactic function, e.g. I need some good paper for my room. (The noun «paper» is an object in the sentence). I paper my room every year. (The verb «paper» is the predicate in the sentence) [1, 90]from the perhaps more obvious possibility to derive words with the help of affixes, there are a number of other ways to create new words on the basis of already existing ones. We have already illustrated these in the first chapter of this book, when we briefly introduced the notions of conversion, truncations, clippings, blends, and abbreviations. In this chapter we will have a closer look at these non-concatenative processes. We will begin with conversion. Conversion can be defined as the derivation of a new word without any overt marking. In order to find cases of conversion we have to look for pairs of words that are derivationally related and are completely identical in their phonetic realization.can be seen from the organization of the data, different types of conversion can be distinguished, in particular noun to verb, verb to noun, adjective to verb and adjective to noun. Other types can also be found, but seem to be more marginal (e.g. the use of prepositions as verbs, as in to down the can). Conversion raises three major theoretical problems that we will discuss in the following: the problem of directionality, the problem of zero-morphs and the problem of the morphology-syntax boundary. [11, 92]question of conversion has, for a long time, been a controversial one in several aspects. The essence of this process has been treated by a number of scholars (e. g. H. Sweet), not as a word-building act, but as a mere functional change. From this point of view the word hand in Hand me that book is not a verb, but a noun used in a verbal syntactical function, that is, hand (me) and hands (in She has small hands) are not two different words but one. Hence, the саsе cannot be treated as one of word-formation for no new word appears. [15,128]to this functional approach, conversion may be regarded as a specific feature of the English categories of parts of speech, which are supposed to be able to break through the rigid borderlines dividing one category from another thus enriching the process of communication not by the creation of new words but through the sheer flexibility of the syntactic structures.this theory finds increasingly fewer supporters, and conversion is universally accepted as one of the major ways of enriching English vocabulary with new words. One of the major arguments for this approach to conversion is the semantic change that regularly accompanies each instance of conversion. Normally, a word changes its syntactic function without any shift in lexical meaning. E. g. both in yellow leaves and in the leaves were turning yellow the adjective denotes color. Yet, in the leaves yellowed the converted unit no longer denotes color, but the process of changing color, so that there is an essential change in meaning. The change of meaning is even more obvious in such pairs as hand - to hand, face - to face, to go - a go, to make -»a make, etc. [15,180]two categories of parts of speech especially affected by conversion are nouns and verbs. Verbs made from nouns are the most numerous amongst the words produced by conversion: e. g. to hand, to back, to face, to eye, to mouth, to nose, to dog, to wolf, to monkey, to can, to coal, to stage, to screen, to room, to floor, to blackmail, to blacklist, to honeymoon, and very many others.are frequently made from verbs: do (e. g. This is the queerest do I've ever come across. Do - event, incident), go (e. g. He has still plenty of go at his age. Go - energy), make, run, find, catch, cut, walk, worry, show, move, etc.can also be made from adjectives: to pale, to yellow, to cool, to grey, to rough (e. g. We decided to rough it in the tents as the weather was warm), etc.can be formed from nouns of different semantic groups and have different meanings because of that, e.g.) Verbs have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting parts of a human body e.g. to eye, to finger, to elbow, to shoulder etc. They have instrumental meaning if they are formed from nouns denoting tools, machines, instruments, weapons, e.g. to hammer, to machine-gun, to rifle, to nail,) Verbs can denote an action characteristic of the living being denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to crowd, to wolf, to ape,) Verbs can denote acquisition, addition or deprivation if they are formed from nouns denoting an object, e.g. to fish, to dust, to peel, to paper,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the place denoted by the noun from which they have been converted, e.g. to park, to garage, to bottle, to corner, to pocket,) Verbs can denote an action performed at the time denoted by the noun from which they have been converted e.g. to winter, to week-end. [11, 94]can be also converted from adjectives, in such cases they denote the change of the state, e.g. to tame (to become or make tame), to clean, to slim etc. Nouns can also be formed by means of conversion from verbs.nouns can denote:) instant of an action e.g. a jump, a move,) process or state e.g. sleep, walk,) agent of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a help, a flirt, a scold,) object or result of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a burn, a find, a purchase,) place of the action expressed by the verb from which the noun has been converted, e.g. a drive, a stop, a walk. Many nouns converted from verbs can be used only in the Singular form and denote momentaneous actions. In such cases we have partial conversion. Such deverbal nouns are often used with such verbs as: to have, to get, to take etc., e.g. to have a try, to give a push, to take a swim. [10, 95]frequent but also quite possible is conversion from form words to nouns. e. g. He liked to know the ins and outs. Shant go into the whys and wherefores. He was familiar with ups and downs of life. Use is even made of affixes. Thus, ism is a separate word nowadays meaning a set of ideas or principles, e. g. Freudism, existentialism and all the other -isms.all the above examples the change of paradigm is present and helpful for classifying the newly coined words as cases of conversion. But it is not absolutely necessary, because conversion is not limited to such parts of speech which possess a paradigm. That, for example, may be converted into an adverb in informal speech: I was that hungry I could have eaten a horse. [3,189]speaker realizes the immense potentiality of making a word into another part of speech when the need arises. One should guard against thinking that every case of noun and verb (verb and adjective, adjective and noun, etc.) with the same morphemic shape results from conversion. There are numerous pairs of words (e. g. love, n. - to love, v.; work, n. - to work, v.; drink, n. - to drink, v., etc.) which did, not occur due to conversion but coincided as a result of certain historical processes (dropping of endings, simplification of stems) when before that they had different forms. On the other hand, it is quite true that the first cases of conversion (which were registered n the 14th c.) imitated such pairs of words as love, n. - to love, v. for they were numerous in the vocabulary and were subconsciously accepted by native speakers as one of the typical language patterns [6, 167]