Иностранные языки

  • 201. Lithium
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 18.11.2009


    1. Fraser Cain (16th Aug 2006). "Why Old Stars Seem to Lack Lithium". http://www.universetoday.com/2006/08/16/why-old-stars-seem-to-lack-lithium/.
    2. I.-Juliana Sackmann and Arnold I. Boothroyd (1995). "Lithium Creation In Giant Stars". Proc. of IAU General Assembly "Lithium Joint Discussion 11", ed. F. Spite and R. Pallavicini, Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana 66: 403-412. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~boothroy/lijd11.html.
    3. Leonid S. Marochnik, Anwar Shukurov, Igor Yastrzhembsky, (1996). The Milky Way Galaxy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 4246. ISBN 2881249310. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uRgWHDGpKZIC&printsec=frontcover#PPA42,M1.
    4. Takeru Ken Suzuki et al. (2000). "Primordial Lithium Abundance as a Stringent Constraint on the Baryonic Content of the Universe". Astrophysics journal 540: 99103. doi:10.1086/309337.
    5. a b File:Binding energy curve - common isotopes.svg shows binding energies of stable nuclides graphically; the source of the data-set is given in the figure background.
    6. Numerical data from: Lodders, Katharina (2003). "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements". The Astrophysical Journal 591: 12201247. doi:10.1086/375492. Graphed at File:SolarSystemAbundances.jpg
    7. Thonnard. "Lithium". Nutritional Supplement Center. http://www.nutritionalsupplementscenter.com/info/HealthSupplement/lithium.html. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
    8. a b c d e f g h Krebs, Robert E. (2006). The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33438-2.
    9. Tuoriniemi, J; Juntunen-Nurmilaukas, K; Uusvuori, J; Pentti, E; Salmela, A; Sebedash, A (2007). "Superconductivity in lithium below 0.4 millikelvin at ambient pressure.". Nature 447 (7141): 1879. doi:10.1038/nature05820. PMID 17495921.
    10. Struzhkin, Vv; Eremets, Mi; Gan, W; Mao, Hk; Hemley, Rj (2002). "Superconductivity in dense lithium.". Science 298 (5596): 12135. doi:10.1126/science.1078535. PMID 12386338.
    11. Overhauser, A. W. (1984). "Crystal Structure of Lithium at 4.2 K". Physical Review Letters 53: 6465. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.53.64.
    12. a b c d "Lithium and lithium compounds". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. 2004. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1209200811011309.a01.pub2.
    13. Thonnard, Kirchoff; Robert Bunsen. "Chemical Analysis By Observation of Spectra". University of Pittsburgh. http://www.pitt.edu/~alw11/InterestInfo/Articles/Bunsen%20and%20Kirchoff.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
    14. ^ "Isotopes of Lithium". Berkeley National Laboratory, The Isotopes Project. http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/Li_iso.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
    15. Martin Asplund et al. (2006). "Lithium Isotopic Abundances in Metal-poor Halo Stars". The Astrophysical Journal 644: 229. doi:10.1086/503538.
    16. Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; McKeegan, K.D. (2006). "Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short−lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system" (free download pdf). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70 (1): 224245. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2005.08.016. http://sims.ess.ucla.edu/PDF/Chaussidon_et_al_Geochim%20Cosmochim_2006a.pdf.
    17. Denissenkov, P. A.; Weiss, A. (2000). "Episodic lithium production by extra-mixing in red giants". Astronomy and Astrophysics 358: L49L52. Bibcode: 2000A&A...358L..49D.
    18. Seitz, H.M.; Brey, G.P.; Lahaye, Y.; Durali, S.; Weyer, S. (2004). "Lithium isotopic signatures of peridotite xenoliths and isotopic fractionation at high temperature between olivine and pyroxenes". Chemical Geology 212 (1-2): 163177. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.08.009.
    19. "Petalite Mineral Information". http://www.mindat.org/min-3171.html. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
    20. a b c d e f g "Lithium:Historical information". http://www.webelements.com/lithium/history.html. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
    21. Weeks, Mary (2003). Discovery of the Elements. Whitefish, Montana, United States: Kessinger Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 0766138720. http://books.google.com/books?id=SJIk9BPdNWcC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 10 August 2009.
  • 202. London
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 19.08.2010
  • 203. London (Places to Visit)
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 29.12.2010

    Across the river from London Bridge is The City of London, the financial district of the capital. The City has its own historic delights such as the Tower of London and St Pauls Cathedral. The Tower of London was built during the 11th century by William the Conqueror. It was the Royal Residence until the 17th century. The Tower f London has 19 towers. There you can see the famous Crown Jewels in the Jewel House. St Pauls Cathedral, the greatest Church of England, was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. There are a lot of memorials in the cathedral including those to Wellington and Admiral Nelson.

  • 204. London history
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.02.2010

    London - the capital of Great Britain When we think of Paris, Rome. Madrid, Lisbon and other European capitals, we think of them as cities. When we think of the whole of modern London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, that great area covering several hundred square kilometres, we do not think of it as a city. not even as a city and its suburbs. Modem London is not one city that has steadily become larger through the centuries; it is a number of cities. towns, and villages that have, during the past centuries, grown together to make one vast urban area. London is situated upon both banks of the River Thames, it is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world. Its population is about 7 million people. London dominates the life of Britain. It is the chief port of the country and the most important commercial, manufacturing and cultural centre. There is little heavy industry in London, but there is a wide range of light industry in Greater London. London consists of three parts: the City of London, the West End and the East End. The City extends over an area of about 2.6 square kilometres in the heart of London. About half a million people work in the City but only less than 6000 live here. It is the financial centre of the UK with many banks, offices and Stock Exchange. But the City is also a market for goods of almost every kind, from all parts of the world. The West End can be called the centre of Tendon. Here are the historical palaces as well as the famous parks. Hyde Park with its Speakers Corner is also here. Among other parks are Kensington Gardens, St.Jamess Park. In the West End is Buckingham Palace. Which is the Queens residence, and the Palace of Westminster which is the seat of Parliament. The best-known streets here are Whitehall with important Government offices. Downing Street, the London residence of Prime Minister and the place where the Cabinet meets.

  • 205. Madam Tussaud's Museum
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 02.03.2010

    In conclusion Id like to say that working at my report I discovered a lot of astonishing details about the past and present of the museum. It was interesting to learn about opening the Planetarium, moving images and animatronic ride “The Spirit of London”. I could hardly imagine that there are even speaking wax figures and that visitors can freely interact with them dance, sing, play and what not! I was also impressed reading about Studio Secrets; the process of making wax sculpture is a real art! And can you imagine that each hair is inserted individually and it takes five weeks? And of course it was a surprise for me to follow wonderful changes and how the museum gradually turned into a great international complex Tussauds Group!

  • 206. Magna carta (Великая хартия вольностей)
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 25.08.2010
  • 207. Management of organization
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 24.12.2010

    Within the context of strategic human resource management, staffing encompasses human resource planning, acquisition, and development aimed at providing the talent necessary for organizational success. Four key staffing activities necessarily linked to organizational strategy and structure are: (1) human resource planning, (2) selection, (3) perform ance appraisal, and (4) training. A systems approach to human resource planning will help management devise staffing strategies for future hu man resource needs. As the organization's gatekeeper for vital human resources, employee selection should be more than a haphazard process of looking around for people to fill vacancies. There are relative advantages to promoting an insider as opposed to transferring in or hiring an outsider. Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws require managers to make hiring and other personnel decisions on the basis of ability to perform rather than personal prejudice. Because interviews are the most popular employee screening device, experts recommend structured rather than traditional, informal interviews. A structured interview may be defined as a series of job-related questions with predetermined answers that are constantly applied across all interviews for a particular job.

  • 208. Marketing analysis and strategy company Indes
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 08.01.2012

    next step after identifying possible markets is to decide which of these to target.find a suitable and profitable segment we need to go along the step-wise segment selection process (adapted from Freytag and Clarke, 2001, Brennan et al. 2011). The first step is to evaluate the relative attractiveness with criteria like segment size, growth rate and customer needs. Then we need to look at the resource demands (finances, HR, technology etc.). Management demands are the next thing to evaluate and last are the organizational demands. If all this are acceptable we consider the segment as suitable for targeting. Since this is all part of a big research project and also considered in the last part, we just chose for some criteria to evaluate the segments discussed above. In the following table we compare the ideas in 5 different criteria: realistic, costs, demand, implementation based on geographical factors and safety. When considering a new product costs should be always evaluated and if the project is realistic, meaning that the firm has the capabilities in resources to produce and successfully sell the new product. We considered demand to think about because a firm always needs to see whether there are potential customers in the market that would buy the product. Geographical factors was considered important by us because Indes is a small Dutch company so it does not have that much reach and resources to operate abroad. Safety was an important issue for us since the e-kit speeds up the devices chosen so in some cases there need to be some arrangements to ensure the safety of the user.considering all points like costs, demand etc. We came to the conclusion to choose for targeting the ambulance bike and the wheelbarrows, which will be discussed in more detail in the following. ambulance bikeambulance bike, with an e-kit on board, would be a substitute for the already existing ambulance bike without any kind of electrical help. In third world countries, ambulance bikes are the transportation tool to transport people living at the country side to a nearby hospital. Since these trips normally take hours, a bike with an e-kit can reduce the travel time and might save lives. ambulance bikes belong to a sub industry of Manufacture of other Transport Equipment, namely Manufacture of bicycles and invalid carriages. Since the concept is quite rare, theres no real market for this product. Therefore we deal with a niche market which we think could be quite profitable. world countries are in desperately need of such products as ambulance bikes. To be able to transport people which need medical care in a proper way, third world countries are almost obliged to think of products as the ambulance bike to offer medical care and to increase demographic health care numbers. However, we dont think governments will invest in ambulance bikes since theres no money. To be able to sell the ambulance bike with e-kit on board, Indes should collaborate with a few organizations (charities) that stimulate health care in third world countries, like the United Nations. produce such a product as an ambulance bike with electric endorsement, Indes is operating on the periphery of all its current markets. Indes should think of a save bike design with the opportunity for patients to lay down while driving to the hospital. Basis equipment for medical care should be implemented in the ambulance bike as well and Indes should think of an electric kit with a very long battery capacity, since there are not many electric points to recharge the energy kit in third world countries. We think collaborating with a firm experienced in making ambulance bikes (without e-kit) would be a wise decision. In this way, Indes could use their experience on the design and the medical equipment that has to be on board and combine this with its own knowledge on electric kits and the implementation of this. Indes can profit from such a project, not only because of the financial revenues, but it also can boost Indes reputation and brand awareness. The project is very ethical and sustainable responsible and this will positively influence Indes image. are a few drawbacks to this plan. At first, Indes has to find investors that are willing to buy these ambulance bikes for third world countries, since its likely that local governments cannot invest in such innovative ways of medical transportation. Besides the fact to find investors, Indes should think of a company to collaborate on this project. It might be that Indes is too small to work on this project by itself. At third, the costs of an electronic ambulance bike are higher than of a normal ambulance bike of course. To make sure that Indes can sell the project, it has to think of its profit margin. Since these ambulance bikes are sold to charities and not for profit organizations, Indes should keep costs as low as possible. Last, the transportation costs of the ambulance bikes are going to be very high, this will increase the product price as well.

  • 209. Marketing in tourism
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 18.11.2010

    Consumer involvement is the perceived personal importance and interest consumers attach to the acquisition, consumption, and disposition of a good, service, or an idea. As their involvement increases, consumers have a greater motivation to attend to, comprehend, and elaborate on information pertaining to the purchase. (Mowen & Minor, 1998, p.64). In the case of low involvement, consumer views a purchase as unimportant and regards the outcome of his or her decision as inconsequential. Because the purchase carries a minimal degree of personal relevance or identification, the individual feels there is little or nothing to be gained from attending to the details of a purchase. (Hanna & Wozniak, 2001, p.290). High involvement purchases are those that are important to the consumer either from a financial, social, or psychological point of views. The purchase is characterized by personal relevance and identification with the outcome. (Hanna & Wozniak, 2001, p.291). An individual anticipates a potentially significant gain from expending time and effort in comparison-shopping before buying. For example, a girl purchasing an expensive ball dress has a high degree of personal identification. Therefore, a high level of felt involvement can increase an individuals willingness to search for, process, and transmit information about a purchase.

  • 210. Marketing Plan for juice "Seila"
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 14.02.2011


    • Festivals and shows: «Seila» commissions and facilitates cutting edge artists, musicians, designers, film-makers, etc to curate and create events and happenings. During any event a mix of multimedia: music, video, advanced technologies in entertainment and show, should be present. «Seila» Entertainment element by no means should be limited to laser shows and trendy DJs. (the sample of advertisement see Appendix 3).
    • Interactive entertainment with content creation by consumers: Like in Web 2.0. and 3.0, «Seila» enables consumers to input into entertainment and show by sharing/creating content. For example, screens with live puzzle of pictures made from consumers content (images, videos, photographs), or music and light shows made of consumers content (voices, music, ringtones, etc); interactive 3D games and simulations.
    • Purposeful technologies for entertaining and educating: «Seila» stations with content transmission, powered by QR codes, Bluetooth, etc. Content can be various, e.g. music, useful instant information, videos, pictures and photos.
    • Word-of-mouth
  • 211. Marketing reflections on learning outcomes
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 23.07.2010
  • 212. Marketing Research Project for a Russian Company
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 31.08.2006


    1. We revealed a negative correlation between income per head and consumption of pastas. The biggest part of buyers were representatives of the lower class or the lower middles (31% and 33% respectively). 27% were higher middles, and 16% belonged to the high class. Since only pasta buyers were asked, the average consumption of pasta is lower than our research show, but nevertheless we can get an idea of structure of consumption of pastas. According to our calculations, the consumption of pastas per head is:
    2. Lower class- 0.6 kg/month
    3. Lower middles 0.55 kg/month
    4. Higher middles 0.32 kg/month
    5. High class - 0.13 kg/month
    6. Only 12% of the respondents claimed they consume more than 1.3 kg of pastas a month per head. We can treat the lower class and the lower middles as the heavy half and the higher middles and the high class as the light half.
    7. 36 % of respondents claimed they prefer corns to other pastas, 22%like spirals, 26% like shells, 7% prefer vermicelli, and 2% usually buy spaghetti.
    8. 46% of buyers claimed the price to be the most important factor which influenced their purchase decision, for 37% of consumers the quality is the priority. 5% think they should buy only automatically packed pastas, and 3% claimed some specific features as taste (we should assume that good taste is a part of quality and that is why this group is small). There were also 4% of loyals who are driven by a familiar brand name while making their decision.
    9. Usually people plan to purchase pastas in advance (87%). In spite of this, the decision about the particular sort and brand name (if there is any) is usually impulse (63%).
    10. The crisis dramatically affected the market of pastas. We talked to the salesmen of pastas to shed light on this question. All of the salesmen we talked to said that before the crisis people preferred imported pastas to domestic ones. Now domestic pastas of low quality (37%) and middle quality (45%) are bought (according to our survey, not to salesmen). We expected changes to happen, but we did not expect them to be so huge, though LBS Corporations manufacture of pastas very notably increased since before August, 17th.
    11. The most desirable size of package is 1kg (57%), then goes a 500g package (38%).
    12. People almost do not purchase domestic automatically packed pastas. Their price is almost equal to the price of imported pastas.
    13. 72% of respondents said that they would prefer automatically packed pasta to manually packed one. 35% would do it because they are afraid of being given light weight, 19% do not like unawareness about the manufacturer, and 11% think the quality is poor.
      In spite of this, people are not willing to pay much for packaging, though 82% of them agree that they would prefer automatically packed pasta to manually packed one. Only 9% were willing to pay more than 1 ruble for a 500g package, 24 % would pay from 0.6 to 1 ruble for a 500g package, 28% would pay about 0.5 ruble, and 10% would pay nothing at all (some even said they would prefer manually packed pastas because they can use the packaging).
    14. People would not like to buy pastas in cardboard or other non-glassy packaging. Actually all of the respondents said they need to look at the product to estimate its quality.
    15. Though people agree that imported pastas tend to be better than the domestic ones, most of them (67%) would not like to pay more than 25% more for imported pastas.
    16. People do not worry a lot about the brand name. There are no hard-core loyals. There are a few split loyals (11%). They are among the people who still prefer imported pastas. The most popular brands are: Nordic (27% of imported pastas purchased were of this brand), Big (21 %). Non of the respondents was a loyal of any domestic trademarks.
    17. Actually all people said that it is bad that Russia substitutes natural resources for industrial goods, but only 4% said they often think about it when they make their purchase decision, 7% said they sometimes do, 5% seldom think of this.
    18. Since it was difficult for the respondents to answer weather they used to consume more or less pastas before the crisis (more than 50% could not answer at all or hesitated), we used the salesmen as our reserve source of information. According to them, the overall consumption of pastas decreased by approximately 15%, and consumption of imported pastas has just slummed- by more than 50%.
  • 213. Marketing Strategy of the UK Cigarette Industry, Communicaton
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 30.04.2010
  • 214. Marxism and women’s movement
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 01.07.2010

    Thе fаіlurе оf rеvоlutіоns іn thе аdvаncеd cоuntrіеs sеаlеd thе fаtе оf thе wоrkеrs stаtе аnd оf Russіаn wоmеn. Іn а dеspеrаtе аttеmpt tо buy tіmе, thе Nеw Еcоnоmіc Pоlіcy wаs іntrоducеd іn 1921, аnd thіs bаdly аffеctеd wоmеn, whо wеrе mаіnly unskіllеd wоrkеrs аnd thеrеfоrе suffеrеd mоst frоm unеmplоymеnt, dеspіtе gоvеrnmеnt аttеmpts tо prоtеct thеm. By thе еnd оf thе 1920s, а nеw rulіng clаss hаd аrіsеn undеr Stаlіn аnd cоnsоlіdаtеd а fоrm оf burеаucrаtіc stаtе cаpіtаlіsm. Іt іs frоm thіs pоіnt thаt wе sее а quаlіtаtіvе chаngе: thе gаіns mаdе by wоmеn stаrt tо bе rоllеd bаck аs а mаttеr оf dеlіbеrаtе gоvеrnmеnt pоlіcy rаthеr thаn undеr thе fоrcе оf cіrcumstаncеs. Thе prіоrіty оf thе nеw rulіng clаss wаs cаpіtаl аccumulаtіоn tо cаtch up wіth thе wеst. Thіs mеаnt mаssіvе іndustrіаlіsаtіоn аnd thе dіvеrsіоn оf rеsоurcеs аwаy frоm cоnsumptіоn tоwаrds prоductіоn. Іt аlsо mеаnt thе supеr-еxplоіtаtіоn оf thе wоrkіng clаss. Wоmеn wеrе brоught bаck іntо thе wоrkfоrcе, but thеy lоst prоtеctіvе lеgіslаtіоn, mеchаnіsms such аs pіеcеwоrk rаtеs mаdе іt іmpоssіblе fоr thеm tо еаrn аs much аs mеn, аnd mаtеrnіty bеnеfіts wеrе slаshеd. Chіldcаrе cоntіnuеd tо еxіst, nоt tо lіbеrаtе wоmеn frоm thе fаmіly, but tо fаcіlіtаtе thеіr еxplоіtаtіоn. Іndееd, аn еssеntіаl prоjеct оf thе Stаlіnіst cоuntеr-rеvоlutіоn wаs thе strеngthеnіng оf thе fаmіly, fоrcіng bаck оntо wоmеn thе rеspоnsіbіlіty fоr hоusеwоrk аnd chіldcаrе. Thеrе wаs а sustаіnеd аttаck оn Kоllоntаіs іdеаs аbоut sеxuаl frееdоm, whіch еvеntuаlly іntіmіdаtеd hеr іntо sіlеncе. Kоllоntаіs аdvаncеd іdеаs hаd оftеn mеt wіth crіtіcіsm wіthіn thе pаrty, pаrtіculаrly frоm оldеr mеmbеrs, іncludіng Lеnіn, whоsе аttіtudе tо sеx wаs undоubtеdly purіtаnіcаl by tоdаys stаndаrds. But іt іs nеcеssаry tо drаw а dіstіnctіоn bеtwееn thе pеrsоnаl prеjudіcеs оf іndіvіduаls аnd pаrty pоlіcy, whіch wаs unаmbіguоusly fоr sеxuаl frееdоm. Аs thе Bоlshеvіk Grіgоrіі Bаkkіs wrоtе іn 1923:

  • 215. Mass migration in Australia
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 02.07.2010

    (f) A very proactive attitude to refugees. The current crises in Timor and Fiji and the crisis in Kosovo underline the importance of allowing refugee migration on the widest possible scale when crises arise. Much of the immigration history of Australia since the Second World War and, indeed, since the Irish Famine in the 1850s, has been based on providing safe haven for refugees. This is appropriate for a new country such as Australia, and people who come to Australia in these circumstances usually make a considerable effort to make a life in Australia.This migration program should be backed up by a considerable commitment to appropriate national infrastructure and agricultural development etc, at the same time as a vast public program to remediate the Australian environment.I believe that is the kind of policy on which both the labour movement, and possibly Australian society as a whole, will settle, and quite soon. The reason that this will be so is the effect of the already established cultural diversity and ethnic mix in the new Australia, and the obvious political implications of our location in the world.The current crisis in relations with Indonesia, produced by the necessity of defending the right of national self-determination of the East Timorese people, heavily underlines the need for nailing down such a general policy on migration.

  • 216. Media in China
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 15.12.2010

    Talk radio in China allows a much freer exchange of views than other media formats. In effect, talk radio has shifted the paradigm from authorities addressing the people to people addressing the authorities. For example, until 1991 the 14 million inhabitants of Shanghai were served by only one radio station Radio Shanghai which primarily aired predictable, pro-government propaganda. In 1992, East Radio was established with a format that catered to citizens' individual concerns and deemphasized propaganda. Competition between the two Shanghai radio stations has resulted in much livelier coverage by both including call-in programs that air discussions of politics, lifestyle, and previously forbidden social subjects. Because callers usually are not required to identify themselves, such discussions are far more candid than would be possible on television. Party officials regularly give guidance to the hosts and producers of talk-radio programs, but such guidance is usually ignored without penalty because party officials do not want to create problems by moving against these highly popular programs.

  • 217. Medicine in Ancient Civilization
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 27.12.2011

    Early man, like the animals, was subject to illness and death. Life was uncomfortable, dangerous and hard. If the man had a wound, his instinctive action was to suck or lick this wound. He knew that bleeding very often eased the pain of a wound. Instinctive medical actions soon became ceremonial rituals which became very important in the. life of a primitive man. Medicine progressed slowly. The medicine-man practiced magic to help the man who was ill or had a wound. As the centuries passed, man came to know anatomy from the animals ht killed. The medicine-man became the central figure of the tribe. Between 7000 and 4000 B.C. new civilization developed from the early tribes. Ancient Egyptians were the earliest civilized people in the world. They studied the human body. Magic still played an important part when the medicine-man treated ill people but Egyptians also developed practical methods of treatment. Homer wrote that Egyptian doctors were the best in his time. The early Indians in Mexico used narcotics in the treatment of diseases. In Peru and India surgery was very developed. Amputations were very common in these countries.Medicine in China began about 2600 B.C. The Chinese used acupuncture very often. The Chinese also discovered about two thousand medicinal substances. the period of 5000 В.C. the medical knowledge from Egypt spread to Greece where it was further developed. The Greeks knew how to stop bleeding. Such great philosophers as Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were all connected with the development of science and medicine in Greece. The Greeks could diagnose illness. The Greeks also credited many gods and goddesses as they could cure diseases and bring health. Apollo was the god of disease and healing. At a later date his mythical son Asclepius with his daughter Hygeia replaced Apollo. Hygeia was the Greek goddess of health, The cup of Asclepius, entwined with a serpent , is still the symbol of medicine. The cult of Asclepius was the most famous religious-medical cult in history.Hippocrates symbolized the greatness of the creative and classical period of history. He is called "the father of scientific medicine". Hippocrates was the first who spoke about the natural causes of diseases. He also established fundamental principles of observation and treatment that are used to this day.tried to protect health during the Middle Ages. Certain important health methods were used during this period. Epidemics of diphtheria, tytphoid, fever, leprosy, influenza, bubonic plague and other diseases took millions of lives. Leprosy was spread for hundreds of years. This disease was controlled not by medical means. Poor lepers lived in special colonies, away from other people. This was a very important advance in public health during this period.During the Middle Ages plague killed many millions of people in Europe. In 1348 the Black Death struck Britain: nobody knew how to fight with the disease. The doctors advised people to run away from the affected areas. Everybody agreed that plague was god's punishment for the sins of man.very important development during the Middle Ages was the hospital. Hospitals appeared in Ceylon early in the fifth century В.C. and in India in 260 В.C. Hospitals were founded during the Middle Ages in Italy, France, England, Spain and other European countries.The number of hospital beds was not always an indication of hospital size, as usually great beds were used, and four or six patients were put on one bed.Hospitals were founded to treat the sick people. Another development during the Middle Ages was the foundation of Universities. Many of the great European, Universities were founded during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Biological sciences were taught in the, universities. Students also studied the human body and some diseases. Even in Roman times, people were afraid of dead bodies. Dissection, that is the cutting open of bodies to learn more about the various parts and how they work, was banned by religion and the law. This delayed the study of anatomy for over a thousand years.It is strange that the first effort to study the human body was made by Renaissance artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo wished to draw the body with more realism. So he carefully examined the shape of bones and muscles. He also dissected over thirty dead bodies and drew pictures of many internal organs, the veins and arteries. the sixteenth century a doctor named Andreas Vesalius studied anatomy on dead bodies. He used corpses for his examinations. Vesalius was born in Brussels, got his education as a doctor in Paris. Later he moved to Padua University where he became Professor of anatomy. In 1543 he published an illustrated book - "The Working of the Human Body".the era of the fourteenth through seventeenth century the foundations of science and medicine were established. The art of surgery was improved by Ambroise Рare. Parecelsus became the father of twentieth-century chemotherapy. Andreas Vesalius made the study of anatomy a science based on direct observations. William Harvey, the English physician to King James I, discovered the circulation of the blood and his countryman Thomas Sydenham developed the science of internal medicine.1675 Antony van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch brewer invented the microscope and observed bacteria and protozoa. He also described microscopic organisms. Other important discoveries were made in the seventeenth century. These discoveries helped to understand and study the human body, especially the various digestive glands, blood circulation, sensory nerve endings, the structure and function of the ear, salivary glands and the structure of bones. eighteenth century was a period during which steady-progress was made in the health-related sciences. New discoveries were made in physics, chemistry, anatomy, biology, physiology, bacteriology and other sciences.beginning of new theories of disease was stimulated by the first great pathologist Giovanni Battista Morgagni who explained the connection of the symptoms of disease in the living body with anatomical findings at autopsy. The English naval surgeon James Lind discovered the ways to treat scurvy. The great anatomist John Hunter became known as the founder of scientific surgery. The French physician Rene Laennec, with his invention of the stethoscope, extended the development of physical diagnosis, begun by Leopold Auenbrugger.At the end of the century immunology was introduced in the field of health conservation.In 1776 the vaccination for smallpox was discovered in England by Edward Jenner. With slight modification the same method is still used to provide smallpox immunity today.In 1799 Sir Humphry Davy discovered that nitrous oxide or "laughing gas", helped to relieve pain when breathed into the lung and could make people temporarily unconscious. Fort years later Michael Faraday found that ether had the same effect, and in 1846 a famous American surgeon of the time, John Warren, carried out a successive operation on a patient's throat us ether as an an aesthetic. In the following year it was found that chloroform could relieve pain during childbirth.discoveries were made in the nineteenth century. One of them was the discovery of cocaine, which was very effective as a local anaesthetic. Surgeons could inject cocaine into a certain part of the body and deaden the pain in that part during the operation.When the problem of pain was solved, surgeons could carry out long and complicated operations.very important discovery was made by the French chemist, physicist and bacteriologist Louis Pasteur. We know him as the originator of the "germ theory" of disease. He discovered fermentation and developed the process of pasteurization. Louis Pasteur produced the theory that disease and infection were caused by germs and he proved that they were spread through the air. He found that germs could be killed in the liquids by heat and the term "pasteurization" was given to this process. Milk is treated in this way today to make it safe to drink. Virchov became known for his work in cellular pathology, and Herman von Helmholtz for his invention of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. Lord Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic surgery in 1867, and Wilhelm K. Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895. He placed his hand in front of the apparatus and saw that the rays passed through the hand and cast a shadow of bones on the screen. Because he did not know what the rays were he called them X-rays.the first seventy years of the twentieth century many discoveries were made in the treatment and prevention of disease. In 1901 Karl Landsteiner discovered the blood groups.Some diseases are not caused by germs or infections but by the lack of certain substances in our food. The discovery of vitamins in 1912 was very important to provide people with a properly balanced diet.1922 Sir Frederick Banting found that insulin is very effective against diabetes mellitus. Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Dr. Alexander Fleming who became the founder of the modern science of anitibiosis. Penicillin was used in hospitals to reduce infections in wounds I during the Second World War. Streptomycin and a series of anti-infection drugs were discovered I after penicillin. All these /drugs I are known as antibiotics.drug known as sulphanilamide was discovered in 1935. It became the first of the "miracle" drugs which gave immediate and amazing results in the treatment of many infectious diseases including pneumonia.the two world wars, great advances were made in the field of plastic surgery, in which skin, bone, or muscle was taken from one part of the body and then was transplanted to a badly injured area in another part. progress was made in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, bacterial and viral infections; kidney disorders and other main causes of death and disability .individual of today will live longer and more healthfully than ever before.

  • 218. Metaphor in its Broad Perspective
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 03.05.2012

    ) the predicates characterizing the range objects and thus unequivocally containing the term of comparison (to ripen, fade, melt, flow, to bear fruit) [9;78].to consider the process of metaphorisation deeper, it is necessary to distinguish three main views on its linguistic nature: a metaphor as a way of existence of the meanings of words, as the phenomenon of syntactic semantics, as a way of conveying meaning in a communicative act.the first case, the metaphor is regarded as lexicological phenomenon. Accordingly, the representatives of this approach believe that the metaphor is realized in the structure of linguistic meaning of the word. second approach focuses on the metaphorical meaning, arising from the interaction of words and phrases in the structure of the proposal, the boundaries of metaphor more broadly it will be considered at the level of syntactic matching of words.third approach is the most innovative, examines the imaginative comparison as the mechanism of forming the meaning of the utterance in different functional varieties of speech. For this approach, the metaphor is a functional communicative phenomenon, realized in an utterance or text [13;56]., as the followers of the first approach can be attributed G.N. Sklyarovska, who while describing the process of metaphorisation, drew attention to the structure of the lexical meaning of a word that has the metaphorical imagery. While analysing a word its literal meaning and metaphorical meaning is compared. However, this approach can not answer the question about the mechanisms of formation of figurative meaning in different types of speech and, of course, involves only the study of linguistic metaphor. Psychological experiments showed that humans mind can not just instantly react to the imagery of speech, but also easy to understand these images, which suggests that the metaphor is not reducible to the use of tokens that have metaphorical value [17;44].of the second approach, including N.D Arutyunov, M. Black, A. Richards, consider the metaphor as a phenomenon of syntactic semantics. With this approach, the focus of attention is the formation of metaphorical meaning within phrases and sentences. At the heart of the mechanism of metaphor formation they see a categorical shift. Metaphor offers a new distribution of items into categories and then abandon it. The essence of metaphor is a transposition of identifying the (descriptive and semantic, diffuse) vocabulary designed to indicate the object of speech, the scope of predicates, intended to indicate its characteristics and properties. the metaphor the distant relationships between concepts are established. Named interaction theory [12;192]. Metaphor has two different subjects -main and auxiliary (A. Richards calls them «tenor» and «vehicle»). According to Black the mechanism of metaphor is that the subject is attached to the main system of associated implications related to the subsidiary subject. N.D Arutyunov sees metaphorisation as the essence of establishing a permanent trait characterized by the subject [3;535]. However, as pointed out by B. Shannon - representative of the third approach, "in reality, the metaphorical meaning is a result of the interaction relationships between the elements." Thus, it becomes evident the need to launch investigations beyond the syntactic structure, as the metaphorical sense, and with its help the reader or listener encounters the speech is much more complicated and is affected much more factors than the two-term metaphorical construction of syntactic semantics. Thus, the third approach can be functional-communicative, which is further subdivided into a pragmatic and cognitive theory. The basic position of the first lies in the fact that the metaphor does not arise in the semantic field of language but in the process of language use in speech. The scope of speech metaphors is not a clause but rather a verbal expression, that is full understanding of metaphor arises only in a specific act of communication (e.g: A mountain road is a snake; A mountain road is a tree-in experiment is a real communicative context can be perceived as metaphor and absurd claim . But in the real context of both examples can function as a metaphor) [9;194].theory is a prolongation of the pragmatic. At the heart of it lies a provision, according to which in mind, there are deep structural relations between groups of concepts, that allow to structure one concept in terms of others. This is an important theoretical position also supported by the historical study of language (the original anthropomorphic nature of human consciousness, which determined the formation of relations between the concepts of identity that relate to different areas of reality), and psychophysiological studies (a common property of all living creatures represent the external world as the image of its internal state, the ability to model using certain codes of life situations)[11;150].should be noted that in each of these theories, of course, there are disputed issues and questions that remain open. In any case, considering such a many-sided phenomenon as metaphor, it is necessary to take into account all the provisions. Another scientist Telia suggests his theory: he believes that the process of metaphorisation represents a three-term structure: I-R-In, where I is the initial word, the R - resulting word, the In - intermediate (birch-I, flexible-R, girl - In - birch compared with a girl). However, this scheme can not be understood literally, binding it with the dictionary definition of two words. Here it is rather the common associations, emerging on the basis of vague terms, to be operated on the human brain. Not accidentally it was pointed out that there are no mechanical rules, algorithms that allow to switch automatically from direct to the derived value. A T. Vianu (Romanian philosopher) pointed out that "metaphor implies the alternation in the minds of two series of representations: the similarity between the reality signified by their own meaning of the word, and indeed, metaphorically denoted the differences between these two realities" [10;59].

  • 219. Methylotrophic biomass as 2H-labeled substrate for biosynthesis of inosine
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 26.10.2006

    The method of FAB MS was employed for the evaluation of inosine enrichment. The fragmentation pathways of inosine by FAB MS are shown in Fig. 3. Two main decomposition processes arised from the molecule: sugar (m/z 133) and hypoxantine (m/z 136) formation. The compounds with a smaller m/z ratio may further to be formed as a result of elitination of HCN and CO from hypoxantine. The level of deuterium enrichment could be evaluated from the FAB mass spectrum of 2H-labeled inosine shown in Fig. 3, b compared with the non-labeled inosine (a). The results, firmely established the labeling of inosine as heterogenious, juging by the presence of clasters of adduct peaks at the molecular ion MH+; the species of molecules with different numbers of deuterium atoms were visualised. The most abundant peak with (M+H)+ at m/z 274 (instead of m/z 269 for non-labeled compound) in the claster was registered by mass spectrometer as a peak with average m/z ratio, from whom the enrichment of inosine was calculated as five deuterium atoms. The presence of peak corresponding to the hypoxantine fragment [C5H4ON4]+ at m/z 138 (instead of m/z 136) and the peak of sugar fragment [C5H9O4]+ at m /z 136 (instead of m/z 133) proved that two deuterium atoms are located in hypoxantine, however, three of them are attributed to the ribose pattern.

  • 220. Microwave in chemical syntheses (Микроволновая печь в химических синтезах)
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 12.12.2010

    Материалы имеют физические свойства, которые могут быть измерены и использоваться, для предсказания их поведения в микроволновом поле. Один расчетный параметр - фактор разложения, часто называемый тангенсом потерь. Фактор разложения - отношение диэлектрических потерь (фактор потерь) к диэлектрической постоянной. Делая еще один шаг, диэлектрические потери - мера того, насколько хорошо материал поглощает электромагнитную энергию, которой это выставлено, в то время как диэлектрическая постоянная - мера поляризуемости материала, по существу, насколько сильно он сопротивляется движению или полярных молекул или ионов в материале. И диэлектрические потери и диэлектрическая постоянная - измеряемые свойства.