Иностранные языки

  • 21. All about work
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 05.05.2010

    However, in а court case which reached the House of Lords in 1994, it was decided that the hours thresholds applying to part-timers amounted to sex discrimination under European laws because the vast majority of part-timers in the UK are women and the majority of full-time workers are men; The judgment аррlied only to entitlement to redundancy рay and compensation for unfair dismissal, but the government realized that it had implications for other employment rights as well. As а result, the 1aw has been amended and from 6 February 1995, the hours thre- sholds have been removed from UK employment law. This means that part-timers now have the same rights as full-time workers in аll these areas:

    • right to complain of unfair dismissal;
    • right to statutory redundancy payments;
    • right to а written statement of employment;
    • right to return to work after fu11 period of maternity leave;
    • right to а written statement of reasons for dismissal;
    • right to time off for trade union dutгes and activities;
    • right to time off to look for work or arrange training in redundancy;
    • right to guarantee payments;
    • right to notice of dismissal;
    • right to payment on medical suspension.
  • 22. Allusion as discourse symbol
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 11.07.2012

    Any research can not be stated in proper way without pointing out the main functions of the subject under consideration. So now we should pay attention to different functions of allusion and especially to its stylistic functions.we have already mentioned allusion is a technique used in literature in which a literary work references another work of literature, work of art, historical figure, place, or event. In general, this passing reference is not explained by the writer, so only readers who are familiar with the source of allusion tend to understand or notice it. The wide use of allusions is caused by many reasons. In some special cases, allusion is used because it already communicated what the author wants to say better than he could have himself. More often, though, the writer uses allusions because of the many emotions or ideas that readers may associate with the text to which the writer alludes.in many cases, allusion serves a more specific purpose than simply tapping into a body of associations. Sometimes a reference to another work is given in a context that is drastically opposed to the original meaning. This technique is often used to refute the meaning of the original and to assert a new meaning. [20] Other case of the use of allusion in poetic texts actually reference several different sources simultaneously to create new associations and to make the reader to evaluate one or more sources of allusions.implies presence of the contextual elements which function consists in indication on the relation between the given text and other texts or reference to the certain historical, cultural and biographic facts.function of allusion consists in the help for the author to depict his attitude towards the world by comparison of two (or several) realities or text systems.scholars suggested diverse approaches to differentiation of functions of allusion. Let us firstly innumerate these functions and then proceed to their analysis. So stylistic functions of allusion in the poetic text are the following:of the idea of the textof the subtextformationof the pragmatic structureof time categoryformationincreasevalueon the authors subtextlet us proceed to the brief analysis of above mentioned functions.their work scientists Dashtamirova and Serdukova stated the function of allusion that they called the expression of the idea of the text [4, pp.4-54]. Later other scholars continued their work where they stated the position of allusion as the expression of the authors intention in the text. The main idea of the text may be hidden in the allusive process, so as we have already studied from the work of scientist Mashkova, using this function of allusion the author is expecting for the prepared reader [9, p.28].next function called the creation of the subtext was studied by various scientists such as Kashkimbaeva [5, pp. 28-33], Mamaeva [10, p.20], Serdukova [4], Fedosiuk. They stated allusion to be the means of creation of associative subtext which is possible by realization of intertextual references. In her work Kashkinbaeva points out that the sense of allusion is in the interrelation between situational usage of speech means in the context created by the allusion and the new context where the reader can find authors attitude to these means. [5, p.33] In Mamaevas work we can also find the examination of this function of allusion. She explains [10, p.20] that allusion is not way different well known facts but just the hint for understanding of the subtext.Diadechko [6, pp.117-123] mentioned the style forming function of allusion. He examined this function analyzing the above mentioned type of allusions called reminiscence and their use and influence in poetic text.as the means of irony was also studied by different scholars (Dzhilkibaev, Kashkimbaeva [5, pp.28-33], Homleshko [2, p.6]). Homleshko states allusion to be one of the major stylistic devices used for creating irony (together with oxymoron, zeugma, hyperbole [2, p.24].)function of allusion was examined by major Russian linguists such as Davydova [3, pp.141-150], Mamaeva [10], Polubychenko, Tukharelli [13, pp.110-116]. Davydova points out that allusion is often used for the explanation of thematic problems raised in the text. At the same time the author is expecting again for the readers background knowledge [3, p.145].main partisan of regarding allusion as the microcomponent of the pragmatic structure was researcher Dashtamirova. This approach became the topic of her major works [4, pp.4-54]. She stated that the pragmatic power of the text as one of the sides of pragmatic influence of the language is based on the special choice of stylistic devices one of which is the allusion.also examined allusion as the realization of time category [6, pp.117-123]. According to him allusion can be one of major stylistic devices dealing with this function.states that allusion (so as the phraseology) can provide the economy of expression [6, p. 118]. This function was also studied by Evseev [7] and Kashkimbaeva [5, p.28-33].about such type of allusion as the citation various scholars (Davydova [3, pp.145-150], Diadechko [6, pp.117-120], Tukharelli [12]) mtention its structure forming function. According to Belozerova allusions can depict the structure of characters and events in the poetic text [1].increase function of allusion was firstly mentioned by Tukharelli [14, p.163]. He points out that active interrelation between texts content (and their stylistic peculiarities) and the authors mind depicts one of the major intertextual principles which consists in the following phenomenon - the appeal to them creates productive semantic fluctuation - leads to sense increase and sense transformation. Other scholars such as Dashtamirova [4] and Evseev [7, p.10] also paid attention to this function. Examining their works we can come to a conclusion that allusion lead to sense increase not only because allusion markers create the relation with the source text but also because in the sense of the new text the source text is also transformed. This transformation changes the semiotic structure of the new text [18]. So we can treat the allusive process as a kind of exclusive circle.value as a function of allusion was studied by Polubychenko and Fedosiuk [15]. It is ease to understand that allusions (as other stylistic devices) increase the poetic value of the text.of the most important functions of allusion in the poetic text is the indication on the authors subtext. Linguist Dzhilkibaev [5, pp.28-33] and later his colleague scolar Tsyrenova [17, pp.115-161] mentioned this major function in their research. According to Tsyrenova allusion is one of the means of realization of intertextuality [17, p.155] which, in tern, often becomes the basis for the authors subtext.function of allusion helps authors to provide the reader with the special features of any character. It is can be often examined while allusion is used in dialogues. Such scientists of Dashtamirova [4, pp.48-50], Dzhilkibaev [5, pp.28-33], Diadechko [6, p.118] and Polubychenko also pointed out the interrelation between characterological function and the influence of allusion on the intertextuality in poetic texts. Linguist Davydova states that allusion can be used as the contextual synonym of any character [3, p.147].function of allusion studied by Serdiukova and Dzhilkibaev [5, p.30] consists in symbolic meaning of events and characters referred to in allusive process.examining the theoretical points according the allusion phenomenon, major approaches to its classification and the most important functions of allusion we should proceed to more profound analysis the use of allusion in poetic texts.

  • 23. American Revolution and War for Independence
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    Spurred by Patrick Henry, the Virginia Assembly passed a set of resolutions denouncing taxation without representation as a threat to colonial liberties. A few days later, the Massachusetts House invited all the colonies to appoint delegates to a Congress in New York to consider the Stamp Act menace. This Congress, held in October 1765, was the first inter-colonial meeting ever summoned on American initiative. Twenty-seven men from nine colonies seized the opportunity to mobilize colonial opinion against parliamentary interference in American affairs. After much debate, the Congress adopted a set of resolutions asserting that "no taxes ever have been or can be constitutionally imposed on them, but by their respective legislatures" and that the Stamp Act had a "manifest tendency to subvert the rights and liberties of the colonists."

  • 24. American System of Education
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 22.11.2010

    To serve their citizens and help the country prosper all countries in the world without exception provide public education to children and teenagers as one of its main goals is to prepare students for productive citizenship, work and adult life. All this makes the notion of education universal while each country has its own system of education determined by its history, political system, culture, traditions and so on. The collapse of the iron curtain, modern technological developments like the Internet and ability to travel the world enable Russian students and educators to get more or less good idea of educational system of English speaking countries. The expansion of American culture, dominance of American movies on television familiarizes Russian viewers and movie-goers with life of American teenagers and American school. However a survey conducted among the high school students of Lyceum 37 proved that their awareness of American educational system leaves much to be desired.

  • 25. An English Speaking Country - New Zealand
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    New Zealand stretches 1600 km from north to south it consists of two large islands around which are scattered a number of smaller islands, plus a few far-flung islands hundreds of km away. The North Island (115,000 sq km) and the South Island (151,000 sq km) are the two major land masses. A notable feature of New Zealand's geography is the country's great number of rivers. The Waikato River in the North Island is New Zealand's longest river, measuring in at 425 km. New Zealand also has a number of beautiful lakes; Lake Taupo is the largest and lakes Waikaremoana and Wanaka are two of the most beautiful. As is the case for most Pacific islands, New Zealand's native flora & fauna are, for the most part, not found anywhere else in the world. And, like other Pacific islands, NZ's native ecosystem has been dramatically affected and changed by plants and animals brought by settlers, mostly in the last 200 years.

  • 26. Ancient and modern pronunciations
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 13.12.2010

    Why is proper pronunciation important? Because without correct pronunciation- no matter how vast the students vocabulary may be, no matter how well the student understands and uses grammatical rules, no matter what their level of reading or writing skills may be- if they don't use correct pronunciation it may be very difficult for listeners to understand what they say. And that is a huge hindrance to communication. In addition, some research indicates that if a student can not pronounce a word correctly, they may not be able to hear it when spoken by another person either, which furthers hinders communication. The students can then repeat the correct version or tell you what the difference between the two sentences was and why their version was wrong. Because the students dont do much of the work in this way of being corrected, it might not be as good a way of remembering the correction as methods where you give more subtle clues. Its advantages are that it is quick and suits cultures, classes and students that think of elicitation as shirking by the teacher. It can also be more face-saving than asking them for self-correction, as trying to correct themselves risks making even more mistakes. The “right version” could mean the whole sentence or just the correction of the part that was wrong. In the latter case, you can then ask them to put it into the sentence in the right place and repeat the whole thing.

  • 27. Apple’s analysis
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 31.03.2012

    Apple 3 computer had a better design and improved features which was more sufficient for the market, Jobs had made a decision to not assemble a cooling fan into the computer case box thinking that the chips and the computer board would circulate the heat itself. This assumption was wrong and caused the company thousands of computers to be returned from not satisfied customers due to heating problems. That failure forced Apple to dedicate a separate group to design a new computer which could change the world. Also to try to make up the great loss they had by the Apple 3 computers. So they came out with LISA computer, 1978-1982. LISA computer was the first computer to introduce the mouse, the Icon and the desktop, which at that time was a revolutionary innovation from apple to the computer world. But LISA was very expensive to be buying by wide range of customers. And because of its high price it has failed to penetrate the market.that Apple came up with a new computer (an upgrade of LISA) in 1984 and bundled it under the name Macintosh. Macintosh was introduced to the world with a better design, fancy writing and painting software. That was introduced to the world through a huge multimillion marketing campaign however it has not penetrated the market as expected since it was not empowering the command line users which was the main strength point of Apple before that.though the marketing difficulties Apple suffered, the Macintosh name was still in power especially after the partnership with Adobe Systems which supported apple to provide software for desktop publishing and computer animation. That made apple position stronger as a Technology provider in the media, advertisement and publishing business.adapted to changes when they came out with LISA, They found out that the market is changing and new companies like Xerox, IBM and Adobe are pioneering the market with there new innovations and ideas. The way LISA was designed was based on deep analysis for the market needs. However that creation of such a new idea was not sufficient due to the pricing problems apple had.

  • 28. Aral Sea - What Was and What Is
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 11.08.2010
  • 29. Art of conversation
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 25.08.2006

    Ready for some good conversation tips?

    Good conversation is an important skill in almost every
    situation. Whether it's on the job, with spouse or
    children, in a social setting or everyday life, good
    conversation is important.

    It's the way we communicate with others and often is then
    the way we are seen or perceived by others. Good
    conversation is based on a sensitivity to others. Good
    conversation therefore is a learnable skill once you pay
    more attention to others.

    Developing good conversation skills will allow you to feel
    more at ease when conversing with others and will help
    you say what you really want to convey.

    1. Think about your tone, for good conversation it should be
    pleasing, not too loud or too soft.

    If you are talking too loudly you might be considered an
    unpleasant conversationalist and who will want to talk to
    you? Good conversation requires you to be agreeable.

    If you are speaking too softly and people have to strain to
    hear you, they might get tired of trying to listen. This will of
    course prevent a good conversation developing.

    2. Think about some things you might need or want to say
    before you are at that job interview or party if you want to
    ensure a good conversation.

    It will be helpful to think this through and even practice
    out loud. You will come across as being confident and
    intelligent. You can almost guarantee good conversation
    by preparing thoroughly in advance of the event.

    3. Don't feel you need to dominate in order to have a good

    Even if you are quite charming it won't be long before
    others are weary of hearing the same voice. Good
    conversation does not mean taking over the conversation!
    Keep this in mind and it will be easier to have a good

    4. How will you handle unpleasant conversations?

    Remember not conversations start off looking
    like a potential good conversation.
    What will you do if you are criticized or if someone
    disagrees with you? Think of ways to face these
    situations before they happen.

    To have a good conversation you need to be flexible and
    be ready to handle difficulties that crop up. The art of having
    good conversation does not mean everything goes smoothly
    at all times.

    If you can remain calm and fairly pleasant during the tough
    talks you will improve and acquire good conversation skills. You
    will also earn a reputation as someone who can easily be talked

    5. Think of your last embarrassing conversation, one that was the
    opposite of a good conversation.

    How did you do? Could there be improvement? If the answer
    is "yes" begin by figuring out why the conversation
    was embarrassing. This will help you to develop good
    conversation skills.

    Let's say someone asked you when you are planning to have
    children. Even though this may not be anyone's business how
    do you want to respond?

    You do have choices. You can be funny, charming, rude or
    elusive. Again, plan ahead for some of these questions and
    decide how you want to react.

    As you learn how to start a good conversation and find them
    more of the time you can have good conversation your confidence
    will soar and you will get better and better.

    6. One of the most important parts of good conversation is
    listening. It's a gift and a skill, one that you can
    develop if it doesn't come easily for you. Good conversation
    is impossible without good listening skills.

    Don't forget to listen because it is essential for good
    conversation skills! Neglect this key skill and it will be
    virtually impossible to have a good conversation.

    Good conversation is a learnable skill so keep at it and
    you will improve. The only way to fail is to expect good
    conversation to happen without any work on your part.

  • 30. Australian English: main characteristics
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 29.12.2011

    Where foodstuffs are concerned, Australian English tends to be more closely related to the British vocabulary, for example the term biscuit is the traditional and common term rather than the American terms cookie and cracker. As had been the case with many terms, cookie is recognized and understood by Australians, and occasionally used, especially among younger generations.Australia the term chips is used for what Americans call French Fries, as with British English. In Australia chips is also used for what are called crisps in the UK, this second usage also being the American English term for crisps. The distinction is sometimes made through the adjective hot. The term French Fries is understood and sometimes used by Australians. US restaurants such as McDonalds continue to use the term French Fries in Australia.a few cases such as zucchini, snow pea and eggplant, Australian English uses the same terms as American English, whereas the British use the equivalent French terms courgette, mangetout and aubergine. This is possibly due to a fashion that emerged in mid - 19th Century Britain of adopting French nouns for foodstuffs, and hence the usage changed in Britain while the original terms were preserved in the (ex-) colonies.are also occasions when Australians use words or terms which are not common in other forms of English. For example, Australia uses the botanical name capsicum for what the Americans would call (red or green) bell peppers and the British (red or green) peppers. Perhaps this is in order to contrast table pepper (berries of genus Piper) from so-called hot peppers" (larger fruits of genus Capsicum).use the term rockmelon where North Americans would use the term cantaloupe, although in Victoria and Tasmania both terms are used.Australian English, dried fruits are given different names according to their variety, and generally raisins (grapes) are largest, sultanas (grapes) are intermediate, while currants are smallest.Australian English tomato sauce (often known simply as sauce) is the name given to what is known as ketchup in other dialects. However, ketchup with its slightly sweeter taste, is still sold in many grocery stores and is common in fast food outlets such as McDonalds. Other sauces made from tomatoes are generally referred to by names related to their uses, such as barbecue and pasta sauce.coffee beverages are given unique descriptive names such as flat white, for an espresso with milk. Other terms include short black, (espresso) and long black, (espresso diluted with water, similar to an Americano in the U. S.). Since the mid-1980s other varieties of coffee have also become popular, although these have generally been known by names used in North America and/or Europe.in British English, the colourless, slightly lemon-flavoured, carbonated drink known in North America and elsewhere under brand names such as Sprite and 7 Up is called lemonade, while the more strongly-flavoured drink known as lemonade in North America that is typically made of lemon juice and sugar is sometimes referred to as lemon squash, or sometimes traditional lemonade or club lemon, particularly in carbonated form.carbonated drink commonly called sarsaparilla in Australia is a type of root beer, named after the sarsarparilla root from which root beer is made. However, the taste is quite different, to the point that they may be considered two completely different products. This may be due to a difference in the production process.

  • 31. Australian Graduate
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 27.02.2006

  • 32. Autobiography studying
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 27.08.2011

    autobiography is a work about the life of a person, written by that person. Derived from three Greek words meaning self, life, and write, autobiography is a style of writing that has been around nearly as long as history has been recorded. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical the Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid but condemned it as pedantic; but its next recorded use was in its present sense by Robert Southey in 1809. Yet autobiography was not classified as a genre within itself until the late eighteenth century. In his book, Inside Out, E. Stuart Bates offers a functional definition of autobiography as a narrative of the past of a person by the person concerned (Bates 4). That definition, however, is too broad for some literary critics. Many wish to define the genre more narrowly. Linda Anderson cites that definition of autobiography as retrospective prose narrative produced by a real person concerning his own existence, focusing on his individual life, in particular on the development of his personality (Anderson 1). She also thinks that the work must implicitly state itself to be an autobiography to be included within the genre (Anderson 1). Other scholars, Bates, for example, do not think that there are any limitations or minimums on how much of a life must be revealed for it to be classified as autobiography. Many factual accounts, though not intended to be an autobiography as such, can be categorized as such because they contain a self-revealed personality, after thorough reconsideration (Bates 4). Cataloging autobiographies are further complicated because there are some that are translations and some that are edited. Despite disagreements concerning how inclusive the category of autobiography should be, there are characteristics that are common to the majority of autobiographical works. These features are the grammatical perspective of the work, the identity of the self, and self-reflection and introspection (Berryman 3). The form of autobiography however goes back to antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an autobiography, however, may be based entirely on the writers memory. Closely associated with autobiography is the form of memoir. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography. While an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories, feelings and emotions. Memoirs have often been written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record and publish an account of their public exploits. Memoir comes from Latin word memoria meaning memory. A memoir is an evolution of the autobiography. An autobiography is a story written by oneself about one life. Most autobiographies are written from the first person singular perspective. This is fitting because autobiography is usually a story one tells about oneself. It would not naturally follow then that the writer would recount his or her past from a second or third person perspective. Jean Quigley confirms this point in her book The Grammar of Autobiography by saying that as soon as we are asked about ourselves, or are asked to tell our autobiography, we start to tell stories. We tell what happened, what we said, what we did (J. Quigley 6). The author, the narrator, and the protagonist must share a common identity for the work to be considered an autobiography (Anderson 1). This common identity could be similar, but is not identical. The self that the author constructs becomes a character within the story that may not be a completely factual representation of the authors actual past self (Quigley 6, Porter and Wolf 12). Roger Porter and H.R. Wolf state that Truth is a highly subjective matter, and no autobiographer can represent exactly what happened back then, any more than a historian can definitively describe the real truth of the past (R. Porter and H.R 12). This is due in part to the fact that words are not adequate to fully express memories and emotions. Because autobiography is, as Anderson puts it, a public exposure of the private self, self-accounting and self-reflection are integral parts of the autobiography. The author wants to justify his or her past actions to the reader. Quigley says that a related but not identical narrator and protagonist are integral to the process of self-justification. The author establishes relationships to him or herself in order to show causality. For example, because the narrator and the protagonist are not identical, the narrator has the ability to treat the self as other… create the occasion for self-regard and editing… the distance between self-now and self-then. There is also a relationship between the reader and the author. By judging past actions as right or wrong, the narrator establishes to the reader that they share common norms. The narrator speaking in the autobiography is always moral, even if the protagonist of the narrative is not. This relating is then evaluated socially according to whether actions are appropriate or inappropriate or surprising or normal. Other interactions that the narrator establishes are relationships with other characters in the story. This allows the speaker to present the self as either an experiencer or recipient of actions, where the self is seen as an objective static entity. The speaker may narrate an event in such a way that the self does not have to accept the responsibility for the outcome. It can be described as happening to the protagonist because of the actions of others. Autobiography is a form of introspection. When authors write about their past, it is not free from emotions. Revealing characters intentions, thoughts, and emotions is another way that the narrator evaluates why events occurred as they did. By explaining what happened in the past, the author is able to express to the reader how the self evolved. The self- now is the person he or she is because of the events of the past. Autobiography is a popular genre. Writers of memoirs and life stories never lack an audience. Anderson says that Autobiography is a form of witnessing which matters to others. People are interested in the actual lives of others and want to know about others pasts and feelings and desires. A quote from Olney in Andersons book reveals the appeal of autobiography. Olney says The explanation for the special appeal of autobiography is a fascination with the self and its profound, its endless mysteries (Olney J. 9). Autobiography is a way to organize the story of a life and reflect on the past in order to better understand the present. One of the first great autobiographies of the Renaissance is that of the sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571), written between 1556 and 1558, and entitled by him simply Vita (Italian: Life). He declares at the start: No matter what sort he is, everyone who has to his credit what are or really great achievements, if he cares for truth and goodness, ought to write the story of his own life in his own hand; but no one should venture on such a splendid undertaking before he is over forty. These criteria for autobiography generally persisted until recent times, and most serious autobiographies of the next three hundred years conformed to them. 18th-century autobiographies in English include those of Edward Gibbon and Benjamin Franklin. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability-or unwillingness-of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. In the eighteenth century, autobiography was one of the highest forms of literary art. Fiction was deemed unworthy, while narration of facts was aesthetically and philosophically pleasing. This prevailing convention overwhelmed fiction to such a degree that many novelists passed their works off as non-fiction, sometimes by creating prefaces written by supposedly real characters, who vouched for the authenticity of the story. Whether readers really believed in the truth of these stories is hard to say. Autobiography-can be used in the preparation of the psychological characteristics of the worker, the study of his life and personality traits: the style of presentation, the emphasis on various aspects of life, helping to judge the various psychological characteristics of the man. These are all the extra-linguistic features, which influence the genre of autobiography. The main advantage of the autobiography are the basic facts of labor and social activities, allowing to present and assess the human way of life that is often used in the selection of personnel. Benjamin Franklins Autobiography is one of the best examples of the autobiographical genre. Franklins book defines itself as an autobiography in its title. Traditionally, an autobiography can be basically defined as a connected narrative in which an individual tells his or her life story. The autobiography is a connected narrative, and Franklin is using it to tell his life story. Hes not messing with his audience or changing up the genre - his books not radical in that way at all. Instead, hes helping to set the standard of what an autobiography is, can, or should be, rather than subverting that standard. The term autobiography is quite generic in nature and several great personalities have written great books as a collection of their personal experiences. Similarly, there are several authors and personalities who have written small essays and short stories to narrate some important experiences in their lives. Some people have also written their autobiography to serve some purpose, such as political propaganda or to narrate an account of some incidence or event. All in all to sum up, the good thing about an autobiography is that we get to know about the writers emotions and thoughts quite easily. The following are three classifications of autobiographies:

  • 33. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.09.2010
  • 34. Base and Superstructure
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 21.06.2010

    A second difference lies in the way in which under capitalism there is not only a conflict between the development of economic relations and non-economic constraints on them, but also a conflict between different elements of the economy, some of which are seen by Marx as more basic than others. The source of surplus value lies in the realm of production. But growing out of the realm of production are a whole range of activities to do with the distribution of this surplus between different elements of the capitalist class the buying and selling of commodities, the credit system, the stock market, and so on. These take on a life of their own in a similar way to the different elements in the political and ideological superstructure, and that life affects what happens in the realm of production. Yet, at the end of the day, they cannot escape the fundamental fact that the surplus they dispose of comes from exploitation at the point of production something which expresses itself in the sudden occurrence of cyclical crises.

  • 35. Bases of English grammar
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 11.12.2009

    Поскольку все фирменные знаки зарегистрированы и защищены согласно закону, никто больше не может произвести тот же самый продукт под таким фирменным знаком. Очень трудно создать новый фирменный знак, так как больше чем 365000 марок были зарегистрированы в октябре 2000 года американской Доступной Организацией, тогда как Оксфордский словарь состоит из 615100 слов. Так некоторые марки лидеры используются компаниями для того, чтобы начать производство нового продукта в новой категории. Например, жареный картофель Bochkarev.

  • 36. Basic English
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 29.03.2010

    Abilities and powers of man are increasing now. Technological progress allowed to use nuclear, chemical, laser, biological, and other machines and technologies instead of hand-operated and mechanical techniques. However, scientific and technological progress, as a rule, was separated from social progress. Such approach has let a man use the means negative consequences of which are globally destructive. 100 billion tons of minerals are mined annually, and more than 90% of them go in waste. Amount of oxygen, consumed by certain countries, already exceeds its manufacture by the plants of these countries. Tropical forests-main lungs of the Earth-is more than 40% felled. The speed of its felling is more than 20 hectares per minute. Almost one thousand of species of animals and 25 thousand species of plants are now under the threat of extinction. Recently medicine has aced the problems of worsening natural ecological conditions, chronic stresses, reduction of immunity, change of nutrition ration, and many other factors, unknown by now. Felling forests, pollution of environment by industrial waste and automobiles have already caused global warmth on the planet. Misuse of pesticides, mineral fertilizers, water pollution, impact of Chernobyl accident on the people-this is not a complete list of the factors determining dangerous changes in human organism and growth of diseases and death rate. Man is now using permissive principle and its trying to take everything from his life today. Mankind has driven itself into a dead-end… However, we still have an exit from it. The quality of mans life is impossible without solving ecological problems: preservation of genetic fund of flora and fauna, preservation of clean and productive natural environments (atmosphere, hydrosphere, soils, and forests), preservation of ozone. Only having realized that the reason of the ecological crisis which burst in the 20 century was lack of unity of Man and Nature, civilization can achieve progress.

    1. Language work:
    2. Translate from Ukrainian into English using the infinitive:
    3. Вона не чекала, що її син повернеться так рано.
    4. Вони хотіли, щоб я взяла участь у дискусії.
    5. Я не можу уявити тебе одягнутою в таку сукню.
    6. Ми не хочемо примушувати тебе жити тут.
    7. Ви винайдете новий метод.
    8. Постарайтесь примусити його пояснити, що відбувається в домі.
    9. Чарльз чекав, щоб двері відчинились.
    10. Ми бачили, що шторм наближається дуже швидко.
    11. Я чув, хтось грав на фортепіано в сусідній кімнаті.
    12. Я не можу дозволити, щоб таке сталось.
    13. Finish the sentences using the infinitive and translate the sentences into English:
    14. Dick is always the first (жалітися) when anything goes wrong.
    15. The captain was the last person (покидати) the sinking ship.
    16. Who was the last (пішов з) the building on Friday?
    17. Douglas isnt the man (залякати) easily.
    18. There is some packing (зробити).
    19. There was nothing (видно) in the passage.
    20. There is nothing (боятися).
    21. Ive got kids (турбуватися).
    22. He had no home (піти).
    23. Here is the problem for you (вирішити).
  • 37. Becoming of Great Britain
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 27.10.2011

    Realising that he could not control Parliament, Charles next failed in his attempt to arrest Parliamentary leaders in the House of Commons itself. Because of this episode, the monarch was in future prohibited from entering the Commons. Today Black Rod, who is a royal ceremonial appointment, is a reminder of these constitutional changes. He knocks on the door of the Commons after it has been closed against him, in order to summon members of the Commons to the State Opening of Parliament. This is normally performed each autumn by the monarch in the House of Lords. 's rejection of developing political ideals provoked anger against the Crown, and eventually a Civil War broke out in 1642. The mainly Protestant Parliamentarians under Oliver Cromwell won the military struggle against the largely Catholic Royalists. Charles I was beheaded in 1649, the monarchy was abolished, and England was made a republic under the Cromwells (1649-59). During this republican period, Parliament consisted only of the House of Commons, which met every three years. , Cromwellian military rule was harsh and increasingly unpopular, so that most people wanted the restoration of the monarchy. The two Houses of Parliament were re-established, and in 1660 they restored the Stuart CharIes II to the throne. Initially Charles co-operated with Parliament, but eventually his financial needs, his belief in the divine right of kings to rule without opposition, and his support of the Catholic cause lost him popular and parliamentary backing. Parliament then ended his expensive wars; forced him to sign the Test Act of 1673, which excluded Catholics and Protestant dissenters from holding public office; and passed the Habeas Corpus Act in 1769, which stipulated that no citizen could be imprisoned without a fair and speedy trial.addition to this growing power of Parliament against the monarch, the seventeenth century also saw the beginning of more organized political parties. These derived largely from the ideological and religious conflicts of the Civil War. Two groups became dominant, and this feature was to characterize future British two-party politics, in which political power has shifted between two main parties. The Whigs were mainly Cromwellian Protestants and gentry, who refused to accept the Catholic James II as successor to Charles II, and who wanted religious freedom for all Protestants. The Tries generally supported royalist beliefs, and helped Charles II to secure James's right to succeed him.James's subsequent behaviour resulted in a further reduction of royal influence. He attempted to rule without Parliament, ignored its laws, and tried to repeal the Test Act. His manipulations eventually forced the Tories to join the Whigs in inviting the Protestant William of Orange to intervene. Supported by Dutch military help, William arrived in England in 1688, James fled to France, and William succeeded to the throne. Since no force was involved, this event has been called the Bloodless or Glorious Revolution. The 1688 changes considerably affected the British constitution and politics. William III became Britain's first constitutional monarch and, because of conditions imposed upon him, it was in future practically impossible for the monarch to reign without the consent of Parliament.series of Acts at this time laid the foundations for later political and constitutional developments. The Declaration of Rights in 1689 tried to establish basic civil liberties, and prevented the monarch from making laws or raising an army without Parliament's approval. The Act of Settlement in 1701 gave religious freedom to all Protestants, and stipulated that all future English monarchs had to be Protestant. A Triennial Act established that Parliament was to be called every three years.Glorious Revolution effectively abolished the monarch's claim to divine right. It also attempted to arrange a division of powers between an executive branch (the monarch through the government of the Privy Council); a legislative branch (both Houses of Parliament and formally the monarch); and the judiciary (a legal body independent of monarch and Parliament). This division, in which the legislature was supposed to control the executive, evolved slowly into its modern counterparts.power continued to grow gradually in the early eighteenth century, initially because the German-born George I lacked interest in English affairs of state. He also mistrusted the Tories with their Catholic sympathies, and appointed Whig ministers such as Robert Walpole to his Privy Council. Eventually Walpole became Chief Minister, Leader of the Whig Party and head of the Whig majority in the House of Commons, which was now mainly composed of wealthy land and property owners. Walpole's resulting control of political power enabled him to increase parliamentary influence, and he has been called Britain's first Prime Minister. But such parliamentary authority was by no means absolute, and later monarchs sought a return to royal dominance. However, George III eventually lost much of his own and royal authority after the loss of the American colonies with their Revolution against Britain in 1775. He was obliged to appoint William Pitt the Younger as his Tory Chief Minister, and it was under Pitt that the office of Prime Minister really developed.although parliamentary control continued to grow in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, there was still no widespread democracy in Britain. Political authority was now in the hands of landowners and merchants in Parliament, and the vast majority of the people did not possess the vote. Bribery and corruption were common in this political atmosphere, with the buying of those votes which did exist and the giving away or sale of public offices. The Tories were against electoral reform, as were the Whigs initially. But the country was now rapidly increasing its population and developing industrially and economically, so that pressures for political reform became irresistible. The Whigs extended voting rights to the expanding middle class in the First Reform Act of 1832. The Tory Disraeli later gave the vote to men with property and a certain income. However, the large majority of the working class were still unrepresented in Parliament because they had no votes. It was only in 1884 that the Whig Gladstone gave the franchise to all male adults. But most women had to wait until 1928 for full voting rights to be established in Britain.main elements of modern British government developed somewhat haphazardly in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and were based on the 1688 revolution and its division of powers. Government ministers gradually became responsible to the House of Commons rather than to the monarch, and were mainly members of the Commons. A growing collective responsibility meant that they all shared joint responsibility for the policies and acts of government, in addition to their individual responsibility owed to Parliament for the organization of their ministries. The prime ministership developed from the monarch's Chief Minister to 'first among equals' and eventually to the leadership of all ministers. The central force of government was now the parliamentary Cabinet of senior ministers, which had grown out of the Privy Council and the monarch's Cabinet. The ministers and the government belonged to the majority party in the House of Commons. The largest minority party became the Official Opposition, striving by its party manifesto and its performance in the Commons and the country to become the next government chosen by the people.constitutional developments were aided by the growth of more sophisticated and organized political parties, in the nineteenth century, which were conditioned by changing social and economic factors. These produced the modern struggle between opposing ideologies as represented by the various political parties. The Tories, who also became known as the Conservatives I around 1830, had been a dominant force in British politics since the eighteenth century. They believed in established values and the preservation of traditions; supported business and commerce; had strong links with the Church of England and the professions; and were opposed to what they saw as radical ideas. The Whigs, however, were developing into a more progressive force. They wanted social reform and economic freedom without government restrictions. In the period following the parliamentary reforms of 1832, the Whigs were changing into what later became the Liberal Party. They were to create an enlightened programme of liberalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Liberal Party was a mixture of people and ideas, often held together by the principle of utilitarian reform (or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people).a significant feature of the early inter-war years after 1918 was the decline of the Liberal Party, from which it was unable to recover. The new Labour Party, formed in 1906, gradually became the main opposition party to the Conservatives, and continued the traditional two-party system in British politics. It grew rapidly and was supported by the trade unions, the majority of the working class, and some middle-class voters. The first Labour government was formed in 1924 under Ramsay MacDonald, but only achieved real majority power in 1945 under Clement Attlee. It then embarked on a radical programme of social and economic reforms, which were to lay the foundations of the modern corporate and welfare state. , in this lengthy period of changing political fortunes and the triumph of the House of Commons in the parliamentary sytem, gradual reforms had been made to the House of Lords. The Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, eventually removed much of the Lords' political authority, leaving them with only a slight delaying and amending power over parliamentary bills. They could no longer interfere with financial legislation. These reforms finally demonstrated that political and taxation matters were now decided by the members of the Commons as elected representatives of the people. Other subsequent Acts have allowed the creation of non-hereditary titles, which supplement the old arrangement in which most peerages were hereditary.new challenge to parliamentary sovereignty and the political tradition in Britain has arisen due to membership of the European Community (1973). Some legal powers have already been lost to Community institutions, so that Parliament is no longer the sole legislative body in Britain. Further functions will probably be transferred to the Community as it becomes more economically and politically integrated.constitutional frameworkhave been no revolutionary upheavals in the British system of government over the centuries, despite the Civil War and the 1688 changes. Rather, existing institutions have been pragmatically adapted to new conditions. There has likewise been no deliberate attempt to establish a rigidly defined constitution, so that Britain, unlike many other countries, has no written constitution contained in any one document. Instead, the British employ a mixture of statute law (Acts of Parliament); common law (ancient judge-made law); and conventions (or principles and practices of government which, although not legally binding, are generally accepted as having the force of law).Parliament is for most purposes still the supreme legislative authority, save for some European Community legislation law and institutions can be created or changed by a simple Act of Parliament relatively quickly. The common law can be extended by the judges in the legal process, and conventions can be altered, formed or abolished by general agreement. Once a problem has been solved satisfactorily in the British system, that solution tends to be used again in similar situations, and becomes a precedent to govern future actions. Precedents are vital devices in the operation of Parliament, the administrative bodies and the courts of law. These elements, which together with some ancient documents make up the British constitutional framework, arc said to be flexible and simple enough to respond quickly to new conditions should that be necessary.somewhat haphazard constitutional system, which is largely dependent upon conventions and observing the rules of the game, has been admired in the past. The arrangements were said to combine stability and adaptability, so that a successful balance of authority and toleration was achieved. Most British governments tended to govern pragmatically when in power, in spite of very ideological party manifestos at election time. The emphasis was on whether a particular policy worked and was generally acceptable. Governments were conscious of how far they could go before displeasing their own followers and the electorate, to whom they were accountable at the next general election.the system has been increasingly criticized in recent years. Governments have become more radical in their policies, and have been able to implement them because of strong majorities in the Commons. There has been concern at the apparent absence of constitutional safeguards for the individual citizen against state power, especially since there are few legal definitions of civil liberties in Britain. There also appear to be few effective parliamentary restraints upon a strong government which is intent upon carrying out its policies.lack of adequate constitutional definitions in the British system has been seen as potentially dangerous, particularly when governments and their administrative bodies have a reputation for being too secretive. There have consequently been campaigns for more effective civil protection in the forms of a bill of rights; a written constitution; greater judicial scrutiny of the merits of parliamentary legislation; a Freedom of Information Act; and the incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into British domestic law. But none of these suggested reforms has been achieved, and there is considerable opposition to the various proposals. critics argue that the British political system no longer works satisfactorily. They maintain that its institutions are too centralized, and that the traditional bases are no longer adequate for the organization of a complex, mass society. It is felt that political policies have become too conditioned by party politics at the expense of consensus. Questions have consequently been raised about the democratic and representative basis of national programmes. It is argued that there must be a fundamental reform of the existing political institutions if they are to reflect a contemporary diversity. However, changes do continue to be made to the present apparatus, and it may be that the old evolutionary principles will be successfully adapted to new demands and conditions.governmental model that operates in Britain today is usually described as a constitutional monarchy, or parliamentary system. While the monarch still has a role to play on some executive and legislative levels, it is Parliament which possesses the essential legislative power, and the government of the day which governs by initiating and controlling political policy and legislation. The correct constitutional definition of Parliament is the 'Queen-in-Parliament', and all state and governmental business is therefore carried out in the name of the monarch by the politicians and officials of the system. In constitutional theory, the British people hold the political sovereignty to choose their government, while Parliament, consisting partly of their elected representatives in the Commons, possesses the legal sovereignty to make laws.various branches of this political system, although easily distinguishable from each other, are not entirely separate. The monarch is formally head of the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. A Member of Parliament (MP) in the House of Commons and a member of the House of Lords may both be in the government of the day. A Law Lord in the House of Lords also serves the House of Lords as the highest appeal court.legislature, which consists of both Houses of Parliament and formally the monarch, is for most purposes the supreme law-making body. The executive comprises the sitting government and its Cabinet, together with government ministries or departments headed by ministers or secretaries of state, who all act formally in the name of the monarch. The judiciary is composed mainly of the judges of the higher courts, who determine the common law and interpret Acts of Parliament. The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the legislative and executive branches of government.monarchycontinuity of the English monarchy has been interrupted only by the Cromwell republic of 1649-59 although there have been different lines of descent, such as the Stuarts, the Tudors and the Hanoverians. The Crown, as distinct from any particular monarch, is thus one of the oldest secular institutions in Britain. Succession to the throne is still hereditary, but only for Protestants in the direct line of descent.monarch has a number of roles, and serves formally as head of state head of the executive head of the judiciary head of the legislature commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and supreme governor of the Church of England. It follows that all ministers and officials of the central government are the monarch's servants, and judges, military officers, peers, and bishops of the Church of England swear allegiance to the Crown. In holding these and other positions, the monarch is said to personify the British state.spite of these roles, there are difficulties in defining the precise powers of the monarch, who is supposed to reign but not rule. The monarch is also expected to be politically neutral, and should not be seen to be making political decisions. In order to avoid potential constitutional crises, proposals have often been made that rules concerning the real powers of the monarch should be established. Ideally they would clarify the uncertain elements in the monarch's position, and avoid the dangers of involving the Crown in political controversy., for all practical purposes and since the old executive royal authority has been virtually abolished, the monarch acts only on the advice of political ministers, which cannot be ignored. The monarch cannot make laws, impose taxes, spend public money or act unilaterally. In this sense, contemporary Britain is governed by Her Majesty's Government in the name of the Queen., the monarch still performs some important executive and legislative duties, which are essential to the smooth running of government. These include the summoning, opening, Proroguing (or adjourning), and dissolving of Parliament; giving the Royal Assent (or signature) to bills which have been passed by both Houses of Parliament; appointing government ministers and other public figures; granting honours; holding audiences with the Prime Ministers; convening meetings of the Privy Council; giving pardons to some convicted criminals; and fulfilling international duties as head of state. In practice, most of these functions are performed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister or other ministers.central power still possessed by the monarch is the choice and appointment of the Prime Minister. Normally and by convention, this person would be the leader of the political party which has a majority in the House of Commons. However, if there is no clear majority or if the political situation is unclear, the monarch could in theory make a free choice. In practice, it appears that advice would be given by the monarch's advisers and leading politicians in order to present a suitable candidate who would be generally acceptable.constitutional conventions stipulate that the monarch has the right to be informed of and advised on all aspects of national life by receiving government documents and meeting with the Prime Minister. The monarch also has the right to encourage, warn and advise ministers. This latter role could be a source of potential power not only in Britain, but also in the Commonwealth of which the monarch is head. It is difficult to know to what extent monarchical advice on formal and informal levels is influential. Some critics suggest that it could be substantial.monarch is a permanent fixture in the British political system, unlike temporary politicians, and often has a greater knowledge of domestic and international politics. It seems that the monarchy still has a considerable part to play in the operation of government at various levels. Its practical and constitutional importance is stressed by provisions for the appointment of counsellors of state (or a regent in exceptional cases) to perform royal duties, should the monarch be absent from Britain or unable to carry out public tasks.of the costs of the royal family's official duties are met from public funds. This finance is granted from the Civil List - money which previously had to be debated and approved by Parliament each year, but which from 1990 has been frozen at current levels for a 10-year period. The monarch's private expenses as sovereign come from the Privy Purse - finance which is gathered from the revenues of some royal estates. Any other costs incurred by the monarch as a private individual must come from the Crown's own resources, which are very considerable.against the monarchy as a continuing institution in British life maintain that it is out-of-date, non-democratic, too expensive, too exclusive and too closely associated with aristocratic privilege and establishment thinking. It is argued that the monarchy's alleged aloofness from ordinary daily life contributes to class divisions in society and sustains a hierarchical structure. It is also suggested that, if the monarch's functions today are merely ceremonial and lack power or essential point, the office should be abolished and replaced by a cheaper figurehead presidency.in favour of the monarchy suggest that it has developed and adapted to modern requirements, and is not remote. It is argued that it serves as a symbol or personification of the state; demonstrates stability and continuity; has a higher prestige than politicians; is not subject to political manipulations; plays a worthwhile role in political institutions; possesses a neutrality with which people can feel secure; and performs an important ambassadorial function in Britain and overseas. The monarchy is also said to reflect family values, and has a certain glamour (some would say soap-opera quality) about it, which is attractive to many people. The British public shows considerable affection for the royal family beyond its representative role. Public opinion polls from time to time demonstrate majority support for the institution of monarchy as against a republican alternative. But the polls also suggest that the monarchy should adapt more to changes in society; that less public money should be spent on it; and that its income should be subject to income tax.Privy CouncilPrivy Council developed from a small group of royal advisers at court into the chief source of executive authority. But its powerful position was weakened in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as more of its functions were transferred to a developing parliamentary Cabinet. Its work was later devolved to newly created ministries, which were needed to cope with a rapidly changing society.its main role is to advise the monarch on a range of matters, like the resolution of constitutional issues and the approval of Orders in Council, such as the granting of Royal Charters to public bodies. Its members can be appointed to advisory and problem-solving committees and, because of its international membership and continuing constitutional character, it can be influential.ministers automatically become members on taking government office. Life membership of the council is also given by the monarch, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, to eminent people in Britain and in independent monarchical countries of the Commonwealth. There are about 380 Privy Councillors at present, but the organization tends to work for practical purposes mostly through small groups. A full council is usually only summoned on the death of a monarch; when there are serious constitutional issues at stake; or occasionally when a Commonwealth Heads of State Conference is held in London. In the case of any indisposition of the monarch, counsellors of state or an appointed regent would work partly through the Privy Council.from its practical duties and its role as a constitutional forum for experienced people, perhaps the most important task of the Privy Council today is performed by its Judicial Committee. This serves as the final court of appeal from those dependencies and Commonwealth countries which have retained this avenue of appeal. It may also be used as an arbiter for a wide range of courts and committees in Britain and overseas, and its rulings can be influential.is the supreme legislative authority in Britain and, since it is not controlled by a written constitution, it has legal sovereignty in virtually all matters, subject only to some European Community decisions. This means that it can create, abolish or amend laws for all or any part(s) of Britain on any topic. The main functions of Parliament today are to pass laws; to vote on financial bills so that government can carry on its legitimate business; to examine government policies and administration; and to scrutinize European Community legislation.pursuing these powers, Parliament is supposed to legislate according to the rule of law, precedent and tradition. Politicians are generally sensitive to these conventions and to public opinion. A set of formal and informal checks and balances - such as party discipline, the OfficiaI Opposition, public reaction and pressure groups - normally ensures that Parliament legislates according to its legal responsibilities. A government with a strong majority in the House of Commons may bow to public pressure, face rebellion from its own MPs and suffer attack by the opposition parties if the proposed laws are not widely accepted.consists of the House of Lords, the House of Commons and formally the monarch. It assembles as a unified body only on ceremonial occasions, such as the State Opening of Parliament by the monarch in the House of Lords. Here it listens to the monarch's speech from the throne, which outlines the government's broad legislative programme for the coming session. All three parts of Parliament must normally pass a bill before it can become an Act of Parliament and therefore law. A correctly created Act cannot be challenged in the law courts on its merits.Parliament has a maximum duration of five years, but it is often dissolved and a general election called before the end of this term. The maximum has sometimes been prolonged by special parliamentary legislation on occasions of national emergency like the two World Wars. A dissolution of Parliament and the issue of writs for the ensuing general election are ordered by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. If an individual MP dies, resigns or is given a peerage, a by-election is called only for that member's seat, and Parliament as a whole is not dissolved.contemporary House of Lords consists of the Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of York and Canterbury, together with twenty-four senior diocesan bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of (1) hereditary peers and peeresses who have kept their titles; (2) life peers and peeresses, who have usually been created by political parties; and (3) the Lords of Appeal (Law Lords), who become life peers on their judicial appointments. The latter serve the House of Lords as the ultimate court of appeal for most purposes from most parts of Britain. This appeal court does not consist of the whole House of Lords, but only some nine Law Lords who have held senior judicial office, who are under the chairmanship of the Lord Chancellor, and who form a quorum of three to five when they hear appeal cases.are some 1,200 members of the House of Lords, but the active daily attendance varies from a handful to a few hundred. Peers receive no salary for their parliamentary work, but are eligible for attendance and travelling expenses should they wish to claim them. The House is presided over by the Lord Chancellor, who is a political appointee of the sitting government, who sits on the Woolsack (or stuffed woollen sofa) as Speaker (Chairman) of the House, and who controls the procedure and meetings of the House.are frequent demands that the unrepresentative, unelected House of Lords should be abolished and replaced by a second democratically elected chamber. The problem consists of which alternative model to adopt, and there is little agreement on this point. Meanwhile, the House of Lords does its job well as an experienced and less partisan corrective to the House of Commons. It retains an important revising, amending and delaying function. This may be used either to block government legislation for a time, or to persuade governments to have a second look at bills. In this sense, it is a safeguard, against over-hasty legislation by the Commons, and fulfils a considerable constitutional role at times when governments may be very powerful. This function is possible because members of the Lords tend to be more independently minded than MPs in the Commons, and do not suffer such rigid party discipline. Indeed, the House has a considerable number of Independents (or crossbenchers) who do not belong to any political party, although there appears to be a nominal Conservative majority in the total membership.to reform the House of Lords were made several times in the course of the 20th century.Parliament Act of 1911 removed from the House of Lords the power of veto a bill, except one to prolong the lifetime of a parliament. Instead, the Lords could delay a bill by up to two years. The Parliament Act of 1949 further reduced the Lord's delaying powers to one year.Labour government came tp power in 1997 on a manifesto which stated that the House of Lords must be reformed. As an initial, self-contained reform, the right of hereditary peers to sit and vote in the House of Lords will be ended by statute. This will be the first stage in process of reform to make the House of Lords more democratic and representative. The legislative powers of the House of Lords will remain unaltered.

  • 38. Benitto Mussolini as a lider of Italy
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 16.12.2010

    Benito Mussolini was one of the important and the most interesting figures in Italian history. He was a teacher, journalist, socialist and also a fascist. His father Alessandro Mussolini was a blacksmith and a socialist. It had an important influence on the Mussolini's future life. Mussolini as a young boy had a rebellious behaviour and was expelled from school. He continued his study in the other school and finished it. One of his favorite philosopher was the German philosopher Nietzsche. Mussolini used to say that Nietzsche's ideas are "spiritual eroticism". He was an intelligent person although there are a lot of legends about Mussolini's life. It is said that he was very diligent, worked from 18 to 20 hours per day and always remembered about all meetings and Italy's problems. It wasn't really true and he urged the journalists to write about his diligence. In reality he was a sleepy person and slept 10 hours per day. There was an official statement that he took holidays only one day during the year or never. He convinced people that he had nearly 525 meetings during a year and during 7 years he took care of 1887112 matters. When he wished, he was very nice to the people.

  • 39. Boris Godunov (Борис Годунов)
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 23.08.2010
  • 40. Bread in our life
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    The Bible tells of the matzoh the Israelites ate as they fled Egypt. Because the former slaves dough had no time to rise, it baked on their backs as they escaped into the desert. Whether or not the story is historically accurate, we do know that lifestyle plays a major role in the kinds of breads people eat. In central Asia, where both grain and fuel are scarce, nomads make small, thin rounds that cook quickly over a fire. To survive long, cold winters, the people of central Anatolia hang rings of bread from the rafters. When fresh bread is needed, a ring is brought down, moistened with water, and soon is ready to eat.