Иностранные языки

  • 181. Iмёны i прозвiшчы беларусаў
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 22.12.2010

    Царква давала імёны толькі пазначаныя ў спісе праваслаўных “святых” і вялікіх пакутнікаў. Аднак у жыцці людзі яшчэ доўга карысталі звыклыя нецаркоўныя імёны (Няждан, Таміа, Гасцята). Царква рабіла выключэнне толькі для князёў, дазваляючы ім даваць сваім дзецям імёны, пазычаныя ў скандынаваў (Ольг, Алег, Вольга, Ігар).Царква дазваляла вяльможам даваць і так званыя састаўныя імёны, што маюць і сёння дзве асновы (Святаслаў, Міраслаў, Уладзімір). Жаночых імён славянскага паходжання было няшмат, звычайна па імені бацьку (Яраслаўны), ці па характару асобы (Лада), ці сугучныя пэўнай зяве прыроды (Сняжана). Шмат пазычана было імёнаў з лацінскай мовы ў перыяд далучэння Беларусі да Польшчы. Яно ішло праз каталіцкую царкву касцёл, дзе таксама здзяйсняўся абрад хрышчэння. Так зявіліся на Беларусі Сергіуш, Канстанты, Ксеверы, Ванда, Тэрэза. Пазычалі і старажытнаяўрэйскія (біблейскія) формы (Іван, Марыя, Ганна). Як ні старалася, але царква не здолела вынішчыць адвечна славянскія, штодзённыя формы, якія шырока бытавалі ў беларусаў (Ксеня, Арына, Юрась, Восіп, Гаурыла, Мікола, Кірыла, Алесь, Пятрусь, Янка).

  • 182. Julia Roberts - the biography
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 17.07.2007

    Julia Roberts will receive a healthy salary for her next movie. In fact, that remuneration will make her the first woman to break the “$20 million hump” broken years ago by male stars. The gals earned it, for seven of her films have surpassed the $100 million mark (hey, thats more some of those guys flicks!), and her performances are consistent audience favorites. Roberts “atypical beauty” -- clear-eyed sparkle, wholesome wide grin and charismatic presence marks her as Hollywoods “Girl Next Door Superstar.” Atypical as well was her road to success. After high school graduation, Roberts left her native Georgia and joined her actor-sister in New York. At age 19 she was cast as her actor-brothers on-screen sister in the 1986 movie, Blood Red (released in 1989). She went on to roles in Firehouse (1987), Crime Story (TV - 1988), Satisfaction (TV - 1988), Before Your Eyes: Angelies Secret (TV - 1988), Baja Oklahoma (TV - 1988), and Miami Vice (TV episode - 1988). For her part in Mystic Pizza (1988) she received an Independent Spirit Award nomination. Important and award-winning roles in blockbuster pictures followed with Steel Magnolias (1989 - Golden Globe award and Oscar nomination), Pretty Woman (1990 - Oscar nomination and British Academy award nomination), Flatliners (1990), Sleeping With The Enemy (1991), and Dying Young (1991 - MTV Movie award nomination). Darkness descended. Roberts next role, in Hook (1991), was panned by critics and nominated for a Razzie Worst Supporting Actress slam. A breakup with fiancé Keifer Sutherland just days before the planned wedding was among the gossip column-fodder personal problems that led to a year of seclusion and naught but a cameo appearance in one film, The Player (1992). Light dawned. Roberts breathed new life into her career in 1993 with The Pelican Brief (for which she received an MTV Movie award). She married singer/songwriter/actor Lyle Lovett the same year, but the media-dubbed “pretty woman - ugly duckling” couple lasted only 21 months. She took on roles in Pret-a-Porter (1994), I Love Trouble (1994), A Century of Cinema (TV - 1994), Something To Talk About (1995), Michael Collins (1996), Everyone Says I Love You (1996), and Mary Reilly (1996 - oops, another Razzie nomination). The next three years were very good: Roberts was cast in My Best Friends Wedding (1997 - netting her a Golden Globe nomination, Golden Satellite award, Peoples Choice award, Blockbuster Entertainment award and MTV Movie award), Conspiracy Theory (1997 - Blockbuster Entertainment award), Stepmom (1998 - Roberts not only acted her way to a Blockbuster Entertainment award, but was the successful films executive producer), Notting Hill (1999 - Golden Globe nomination and Peoples Choice award), and Runaway Bride (1999). As well, Roberts was nominated for an Emmy for a guest appearance on the television series Law and Order (1999), and has three times been on People Magazines Best-Dressed list. Upcoming for this popular and talented producer/actor are roles in Erin Brockovich, The Moviegoer, The Women, and, tentatively, Beyond Borders, Oceans II, The Mexican, To Catch A Thief, Martha and Arthur, and From Alice to Ocean. Roberts is on top of the Hollywood heap, and no matter how high the salaries go, the good-as-gold performer is worth every penny.

  • 183. Keele European parties Research unit
    Отчет по практике пополнение в коллекции 08.09.2011

    analyses of Europeanization and parties and party systems are a rather recent feature of the academic debate. To date, the development of a potential European dimension of party systems has dominated the field, such as it is, and unsurprisingly regarding parties, this is tied in most cases to the organisation of and elections to the European Parliament (see, e.g., Hix and Lord, 1997, and Pedersen, 1996). In addition, the term Europeanization has been used by some, e.g. Moxon-Browne (1999) and Daniels (1998), to denote a policy and strategic change by certain parties involving movement from a negative to a positive position regarding EU membership. Turning to national party systems, Mair (2000) finds very little impact of European integration on national party systems. Indeed, I suggest that of the many areas of domestic politics which may have experienced an impact from Europe, it is party systems in particular that have perhaps proved to be most impervious to change (p. 4). By this statement Mair means party systems have experienced little or no direct change to the format and mechanics of party systems. However, he makes a significant qualification when addressing a potential indirect impact arising from the European integration process: the first place, European integration increasingly operates to constrain the freedom of movement of national governments, and hence encourages a hollowing out of competition among those parties with a governing aspiration. As such, it promotes a degree of consensus across the mainstream and an inevitable reduction in the range of policy alternatives available to voters. Second, by taking Europe itself out of national competition, and by working within a supranational structure that clearly lacks democratic accountability, party and political leaderships do little to counteract the notion of the irrelevance of conventional politics (pp. 48-49). Mair does not intentionally analyse the impact of European integration individual parties. Accordingly, in the end, the absence of a genuine European level party system explains the insularity of national party systems from the impact of European integration. terms of format and mechanics (other than in the context of a European Parliament election), national party systems appear to exhibit very little in the way of Europeanization. Mair does not consider new party formation and party splits as very salient, in the sense of having an impact upon the relevant parties in a party system. However, the two points raised by Mair regarding an indirect impact are precisely the areas of investigation for evidence of the Europeanization of political parties, for they both draw attention to altered conditions of parties primary operating environments as well as crucial associated factors. Let us focus on his two points, namely the constraints on government policy maneuverability which hollow out competition among parties with a governing aspiration, and the growing notion of the irrelevance of conventional politics, both traceable as much as possible to effects emanating from EU processes. Increasing constraints on the prerogatives of government action, or even more importantly, the perception thereof, may influence over time the classic functions of political parties, e.g. recruitment, election campaigning, interest aggregation, interest articulation, party government roles, etc. If we accept this assumption, then it follows that those parties with a governing aspiration have an incentive to influence this phenomenon. Influence may take the form of finding new zones of penetration available for party goal attainment, e.g., the supranational dimension. Furthermore, a consequence of designing strategies to influence institutions or actors beyond the national arena may be the creation of new internal organizational patterns better able to engage this dimension or else to enhance party management, or both. An even more significant incentive for parties to adapt to these changed circumstances, though long-term in its manifestation, is growing irrelevance, defined as a diminishing capability to alter existing macroeconomic policies and a shrinking scope of issues for which resolution can be promised in election campaigns. in mind that as I have defined Europeanization there is an emphasis upon adaptation and policy change, and further, that Europeanization does not mean either convergence or harmonization, the evidence of Europeanization will vary across and within political systems. Consequently, we should view European integration as an independent variable and increased government policy constraints and the public perception of growing irrelevance of conventional politics as dependent variables. European integration influences the operating arenas, or environments, of national political parties, and the Europeanization of parties is consequently a dependent variable. We should search for evidence of party adaptation to this changed environment, be it policy change and/or organisational change. In other words, the Europeanization of political parties will be reflected in their response to the changes in their environments. The response can be identified in new and sometimes innovative relationships, policies or structures. political parties, unlike government bureaucracies, individual politicians, and interest groups, do not have the ability or opportunity to develop privileged or intimate relationships with authoritative EU actors. Interest groups may independently approach similar organisations in other EU member states in order to create European level associations, or respond to entreaties by the European Commission itself. Government agencies and bureaucracies come into contact with EU institutions, or else are obliged to develop new administrative means with which to translate EU regulations, directives, etc. into corresponding national ones. National government politicians may come to develop personal in Council of Minister meetings, European Council, etc. All of these actors have a certain amount of latitude in their adaptation to EU inputs, or else have little choice, as in the case of government agencies, and must therefore liase as quickly as possible in order to avoid negative repercussions later. Political parties, as I assume, have the incentive and motivation to come to terms with the changes in their environment as it impacts their fortunes, but unlike the examples just given, they are constrained in a number of ways. The most basic dilemma, though perhaps not so obvious, is that there is little if anything in the way of resources that the EU possesses that can be translated into a positive gain for a political party. New and explicit rules forbid a transfer of EU funds to national parties: The funding for political parties at European level provided out of the Community budget may not be used to fund, either directly or indirectly, political parties at national level (Article 191 amendment in Treaty of Nice). Furthermore, political parties do not have an extra-national space or environment of consequence to operate within. The European Parliament is of course a European institution, and although we may state that the problem of irrelevance is common to all parties with a governing aspiration, the European parliament has neither the mandate nor the composition to intrude upon national circumstances. The benefits of participating in the EP are therefore indirect at best for national parties, inasmuch as legislation can refocus the impact of European integration on those areas that affect party fortunes most. Bereft of direct channels into authoritative EU decision-making, yet subject to influences upon their own operating environments, the Europeanization of parties is very much a complex phenomenon to identify. This is especially so as when in government, national party leaders are also in most cases national government leaders, and as such may pursue policies and strategies with an appeal beyond the strictly partisan (this is most likely the case in instances of coalition government). Although we may agree with Mairs identification of the two indirect effects upon political parties, neither is so dramatic as to cause immediate and high-profile changes. Nevertheless, it is possible to outline the broad areas where one may recognise changes that reflect a process of Europeanization. The particular task for the analyst is to trace changes back to an EU source, or else to recognise an intended usage of the EU as a possible aid in the resolution of an issue, or to evaluate the problems that the presence of the EU-issue presents for parties. Five areas of investigation for evidence of Europeanization in parties and party activity are proposed: 1) policy/programmatic content; 2) organisational; 3) patterns of party competition; 4) party-government relations; and 5) relations beyond the national party system.

  • 184. Keys to Management
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 11.06.2010

    An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr. Peter Drucker. In his opinion, the managers perform 5 basic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what they should be and how the organization can achieve them. Secondly, managers organize. They must decide how the recourses of the company are to be used, how the work is to be classified and divided. The third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. Managers must be able to get people work as a team and to be as productive as possible. The forth activity is measurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance of the organization, and of its staff. Finally, Mr. Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves. They help to make people more productive, and grow as human beings. Successful managers are the people, who command the respect of workers and who set high standards. Good managers must bring character to the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others.

  • 185. Kompaniya Tata na Rossiyskom rynke avtomobilestroeniya v perspektive
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 05.09.2010
  • 186. Kulma soja kriisid( Кризисы холодной войны)
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 18.05.2010
  • 187. Lada Kalina
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 01.05.2010
  • 188. Law and Society
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 06.01.2012
  • 189. Le ble et ses caracterisques
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 15.08.2010
  • 190. Learner observation tasks as a learning tool for pre-service teachers
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 01.11.2009


    1. Allen, J.P.B., Fröhlich, M. and Spada, N. (1984). The communicative orientation of language teaching. In Handscombe, J., Orem, R.A. and Taylor, B.P. (ed.). On TESOL 83: the Question of Control. TESOL, Washington, DC.
    2. Allport, G.M. (1942). The use of personal documents in psychological science. Quoted in F. McKernan (1996). Curriculum action research: a handbook of methods and resources for the reflective practitioner (p.84). London: Kogan Page.
    3. Allwright, D. (1988). Observation in the language classroom. London: Longman.
    4. Allwright, R.L. (1980). Turns, topics and tasks: patterns of participation in language teaching and learning. In D. Larsen-Freeman, editors., Discourse analysis in second language acquisition research (pp. 165-187). Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.
    5. Allwright, D. and Bailey, K. (2000). Focus on the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    6. Bailey, K. (1990). The use of diaries in teacher education programs. In J.C Richards,. and D. Nunan, editors,. Second language teacher education (pp.215-226). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    7. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press
    8. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologists, 28, 117-148.
    9. Bany, M. A. and Johnson, L. V. (1964). Classroom group behaviour: group dynamics in education. London: Macmillan, Collier-Macmillan.
    10. Becker, H. S. (1971). Sociological work: methods and substance. London: Aldine.
    11. Bellack, A.A. (1966). The language of the classroom. N.York: Teachers College.
    12. Birkey, R. C. and Rodman, J.J. (1995). Adult Learning Styles and Preference for Technology Programs. Available: http://www2.nu.edu/nuri/llconf/conf1995/birkey.html
    13. Bova, D. Heterogeneous Grouping: Is It Best for All Students? Available: http://www.middleweb.com/MWLISTCONT/MSLdifferentiation.html
    14. Boyd, J.R. and Boyd, M.A. (1989). Input-output teacher's manual. Normal, IL: Abaca Books. Available: Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education Washington DC. H:\teaching practice\ED383242 1995-05-00 Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes_ ERIC Digest.htm
    15. Bruton, A. (1997). Mixed capacities in EFL/ESL: clarifying the issue. RELC Journal, 28 (1), 109-119.
    16. Buss, A., and Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early personality traits. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
    17. Campbell D. I. (1958). Information and control. Vol.1 Quoted in Fassnacht, G. (1982). Theory and practice of observing behaviour (p.40). London: Academic Press.
    18. Canale, M. and Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied linguistics, 1, 1-47.
    19. Capelle, G.C., Jarvilla,R.J. and Revelle, E. (n.d.). Development of computer-assisted observational systems for teacher-training. Quoted in Chaudron, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: research on teaching and learning (p.18). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    20. Chappel,C. A. (1995). Field-Dependence/Field-independence in the L2 classroom. In J. M. Reid, editor., Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp.158-169). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
    21. Chaudron, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: research on teaching and learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    22. Cohen, L. and Mannion, L. (1994). Research methods in education. (4th edition). London: Routledge.
    23. Croll, P. (1986). Systematic classroom observation. London: The Falmer Press.
    24. Day, R. R. (1984). Student participation in the ESL classroom or some imperfections in practice. Language Learning, 34 (3), 69-107.
    25. Day, R. R. (1990). Teacher observation in second language education. In J. C., Richards and D. Nunan, editors., Second language teacher education (pp. 43-61). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    26. Delamont, S. and Hamilton, D. (1976). Classroom research: a critique and a new approach. In M. Stubbsand and S. Delamont, editors., Explorations in classroom observation (pp. 3-21). London: John Wiley & Sons.
    27. Delamont, S. and Hamilton, D. (1986). Revisiting classroom research: a continuing cautionary tale. In M. Hammerley, editor., Controversies in classroom research (pp.25-43). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    28. Dossey, J. A, Mullis, I. V. S., Lindquist, M. M. and Chambers, D. L. (1988) The Mathematics Report Card: Are we measuring up? Trends and achievement based on the 1986 National Assessment. Princeton, ETS.
    29. Dörney, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31, 117-135.
    30. Eisner, E. (1993). Objectivity in educational research. In M. Hammersley, editor., Educational research: current issues (pp. 49-56). London: Paul Chapman in association with the Open University.
    31. Elliot, J. and Ebbutt, D. (1986). Case studies in teaching for understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge Institute of Education.
    32. Ericson, R., Bareaneck, P. and Chan, J. (1991). Representing order: crime, law and justice in the news media. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    33. Fanselow, J. F. (1977). Beyond Rachomon conceptualizing and describing the teaching act. TESOL Quarterly, 11, 17-39.
    34. Feather, N.T. (1982). Expectations and actions: expectancy-value models in psychology. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    35. Fielding, N. (2001). Ethnography. In N. Gilbert, editor., Researching social life. (2nd ed.) (pp.145-163). London: SAGE Publications.
    36. Flanders, N.A. (1970). Analyzing teaching behaviour. London: Addison-Wesley.
    37. Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: the role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
    38. Gayle, V. (2000). Quantitative data analysis. In D. Burton, editor., Research training for social scientists (pp.361-420). London: SAGE Publications.
    39. Gellert, E. (1955). Systematic observation: a method in child study. Harvard Educational Review, 25, 179-195.
    40. Good, T. and Brophy, J. (2000). Looking in classrooms (8th ed.). New York: Longman.
    41. Goodman, N. (1976). The languages of art. Quoted in Eisner, E. (1993). Objectivity in educational research (p.52). In M. Hammersley, editor., Educational research: current issues (pp. 49-56). London: Paul Chapman in association with the Open University.
    42. Gore, J. and Zeichner, K. (1991). Action Research and Reflective Teaching in Preservice Teacher Education: A Case Study from the United States. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7(2), 119-136.
    43. Gregoire, A. F. (1979). Learning/teaching styles: potent forces behind them. Educational Leadership, 36, 234-236.
    44. Hammersley, M. (1986). Revisiting Hamilton and Delamont: a cautionary note on the relationship[ between systematic observation and ethnography. In M. Hammerley, editor., Controversies in classroom research (pp. 44-50). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    45. Hargreaves D. H. (1980). Review of M. Ruttler et al. 15 00 hours. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 1(2), 211-216.
    46. Holliday, A. (1994). Appropriate methodology and social context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    47. Hollingworth, H.L. (1910). Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methodology, 7: 461-469. Quoted in G. Fassnacht (1982). Theory and practice of observing behaviour (p.40). London: Academic Press.
    48. Hopkins, C.D. and Antes, R.L. (1985). Classroom measurement and evaluation. Itasca, Ill.: F.E. Peacock Publishers.
    49. Hutt, S.J. and Hutt C. (1970). Direct observation and measurement of behaviour. Springfield: Charles C Thomas.
    50. Jarvis, G. (1968). A behavioural observation system for classroom foreign-language skill acquisition activities. Modern Language Journal, 52, 335-341.
    51. Jersild, A.T. and Meigs, M.F. (1939). Direct observation as a research method. Quoted in Hutt, S.J. and Hutt C. (1970). Direct observation and measurement of behaviour (p.3). Springfield: Charles C Thomas.
    52. Johnson, D. W., and Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and Competition: Theory and Research. Edina, Minn.: Interaction Book Co.
    53. Kagan, D.M. (1992). Professional growth among pre-service teachers and beginning teachers. Review of Educational Research, 62(2), 129-169.
    54. Keefe, J. W. (1979). Learning styles: an overview. In J. W. Keefe, editor., Student learning styles: diagnosing and prescribing programs (pp. 1-17). Reston, Va.: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
    55. Lee, A., Danis, C., Miller, T., & Jung, Y. (2001). Fostering social interaction in online spaces. In M. Hirose, editor., Human-Computer Interaction (INTERACT'01) Eighth IFIP TC.13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (pp. 59-66): IOS Press.
    56. Long, M. (1980). Inside the black box: methodological issues in classroom research on language learning. Language Learning, 30, 1-42.
    57. Lofland, J. and Lofland, L. (1995). Analysing social settings: a guide to qualitative observation and analysis. Belmont, CA.: Wadsworth.
    58. Lutz, F. W. (1986). Ethnography: the holistic approach to understanding schooling. In M. Hammerley, editor., Controversies in classroom research (pp.107-119). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    59. Macdonald, K. (2001). Using documents. In N. Gilbert, editor., Researching social life (pp. 194-210). London: SAGE Publications.
    60. Mandl, H. (1971) In W. Arnold, H. J. Eysenck, and R.Meili, editors., Lexicon der Psychologie. Vol.2. Quoted in G.Fassnacht (1982). Theory and practice of observing behaviour, p.41 London: Academic Press.
    61. McIntyre, D. and Macleod, G. (1986). The characteristics and uses of systematic classroom observation. In M.Hammerley, editor., Controversies in classroom research (pp.10-23). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    62. McKernan, J. (1996). Curriculum action research: a handbook of methods and resources for the reflective practitioner. London: Kogan Page.
    63. Meara, P. (1996). The dimensions of lexical competence. In Brown, G., Malmkjær, J. Williams, editors., Performance and competence in second language acquisition (pp.33-53). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    64. Meece, J. and McColskey, W. (2001). Improving student motivation: a guide for teachers and school improvement teams. SERVE. ED-01-CO-0015. Available: http://www.serve.org/publications/rdism2.pdf
    65. Millrood, R. (2002). Teaching heterogeneous classes. ELT Journal, 56 (2), 128-136.
    66. Mishler, F.G. (1990). Validation in inquiry-guided research: the role of examples in narrative studies. Harvard Educational review, 60 (4), 415-441.
    67. Mitchel, R., Parkinson, B. and Johnstone, R. (1981). The foreign language classroom; an observational study. Stirling Educational Monograph # 9, the Department of Education, University of Stirling.
    68. Moskowitz, G. (1970). The foreign language teacher interacts. Quoted in C. Chaudron (1988). Second language classrooms: research on teaching and learning, p. 17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    69. Muchnick, A.G., and Wolfe, D.E. (1982).Attitudes and motivation of American students of Spanish. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 38, 262-281.
    70. Naiman, Neil, Frölich, M., Stern, H.H. and Todesco, A. (1978). The good language learner. Quoted in Chaudron, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: research on teaching and learning, p.18. Cambridge: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
    71. Oxford, R. and Ehrman, M. (1993). Second language research on individual differences. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 188-205.
    72. Phillips, D.C. (1993). Subjectivity and objectivity: an objectivity inquiry. In M. Hammersley, editor., Educational research: current issues (pp. 57-72). London: Paul Chapman in association with the Open University.
    73. Pica, T., Holliday, L., Lewis, N., Berducci, D., and Newman, J. (1991). Second language learning through interaction: What role does gender play? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 31, 343-76.
    74. Politzer, R. L. (1980) Foreign language teaching and bilingual education: research implications. Foreign Language Annals, 13, 291-297.
    75. Platt, J. (1981). Evidence and proof in documentary research. Sociological review, 29 (1), 31-66.
    76. Radnor, H.A. (2002). Researching your professional practice: doing interpretive research. Buckingham, Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    77. Ratcliffe, H. (1983). Notions of validity in qualitative research methodology. Knowledge: creation, diffusion, utilization, 5(2),147-167.
    78. Richards, J. C. (1998). Beyond Training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    79. Sattler, J.M. (1982). Assessment of childrens intelligence and abilities (2d ed.). Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
    80. Scheurich, J. J. (1997). Qualitative studies series: 3. Research methods in the postmodern. London: the Falmer Press.
    81. Scott, J. (1990). A matter of record: documentary sources in social research. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    82. Seliger, H.W. (1977). Inductive and deductive method in language teaching: a re-examination. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 1-18.
    83. Seliger, H. W. and Shohamy E. (1989). Second language research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    84. Shamim, F. (1996). In and out of the action zone: locution as a feature of instruction in large ESL classes in Pakistan. In K.M. Bailey and D. Nunan, editors., Voices from the language classroom (pp. 123-144). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    85. Simpson, M. and Tuson, J. (1995). Using observation in small-scale research: a beginners guide. Edinburgh: the Scottish Council for Research in Education.
    86. Simon, A. and Boyer, G. E. (1974). Mirrors for behaviour 3. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools. Quoted in S. Delamont and D. Hamilton (1986). Revisiting classroom research: a continuing cautionary tale (p.29). In M. Hammerley, editor., Controversies in classroom research (pp.25-43). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    87. Singleton, D. (1989). Language acquisition: the age factor. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters
    88. Smith, L.M. and Geoffrey, W. (1968). The complexities of an urban classroom. New-York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    89. Stroh, M. (2000). Qualitative interviewing. In D. Burton, editor., Research training social scientists (pp. 196-214). London: SAGE Publications.
    90. Thornbury, S. (1991). Watching the whites of their eyes: the use of teaching-practice logs. ELT Journal 45 (2), 140-146.
    91. Tudor, I., (1996). Learner-centredness as language education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    92. Johson, M.C. (1977). A review of research methods in education. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishing Company.
    93. Veenman, S. (1984). Perceived problems of beginning teachers. Review of Educational research, 54(2), 143-178.
    94. Wajnryb, R. (1992). Classroom observation tasks: resource book for language teachers and trainers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    95. Walker, R. and Adelman, C. (1976). Strawberries. In M. Stubbs and S. Delamont, editors., Explorations in classroom observation (pp. 133-150). London: John Wiley & Sons.
    96. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers: modes of teaching. Cambridge: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
    97. Wallace, M. J. (1998). Action research for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    98. Weade, G. Locating learning in the times, spaces of teaching. In H.H. Marshall, edotir., Redefining student learning: roots of educational change (pp. 87-118). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    99. Weick, K. E. (1968). Systematic observational methods. In G. Lindzey and E. Aronson, editors., (2d edition). The Handbook of social psychology, vol. 2 (pp. 357-451). Addison-Wesley.
    100. Williams, M. and Burden, R. L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    101. Wright , H.F. (1960). Observational child study. In P.H. Mussen, editor., Handbook of research methods in child development, (pp. 71-139). New-York: Wiley.
    102. Wrigley, H.S. and Guth, G. (1992). Bringing literacy to life: Issues and options in adult ESL literacy. San Mateo, CA: Aguirre International. (ED 348 896). Available: H:\teaching practice\ED383242 1995-05-00 Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes_ ERIC Digest.htm
    103. Violand-Sanchez, E. (1995). Cognitive and learning styles of high school students: implications for ESL curriculum development. In J. M. Reid, editor., Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp.48-62). Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
    104. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 191. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 08.12.2010

    The coining of clipped word-forms may result either in the ousting of one of the words from the vocabulary or in establishing a clear semantic differentiation between the two units. In a few cases the full words become new roots: chapman chap, brandywine brandy. But in most cases a shortened word exists in the vocabulary together with the longer word from which it is derived and usually has the same lexical meaning differing only in stylistic reference. The question naturally arises whether the shortened and original forms should be considered separate words. Though it is obvious that in the case of semantic difference between a shortened unit and a longer one from which it is derived they can be termed as two distinct words: cabriolet cab. Some linguists hold the view that as the two units do not differ in meaning but only in stylistic application, it would be wrong to apply the term word to the shortened unit. In fact, the shortened unit is a word-variant. Other linguists contend that even when the original word and the shortened form are generally used with some difference in style, they are both to be recognised as two distinct words. If this treatment of the process of word-shortening is accepted, the essential difference between the shortening of words and the usual process of word-formation should be pointed out.

  • 192. Legal system
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    Also it is no trifling education that is needed for successful competition in this profession. The ramifications of the law are infinite, and the successful lawyer must be versed in all subjects. The law is not a mere conglomeration of decisions and statutes; otherwise "Pretty Poll" might pose as an able advocate. A mind unadapted to investigation, unable to see the reasons for legal decisions, is as unreliable at the bar as is a color-blind person in the employ of a signal corps. The woman lawyer who demands an indemnity against failure must offer as collateral security not only the ordinary school education, but also a knowledge of the world and an acquaintance with that most abstruse of all philosophieshuman nature. She must needs cultivate all the common sense and tact with which nature has endowed her, that she may adjust herself to all conditions. She must possess courage to assert her position and maintain her place in the presence of braggadocio and aggressiveness, with patience, firmness, order and absolute good nature; a combativeness which fears no Rubicon; a retentiveness of memory which classifies and keeps on file minutest details; a self-reliance which is the sin qua non of success; a tenacity of purpose and stubbornness of perseverance which gains ground, not by leaps, but by closely contested hair breadths; a fertility of resource which can meet the "variety and instantaneousness" of all occasions; an originality and clearness of intellect like that of Portia, prompt to recognize the value of a single drop of blood; a critical acumen to understand and discriminate between the subtle technicalities of law and an aptness to judge rightly of the interpretation of principles.

  • 193. Lessons from Russia's parliamentary early twentieth century
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 17.10.2009

    Consistent implementation of the principles proclaimed on October 17 could lead to the design of the constitutional order. However, in late 1905 - early 1906 enacts a number of limiting civil liberties "temporary rules". In April 1906, the text appears in the new edition of "Basic state laws. Because of this "Code of Nicholas II" disappears definition of power of the monarch as unlimited, but remains its symbol - obviously ambiguous - as "autocratic". The most radical 86-I article "Code" reads: "No new law can not follow without the approval of the State Council and State Duma and absorb force without the approval of the emperor", ie for the monarch has the final say, and not determined by the necessary procedures advance the bill in case of disagreement with the Emperor. Next 87 article provided an opportunity in the event of termination or interruption of the Duma and State Council to conduct debates in the Council of Ministers, with subsequent confirmation by the king in the form of "His Majesty's orders, take effect immediately. And the king retained the right to interrupt the meeting of the Duma and the State Council. Emperor could not enforce the laws in the form of individually approved by the "acts of top management" [2, c.139]. In the exclusive jurisdiction of the autocrat were the foreign policy, finances, army and navy, the appointment to senior posts in the government bureaucracy. All other public institutions were of secondary nature. Nominally, reminiscent of some West European counterparts, Russia's parliament (State Duma - the lower "chamber plus the State Council - " upper "chamber) really is not. Not institutionally integrated, functionally, these "house" opposed to each other.

  • 194. Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of scientific-technical texts
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 22.10.2010

    Translation is the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language and the production, in another language, of an equivalent text that communicates the same message. Translation must take into account a number of constraints, including context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, their idioms and the like. Consequently, as has been recognized at least since the time of the translator Martin Luther, one translates best into the language that one knows best. Traditionally translation has been a human activity, though attempts have been made to computerize or otherwise automate the translation of natural-language texts (machine translation) or to use computers as an aid to translation (computer-assisted translation). [1; 48] Perhaps the most common misconception about translation is that there exists a simple “word-for-word” relation between any two languages, and that translation is therefore a straightforward and mechanical process. On the contrary, historical differences between languages often dictate differences of expression. Hence, source and target texts may differ significantly in length. In addition, translation is always fraught with uncertainties as well as the potential for inadvertent “spilling over” of idioms and usages from one language into the other, producing linguistic hybrids, for example, "Franglais" (French-English), "Spanglish" (Spanish-English) and "Poglish" (Polish-English). [2; 31]

  • 195. Lexical unit
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 21.12.2011

    a simple sentence there are two lexical-semantic variants in the word like - comparative and contrast. The word like in the sense of refinement doesn't have synonymous parallels with comparative-contrastive like.the constructions the word like isn't independent part of the sentence. All structures like + X function as secondary part of the sentence: attributive or adverbial contest, and also is a nominal part of the predicate.contrastive like is characterized by intersection of four parts of speech: preposition, adjective, adverb and conjunction.prepositions the word like draws the possibility of combining with nouns, adjectives, pronouns, gerunds, numerals. There is also presence of case valence and duplex syntactic relations which are mostly in binomial word combinations which are formed according to the model «pivotal word + like + dependent word».word like together with the input construction like prepositional phrase is characterized by the mobility of positions in the sentence. These prepositional phrases and constructions with the word like can have predicative, attributive and adverbial characteristics., the possibility of the word like to form the word form unlike and the combination much (more, less) + like doesn't allow to attribute it to preposition.adjectives the word like draw the presence of prefix in the structure of the word and also the possibility to form the degree of comparison., the word like is characterized by the right distribution which is not typical for adjectives.combinations Adj + N the article is used before the adjective, but in the combination like + N the article is used before the noun but not before like.adverbs the word like has possibility to follow after participle in the participle constructions, presence of prefix un in the structure of the word, possibility to form degree of comparison with the help of words much, more, less., there is a compatibility for the word like which adverbs don't have. As it is known, adverbs doesn't combine with nouns, but the construction like + N is very productive. Unlike adverbs which have unilateral connection, the word like has bilateral connection. Adverbs and adjectives are parts of sentences. The word like isn't part of sentence.conjunctions the word like draw the possibility of comparative phrase which refers to verbal predicate to be expanded into the subordinate clause.is impossible to attribute the comparative-contrastive like to any morphologic class because it has the character of morphologic syncretism.word like with the meaning of refinement doesn't have synonymic parallels with comparative-contrastive and functions as the word which introduces the enumeration. Here like has conjunctional function.of grammatical and semantical structure of composite sentences with the parts which are input with the clip like allows to affirm that they are grammatical and function in modern English. They are represented by three types of compound sentences - comparative-contrastive, commenting - valuating and qualificatory meaning. Casual and modal characteristics plays an important role in the realization of syntactic relations. The clip like functions as conjunction.

  • 196. Lexico-semantical Peculiarities of Edgar Allan Poe’s tales
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 31.08.2012

    LONELINESS: loneliness, solitude, separation; alone, singular, lonesome, sole. most Edgar Poes tales a motive of death is significantly felt. This theme was popular in the literature of American South, as it reflected the depression of decay of the Virgin Renascence period, affirmed the idea of inevitable destruction of the whole Splendid, Beautiful in the times of worship money flourishing. To some extent the Edgar Poes frantic world became the reflection of the reality, but the theme of death takes a psychological aspect the writers creative work. It is also interesting that death in Edgar Poes artistic system becomes an aesthetic category and isnt perceived as only biological phenomenon. The writer considers the notion death as a symbol and even a special state of human consciousness. Some heroes admit that they do not fell the boundaries between the life and death; they imagine the death to themselves as a special form of existance of human spirit. Hence the motives of life, death, immortality ideal of the Elation, Beauty, drifting, create a certain complex unity. The very atmosphere of horror, despair, solitude, deadlock move the reader into the unique fantastic world of thoughts and feelings. The category of death in Edgar Poes artistic system doesnt call any disgust, fear, on the contrary, it inspires the reader for the higher feelings and reflection about the sense of life. Callridge was right without any doubt, when he said that E. Poe gives his readers satisfaction from the delight of extraordinary magnificence of artificial horror.reading the Edgar Poes tales, we can always feel, that some powerful forces operate the life and destiny of the heroes. The presence of deep mystery is seen, which attracts the readers attention and calls peculiar elation and mental excitement in him. As a rule the reader endeavours to penetrate into the very essence of events, open the mystery, find the internal forces that rule them, but very often he leaves helpless in the face of the sacrament of existance: the author never gives unambiguous simple answer. We feel the internal fight of mysterious forces in every tale, and realize, hat the writer plunges into the essence of human existance, admiring and charming the reader. The frequent usage of the words God, Saint, Seraph, Heaven and others are the evidence of not the depth of writers religiousness, not of the useless human efforts and not of determinacy of the mans destiny, but most probably of the complexity of that ties, with which it is connected with the world. E. Poe always tried to realize the eternal problems of being, which worried the whole generations of great thinkers.evidence of this may be the usage of the lexical units, which have the common theme "mystery, superhuman, forces", which helps to create the elated tone in his tales. These are the following words and word combinations:, Divine Father, the Mighty Ruler of the Universe, Soul in Paradise, Heaven, Seraph, saint, angel, spirit, shadow, omnipresence, omnipotence, demon, destiny, fatality, fate, doom, futility, spell, mystery, riddle, secret, marvel, enchantment; mystic, Magical, phantasmagoric, superhuman, beyond human control, unnatural, fantastic, unreal, uncommon.. Poes psychological tales are marked with the solemnity and well-groundness. They are characterized by the philosophical depth and wide scale of the comprehension of problems. In the form of expression it shows itself in the frequent usage of abstract vocabulary: beauty, good, evil, being, existence, universe, Life, material world, spirit, Humanity, Time, limitless, nothingness, plentitude, abstraction.the world literature E. Poe is considered to be an unsurpassed master of creation the hard, sullen atmosphere. Considering that the surroundings of human being has a psychological influence on her, forms her emotions, feelings and mood, the writer very often goes into detailed description of houses, interiors, scenes. Every, even the smallest, detail in the decoration of interior, the unnoticeable at first sight subjects, serve for the creation of the general atmosphere and are a part of a whole.typical elements for such descriptions of architecture and interiors are the following attributive word combinations:abbey, melancholy House of Usher, misty-looking house, quaint and old building, prison-like rampart, mansion of gloom, bizarre architecture, comfortless and antique chamber, a large and lofty room, dark, high, turret-chamber, remote turret, dark and intricate passage, the Gothic archway of the hall, wilderness of narrow passages, vacant, eye-like windows, bleak wall, ebony blackness of the floors, smooth slim and cold wall, massy doors, ponderous gate; sable draperies, dark tapestries, fringed curtains of black velvet, gloomy furniture, gigantic sarcophagus of black granite, phantasmagoric armorial trophies, manifold and multiform armorial trophies.only the placement of fanciful subjects, that surround the heroes, plays a great role in the creation of general atmosphere, but also the light, sounds, even the movement of the air, which creates the impression of extraordinary things and mystery of everything that takes place.author pays a special attention to the depiction of the light. In the tales he clearly warps the reality and the ordinary feeling of environment, though the action always stays in the boundaries of the reality. The light creates a special effect and mood, hiding some and opening the other details. As a rule, these are the darkened and somehow sullen beams, which correspond to the general atmosphere of helplessness, downcast and depressed state. The examples may be the following word combinations:gleams of ancrimsoned light; some faint ray of light; wild sulphurous lustre; ghastly luster; the rays of the numerous candles; gleam and the radiance of the full, blood-red, setting moon; a blood of intense rays rolled throughout.the climaxes of Edgar Poes tales one and the same sound is repeated all the time, which cannot concentrate attention and raise the too tense atmosphere. For example:sharp, grating sound, certain low and indefinite sounds, the echo of the very cracking and ripping sound, a low and apparently distant, but sharp, protracted, and most unusual screaming, a distant, hollow, metallic, and clangorous, jet apparently muffled reverberation, an indistinct murmur.great attention is paid to the scene also, because, as a rule, E. Poes personages are isolated from the external world, and lead unsociable life, being plunged into their own thoughts and emotions. Thats why the situation of depressed state has peculiar psychological influence on the all heroes. The main personage of Edgar Poes tales is a man with his own passions and thoughts. On the pages of the writers works we meet rather different people. For the creation of human characters the literary artist widely uses the words and word combinations, united with common theme traits of character, and also the units of moral-estimated vocabulary, such as:, resolution, audacity, stern nature, Ardor, elevated character, spirituality, extravagance, penetration, sagacity, arrogance, vanity, virtue, faithfulness, cordiality, warmth, sincerity, gentleness, turpitude, wickedness, evil propensities, rooted habits of vice, soulless dissipation.the one hand, the vocabulary, which determines the thinking activity of the man, takes an important place, but on the other hand - the one, which expresses human feelings and emotions. It should be pointed out, that rational and emotional things compose somehow two opposite poles of human existance. But here there is no contradiction, on the contrary, the complicated combination of rational and emotional in one character is peculiar to E. Poes novelistics, and turns out to be the authors merit. In the very writers individuality we find harmonial combination of ability to the logical consistent thinking and inclination to the untamed passions and unlimited imagination. Heart and mind - we always feel mutual influence of these two phenomena in the complicated displays of human mentality. E. Poes heroes, as their creator, are inclined to quick shift of feelings and mood, they are very emotional and at the same time - people of high intellect, prone to analytical thinking. Moreover some double meaning is shown here: on the one side - the heroes completely depend on the circumstances, they are the slaves of their own passions, on the other side they are capable to appreciate the situation soberly in the even seeming hopeless conditions. E. Poe widely uses the vocabulary of rational and emotional aspects, creating the effect of fantasy and at the same time explaining everything that happens rationally, taking into account mutual condition of all phenomena in the world. Among the lexical units, that mean the process of thinking, the most frequent are: , reflection, reason, research, curiosity, thought, mind, brain, fancy, superstition, analysis, consideration, intellect, intelligence, mental existence, attention; to forget, to mean, to suspect, to conclude, to come to a decision.emotions and feelings of the human being are conveyed with the help of the following lexical units:, feeling, mood, bitterness, hopelessness, melancholy, grief, sympathy, pity, sorrow, temptation, animosity, depression, tumult, commotion, rage, vexation, ecstasy, glee, excitement.his tales, E. Poe deeply investigates the psychological and physical state of the human being in the extreme situations, when all her feelings are aggravated to the brim. The writer is the master of conveying human feelings perception of the environment, sometimes it even seems, that not the hero, but the reader perceives the world depicted in the tales. We feel the abruptness, inconsistence of impressions, lapses of humans memory and consciousness, exhausted from long sufferings. The question about the verge of being and not being, about the sense of being emerges here. Person, who wasnt on the verge of death, will never appreciate the Beauty and Charm of Life. The author often observed his heroes, who are in "the state of seeming nothingness"; mental and physical state of heroes in different situations is conveyed through such lexical units, as:, nervousness, tremour, iceness, dreariness, madness, stupor, mental disorder, intoxication, the elate of seeming nothingness, agony, swoon, delirium, confusion of mind, haziness, insensibility, imbecility, sickness, fit, unconsciousness; to unnerve, to dream, to faint.. Poes personages are, as a rule, very talented people. Their spiritual world is complicated and many-sided. They admire theatre, music, and painting. They are creative personalities with their own peculiar seeing of events and rich inner life, and often they try to find their self-expression in the creative work. Wide usage of words and word combinations, which belong to the lexico-semantic group Arts in the E. Poes tales determined it, such as:, art, thing of art, image, improvisation, canvas, painting, vignette, background, frame, design, pallet, brush, reading, verses, ballad, rhyme, volume, guitar, rhapsodies.system of the vocabulary of the work of art is determined not only linguistic, but also extralinguistic factors: thematic directivity of the tales, peculiarities of the depicted material, ideology, authors aesthetic views, his creative manner. Such approach allowed to understand deeply Edgar Allan Poes creative idea, ideal contents and aesthetic intentions.

  • 197. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 01.09.2010
  • 198. Liberal and democratic political modes in a modern world
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 14.05.2011
  • 199. Lipid biosynthesis
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 16.05.2010

    Protein storage doesnt take place in animals. Except for the small amount that circulates in the cells, amino acids exist in the body only in muscle or other protein-containing tissues. If the animal or human needs specific amino acids, they must either be synthesized or obtained from the breakdown of muscle protein. Adipose tissue serves as the major storage area for fats in animals. A normal human weighing 70 kg contains about 160 kcal of usable energy. Less than 1 kcal exists as glycogen, about 24 kcal exist as amino acids in muscle, and the balance-more than 80 percent of the total-exists as fat. Plants make oils for energy storage in seeds. Because plants must synthesize all their cellular components from simple inorganic compounds, plants-but usually not animals-can use fatty acids from these oils to make carbohydrates and amino acids for later growth after germination.

  • 200. Literature in Ukraine: Mykhaylo Kotsiubynsky and Oles Honchar
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 14.12.2010


    1. Old Ukrainian literature took centuries to develop, influenced by two bookish languages.
    2. «The Precept of Volodymyr Monomakh» is an outstanding literary memorial of the distant past.
    3. The Kyiv-Pechersk Patericon» describes the lives of the Fathers of the Caves.
    4. In the 16th century poetry received a powerful impetus.
    5. Ivan Kotlyarevsky's epic burlesque «Aeneid» turned out the first creation of new Ukrainian literature.
    6. In 1840, his «Kobzar» came off the press.
    7. Realism flourished in the second half of the century.
    8. Mykhaylo was born into the family of a poor official (clerk).
    9. Mykhaylo Kotsiubynsky described the life of the Ukrainian people at the turn of the 20th century.
    10. Kotsiubynsky developed literary traditions created by Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko.
    11. At the age of fourteen, after his father's death Mykhaylo became the breadwinner in the family.
    12. He followed traditions of the school of realism of Levytskyi, Panas Myrny.
    13. His works were translated into Russian and Western European languages during his lifetime and gained popularity far, beyond the borders of Ukraine.
    14. The first English language translations appeared back in 1925.
    15. The most famous novel, written by Honchar is «Sobor».
    16. «Sobor» was unknown to the reader for a long period of time, because it was banned.
    17. I know by «Tvoya Zorya», «Ziklon», «Tronka».
    18. This author can justly be called the conscience of Ukraine.
    19. In his works such problems as the good and the evil, honour and dishonour, love and hate were raised.