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  • 141. Haratyan - the popular actor
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 17.07.2007

    In 1997 debuted on a stage in a role of the dreamer and George's romanticism in performance About mice and people on D.Stejnbeka's stories (реж. M.Gorevoj), put by theatrical company « Moscow enterprise ». Middle-aged Crisis (1998) which the criticism has named a confession of generation has played a serious and sad role of the doctor of "first aid" of Sergey in G.Sukacheva's film. By the end of 1990th years as the majority of known actors, it began to be removed actively in teleserials.

  • 142. Henry Ford
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 08.05.2010
  • 143. Hippie Fashion
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 27.04.2006

    The elements that went into the hippy wardrobe were only limited by their psychedelic imaginations. Bellbottoms ruled the day, from striped, to blue jeans to patchwork, to hip huggers, even leather pants were popular. Tops ran the gamut from Nehru shirts, to brightly colored African dashikis and Middle Eastern caftans, to halter tops, tie dyes, and frilly, silky shirts for men! Women wore saris from India and sarongs from Bali and Java. Velvet, leather, batik, denim, Indian cotton and silk were all popular fabrics. Op art, paisleys and psychedelic designs appeared on clothes, occasionally making themdizzy! Footwear ranged from the basic sandal and Birkenstocks to zippered boots, platforms and bright patent leather shoes. Peasant dresses, long skirts and layering were also very popular.

  • 144. Historical Development of Word Meaning – Semantic Change
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 06.06.2012

    What Skills Does a Student of History Develop?does a well-trained student of history, schooled to work on past materials and on case studies in social change, learn how to do? The list is manageable, but it contains several overlapping categories.Ability to Assess Evidence. The study of history builds experience in dealing with and assessing various kinds of evidence-the sorts of evidence historians use in shaping the most accurate pictures of the past that they can. Learning how to interpret the statements of past political leaders-one kind of evidence-helps form the capacity to distinguish between the objective and the self-serving among statements made by present-day political leaders. Learning how to combine different kinds of evidence-public statements, private records, numerical data, visual materials-develops the ability to make coherent arguments based on a variety of data. This skill can also be applied to information encountered in everyday life.Ability to Assess Conflicting Interpretations. Learning history means gaining some skill in sorting through diverse, often conflicting interpretations. Understanding how societies work-the central goal of historical study-is inherently imprecise, and the same certainly holds true for understanding what is going on in the present day. Learning how to identify and evaluate conflicting interpretations is an essential citizenship skill for which history, as an often-contested laboratory of human experience, provides training. This is one area in which the full benefits of historical study sometimes clash with the narrower uses of the past to construct identity. Experience in examining past situations provides a constructively critical sense that can be applied to partisan claims about the glories of national or group identity. The study of history in no sense undermines loyalty or commitment, but it does teach the need for assessing arguments, and it provides opportunities to engage in debate and achieve perspective.in Assessing Past Examples of Change. Experience in assessing past examples of change is vital to understanding change in society today-it's an essential skill in what we are regularly told is our «ever-changing world.» Analysis of change means developing some capacity for determining the magnitude and significance of change, for some changes are more fundamental than others. Comparing particular changes to relevant examples from the past helps students of history develop this capacity. The ability to identify the continuities that always accompany even the most dramatic changes also comes from studying history, as does the skill to determine probable causes of change. Learning history helps one figure out, for example, if one main factor-such as a technological innovation or some deliberate new policy-accounts for a change or whether, as is more commonly the case, a number of factors combine to generate the actual change that occurs.study, in sum, is crucial to the promotion of that elusive creature, the well-informed citizen. It provides basic factual information about the background of our political institutions and about the values and problems that affect our social well-being. It also contributes to our capacity to use evidence, assess interpretations, and analyze change and continuities. No one can ever quite deal with the present as the historian deals with the past-we lack the perspective for this feat; but we can move in this direction by applying historical habits of mind, and we will function as better citizens in the process.Is Useful in the World of Workis useful for work. Its study helps create good businesspeople, professionals, and political leaders. The number of explicit professional jobs for historians is considerable, but most people who study history do not become professional historians. Professional historians teach at various levels, work in museums and media centers, do historical research for businesses or public agencies, or participate in the growing number of historical consultancies. These categories are important-indeed vital-to keep the basic enterprise of history going, but most people who study history use their training for broader professional purposes. Students of history find their experience directly relevant to jobs in a variety of careers as well as to further study in fields like law and public administration. Employers often deliberately seek students with the kinds of capacities historical study promotes. The reasons are not hard to identify: students of history acquire, by studying different phases of the past and different societies in the past, a broad perspective that gives them the range and flexibility required in many work situations. They develop research skills, the ability to find and evaluate sources of information, and the means to identify and evaluate diverse interpretations. Work in history also improves basic writing and speaking skills and is directly relevant to many of the analytical requirements in the public and private sectors, where the capacity to identify, assess, and explain trends is essential. Historical study is unquestionably an asset for a variety of work and professional situations, even though it does not, for most students, lead as directly to a particular job slot, as do some technical fields. But history particularly prepares students for the long haul in their careers, its qualities helping adaptation and advancement beyond entry-level employment. There is no denying that in our society many people who are drawn to historical study worry about relevance. In our changing economy, there is concern about job futures in most fields. Historical training is not, however, an indulgence; it applies directly to many careers and can clearly help us in our working lives.Kind of History Should We Study?question of why we should study history entails several subsidiary issues about what kind of history should be studied. Historians and the general public alike can generate a lot of heat about what specific history courses should appear in what part of the curriculum. Many of the benefits of history derive from various kinds of history, whether local or national or focused on one culture or the world. Gripping instances of history as storytelling, as moral example, and as analysis come from all sorts of settings. The most intense debates about what history should cover occur in relation to identity history and the attempt to argue that knowledge of certain historical facts marks one as an educated person. Some people feel that in order to become good citizens students must learn to recite the preamble of the American constitution or be able to identify Thomas Edison-though many historians would dissent from an unduly long list of factual obligations. Correspondingly, some feminists, eager to use history as part of their struggle, want to make sure that students know the names of key past leaders such as Susan B. Anthony. The range of possible survey and memorization chores is considerable-one reason that history texts are often quite long.is a fundamental tension in teaching and learning history between covering facts and developing historical habits of mind. Because history provides an immediate background to our own life and age, it is highly desirable to learn about forces that arose in the past and continue to affect the modern world. This type of knowledge requires some attention to comprehending the development of national institutions and trends. It also demands some historical understanding of key forces in the wider world. The ongoing tension between Christianity and Islam, for instance, requires some knowledge of patterns that took shape over 12 centuries ago. Indeed, the pressing need to learn about issues of importance throughout the world is the basic reason that world history has been gaining ground in American curriculums. Historical habits of mind are enriched when we learn to compare different patterns of historical development, which means some study of other national traditions and civilizations.key to developing historical habits of mind, however, is having repeated experience in historical inquiry. Such experience should involve a variety of materials and a diversity of analytical problems. Facts are essential in this process, for historical analysis depends on data, but it does not matter whether these facts come from local, national, or world history-although it's most useful to study a range of settings. What matters is learning how to assess different magnitudes of historical change, different examples of conflicting interpretations, and multiple kinds of evidence. Developing the ability to repeat fundamental thinking habits through increasingly complex exercises is essential. Historical processes and institutions that are deemed especially important to specific curriculums can, of course, be used to teach historical inquiry. Appropriate balance is the obvious goal, with an insistence on factual knowledge not allowed to overshadow the need to develop historical habits of mind.to certain essential historical episodes and experience in historical inquiry are crucial to any program of historical study, but they require supplement. No program can be fully functional if it does not allow for whimsy and individual taste. Pursuing particular stories or types of problems, simply because they tickle the fancy, contributes to a rounded intellectual life. Similarly, no program in history is complete unless it provides some understanding of the ongoing role of historical inquiry in expanding our knowledge of the past and, with it, of human and social behavior. The past two decades have seen a genuine explosion of historical information and analysis, as additional facets of human behavior have been subjected to research and interpretation. And there is every sign that historians are continuing to expand our understanding of the past. It's clear that the discipline of history is a source of innovation and not merely a framework for repeated renderings of established data and familiar stories.study history? The answer is because we virtually must, to gain access to the laboratory of human experience. When we study it reasonably well, and so acquire some usable habits of mind, as well as some basic data about the forces that affect our own lives, we emerge with relevant skills and an enhanced capacity for informed citizenship, critical thinking, and simple awareness. The uses of history are varied. Studying history can help us develop some literally «salable» skills, but its study must not be pinned down to the narrowest utilitarianism. Some history-that confined to personal recollections about changes and continuities in the immediate environment-is essential to function beyond childhood. Some history depends on personal taste, where one finds beauty, the joy of discovery, or intellectual challenge. Between the inescapable minimum and the pleasure of deep commitment comes the history that, through cumulative skill in interpreting the unfolding human record, provides a real grasp of how the world works.say that Bilbo's breath was taken away is no description at all. There are no words left to express his staggerment, since Men changed the language that they learned of elves in the days when all the world was wonderful. Bilbo had heard tell and sing of dragon-hoards before, but the splendour, the lust, the glory of such treasure had never yet come home to him..R.R. Tolkien, «The Hobbit»the history of semantic change had to be summed up as one process, it would be that of specialization. The Anglo Saxons 1500 years ago made do with perhaps 30,000 words in their complete vocabulary, while Modern English has anywhere from 500,000 to a million words, depending on whether or not scientific vocabularies are included.

  • 145. Historical measurement of the science of governing
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 22.11.2010

    Ницше has given to political technologists «the easy recipe» manufactures at a government wheel «the great person of crowd». He advised, that under any conditions it is necessary to deliver to crowd that to it is rather pleasant, or at first «to hammer to it into the head», that this or that would be pleasant, and then to give it. But at all at once, on the contrary, it is necessary to win it with the greatest pressure or to pretend, that you win. At crowd the impression should be made, that before it mighty and even invincible will power, or, at least, should seem, that such force exists. Everyone because at anybody she is not present admires with strong will, and everyone says to itself (himself), that if it possessed it, for it and for its egoism there would be no borders. And if it is found out, that such strong will carries out something rather pleasant to crowd instead of listening to desires of the avidity with it even more admire and with it congratulate itself. In the rest such person should to have all qualities of crowd: then she will be ashamed, nevertheless, before it, and it especially will be popular.

  • 146. History of english language
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 22.01.2010

    The first pre-written or pre-historical period, which may be termed Early Old English, lasts from the West Germanic invasion of Britain till the beginning of writing, that is from the 5th to the close of the 7th c. It is the stage of tribal dialects of the West Germanic invaders (Angels, Saxon, Jutes and Frisians) The tribal dialects were used for oral communication, there were no written form of English. The second historical period extends from the 8th c. till the end of the 11th. The English language of that time is referred to as Old English or Anglo-Saxon; it can also be called Written OE. The tribal dialects gradually changed into local or regional dialects. Towards the end of the period the differences between the dialects grew and their relative position altered. OE was a typical OG language, with a purely Germanic vocabulary, and few foreign borrowings; it displayed specific phonetic peculiarities. As far as grammar is concerned, OE was an inflected language with a well-developed system of morphological categories, especially in the noun and adjective. The third period, known as Early Middle English, starts after 1066, the year of the Norman Conquest, and covers 12, 13, and half of the 14th c. It was the stage of the greatest dialectical divergence caused by the feudal system and by foreign influences Scandinavian and French. The dialectical division of present day English owes its origin to this period of history. Under Norman rule the official language in England was French. The local dialects were mainly used for oral communication and were but little employed in writing. Early ME was a time of great changes at all levels of the language, especially in grammar and lexis. English absorbed 2 layers of lexical borrowings: the Scandinavian element in the North-Eastern area and the French element in the speech of townspeople in the Soth-east. Phonetic and grammatical changes proceeded at a high rate, unrestricted by written tradition. The forth period from the later 14th c. till the end of the 15th embraces the age of Chauser. We may call it Late or Classical Middle English. It was the time of the restoration of English to the position of the state and literary language and the time of literary flourishing. The main dialect used in writing and literature was the mixed dialect of London. The phonetic and grammatical structure had incorporated and perpetuated the fundamental changes of the preceding period. Most of the inflections in the nominal system in nouns, adjectives, pronouns had fallen together. The verb system was expanding, as numerous new analytical forms and verbal phrases on the way to becoming analytical forms were used alongside old simple forms. The fifth period Early New English lasted from the introduction of printing to the age of Shakespeare, that is from 1475 to c. 1660. The first printed book in English was published by William Caxton in 1475. This period is a sort of transition between two outstanding epochs of literary efflorescence: the age of Chaucer and the age of Shakespeare. The growth of the vocabulary was a natural reflection of the progress of culture in the new, bourgeois society, and of the wider horizons of mans activity. Extensive phonetic changes were transforming the vowel system, which resulted n the growing gap between the written and the spoken forms of the word. The inventory of grammatical forms and syntactical constructions was almost the same as in Mod E, but their use was different. The abundance of grammatical units occurring without any apparent restrictions, or regularities produces an impression of great «freedom of grammatical construction». The six period extends from the mid-17th c. to the close of the 18th c. In the history of the language it is often called «the age of normalization and correctness». This age witnessed the establishment of «norms». The norms were fixed as rules and prescriptions of correct usage in the numerous dictionaries and grammar-books published at the time and were spread through education and writing. The neo-classical period discouraged variety and free choice in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. Word usage and grammatical construction were subjected to restriction and normalization. The morphological system, particularly the verb system, acquired a more strict symmetrical pattern. The formation of new verbal grammatical categories was completed. The English Language of the 19th and 20th c. represents the seventh period in the History of English Late New English or Modern English. The classical language of literature was strictly distinguished from the local dialects and the dialects of lower social ranks. The dialects were used in oral communication and, as a rule, had no literary tradition. In the 19th and 20th c. the English vocabulary has grown on an unprecedented scale reflecting the rapid progress of technology, science and culture and other multiple changes in all spheres of mans activities. Linguistic changes in phonetics and grammar have been confined to alterations in the relative frequency and distribution of linguistic units^ some pronunciations and forms have become old-fashioned or even obsolete, while other forms have gained ground, and have been accepted as common usage.

  • 147. History of Homeschooling in USA
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 25.06.2010

    Аt thе hеаrt оf thе cоmmеrcіаl prоlіfеrаtіоn оf hоmеschооlіng rеsоurcеs such аs currіculum, tеxt bооk аnd scіеncе еquіpmеnt vеndоrs аrе оvеrwhеlmіngly rеlіgіоusly cоnsеrvаtіvе cоmpаnіеs such аs Gоd's Wоrld Bооks, Аbеkа аnd Lіfеpаc. Thе mоst vіsіblе аnd оutspоkеn оf cоntеmpоrаry hоmеschооlіng аdvоcаtеs іs thе Hоmе Schооl Lеgаl Dеfеnsе Аssоcіаtіоn (HSLDА), а stаunchly cоnsеrvаtіvе cоllеctіоn оf lеgаl еаglеs whо hоld іt іs thеіr mіssіоn (whеn prоpеrly rеtаіnеd), "tо prеsеrvе аnd аdvаncе thе fundаmеntаl, Gоd-gіvеn, cоnstіtutіоnаl rіght оf pаrеnts аnd оthеrs lеgаlly rеspоnsіblе fоr thеіr chіldrеn tо dіrеct thеіr еducаtіоn..." rеlyіng оn "twо fundаmеntаl frееdоms-pаrеntаl rіghts аnd rеlіgіоus frееdоm." Rеlіgіоus cоnsеrvаtіvеs rоutіnеly clаіm hоmеschооlіng аs thеіr оwn, pоіntіng іncrеаsіngly tо thе "fоur pіllаrs оf hоmеschооlіng," thе dоubtful tіtlе оf fоur rеlаtіvеly wеll knоwn, lаrgеly cоnsеrvаtіvе аnd HSLDА аssоcіаtеd fіgurеs whо hаvе sоmеhоw cоmе tо tаkе crеdіt fоr thе mоdеrn hоmеschооlіng mоvеmеnt.

  • 148. Hobby and keenness
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 13.06.2010

    Some of the individuals social and psychological needs are not met through the pursuit of everyday responsibilities. The function of a hobby is to provide ways in which some of these needs can be met to insure balanced and enriched living. The choice of hobby is determined by unconscious wishes and desires. The choice is conditioned by experience and environmental factors. What a hobby does for the person depends on the foregoing plus the satisfaction obtained through participation. Some of the values of hobby are:

    1. Hobbies are the means for relaxation to the person who has limited leisure - like the medical practitioner. His hobby may be the only recreation possible at times when the demands for his professional service leave him with little leisure.
    2. The pursuit of hobbies can be an enemy of boredom brought about by too much leisure.
    3. Hobbies provide a means for vigorous release of emotions.
    4. Hobbies serve as a way of meeting the needs of people in period of frustration.
    5. Hobbies offer many opportunities for creative expression.
    6. Hobbies serve as a means for compensation, such as excelling in the hobby pursuit compensating for failing to reach desired goals on the job.
    7. Pursuing a hobby means acquiring knowledge and leaning skills. It satisfied the desire for leaning.
    8. When unwanted leisure creates anxiety the pursuit of a hobby may serve to help restore emotional balance.
    9. Hobbies stir the imagination and lead to new experiences.
    10. Hobbies can help in meeting the needs for social acceptance and recognition.
    11. Hobbies can provide a refuge from people when time for contemplation is needed.
    12. For the adolescent hobbies are a good way to try out career interests.
    13. For the person retired from earning a livelihood the hobby pursuit becomes a way of adjustment. It can give new meaning and balance to the changed way of life.
    14. Hobbies provide a means of satisfying the desire to collect knowledge and objects.
    15. For many people a well-chosen hobby growing from innate desires, needs and abilities makes joyful contributions to the art of living. When peoples lives are affected by hobby pursuits the total community life reflects this influence.
  • 149. Holidays in England
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 15.12.2010

    The celebration of New Year's day varies according to the district. In the south of England, the festival of Christmas, lasting 12 days from December 25th, runs on well into the New Year. The decorations of coloured streamers and holly, put up round the walls, and of course the fir-tree, with its candles or lights, are not packed away until January 5th. On the evening of December 31st, people gather in one another's homes, in clubs, in pubs, in restaurants, and hotels, in dance halls and institutes, to "see the New Year in". There is usually a supper of some kind, and a cabaret, or light entertainment. The bells chime at midnight. The people join crossed hands, and sing "Auld lang syne", a song of remembrance, which means "the good old days," was written by Robert Burns in 1788.

  • 150. Holidays of Russia
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 14.10.2009

    In comparison with other world, Russia actively celebrates two New Year's holidays. One in the night from December, thirty first for January, first, and the second, "Old New year" on thirteenth of January that surprises foreigners got on New Year's holidays to Russia as at the majority of the countries arrival of New year means much, only change of a calendar cycle and widely it is not marked (celebrated), attaching special significance to Christmas. Now it seems to us that so was always. But the tradition of a meeting of New Year is much younger, than in the countries of Europe. New Year in Ancient Russia, as well as at many other people, began in March and merged with the pagan holiday of a pancake week marking a seeing-off of winter and a meeting of spring. In the tenth century with Christianity acceptance to Russia has come юлианский a calendar on which year began on first of September. But only in the end of the fifteenth century this date began to be marked (celebrated) officially as the beginning of church and civil New Year. And only Peter I, carrying out calendar reform, in 1700 has established (installed) the beginning of New Year since January, 1st. The special decree Peter I demanded solemn and cheerful celebrating of this event. Moscow, therefore all celebrating was capital then passed (took place) on Red Square. However since 1704 of a celebration have been transferred (carried) to northern capital. However, in those days not feast and national гуляния was the main thing. By January, 1st of the house of grandees and commoners were decorated by fur-tree or pine branches which needed to be dressed up not toys, as now, and fruit, vegetables, nuts and even eggs. And all products were not only an ornament, but also symbols: apples were a symbol of fertility, egg a symbol of harmony and full well-being. Since then the meeting of New Year with a green fur-tree, needles, and then with Father Frost and the Snow Maiden became on first of January traditional in our country. Old New Year is the holiday marked (celebrated) according to New Year on юлианскому to a calendar (now in the night from 13 for January, 14th) and being, as a matter of fact, a historical echo of change of chronology. It (He) is known and popular in Russia though it is marked (celebrated) also in Serbia, Switzerland and some other countries. It (He) is marked (celebrated) in a greater degree by those who could not meet New Year on thirty first of December. And also the Russian orthodox Christians who observe from November, twenty till January, sixth the Christmas post and which to meet New year on Julian sky style more conveniently not to break instructions of the Christmas post.

  • 151. Homonyms in Modern English
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 25.04.2012

    In the discussion of polysemy and context we have seen that one of the ways of discriminating between different meanings of a word is the interdivitation of these meanings in terms of their synonyms, e.g. the two meanings of the adjective handsome are synonymously interdivted as handsome-'beautiful' (usually about men) and handsome-'considerable, ample' (about sums, sizes, etc.).it seems impossible to" speak of identity or similarity of lexical meaning as a whole as it is only the denotation component that may be described as identical or similar. If we analyse words that are usually considered synonymous, e.g. to die, to pass away; to begin, to commence, etc., we find that the connotation component or, to be more exact, the stylistic reference of these words is entirely different and it is only the similarity of the denotation meaning that makes them synonymous. The words, e.g. to die, to walk, to smile, etc., may be considered identical as to their stylistic reference or emotive charge, but as there is no similarity of denotation meaning they are never felt as synonymous words.it does not seem possible to speak of identity of meaning as a criterion of synonymy as identity of meaning is very rare even among monosynaptic words. In fact, cases of complete synonymy are very few and are, as a rule, confined to technical nomenclatures where we can find monosynaptic terms completely identical in meanings as, for example, spirant and fricative in phonetics. Words in synonymic sets are in general differentiated because of some element of opposition in each member of the set. The word handsome, e.g., is distinguished from its synonym beautiful mainly because the former implies the beauty of a male person or broadly speaking only of human beings, whereas beautiful is opposed to it as having no such restrictions in its semantic structure. [2] Thus it seems necessary to modify the traditional definition and to word it as follows: synonyms are words different in sound-form but similar in their denotational meaning or meanings. Synonymous relationship is observed only between similar denotational meanings of phonemically different words. Differentiation of synonyms may be observed in different semantic components-denotational or connotation.should be noted, however, that the difference in denotation meaning cannot exceed certain limits and is found only as a variation of some common denotational component. The verbs look, seem, appear, e.g., are viewed as members of one synonymic set as all three of them possess a common denotational semantic component "to be in one's view. Semantic similarity of affixation morphemes is treated in more detail in the chapter about Word-Formation in Prof. Ginsburgs textbook on lexicology, judgment, but not necessarily in fact" and come into comparison in this meaning (cf. he seems (looks) (appears) tired). A more detailed analysis shows that there is a certain difference in the meaning of each verb: seem suggests a personal opinion based on evidence (e.g. nothing seems right when one is out of sorts); look implies that opinion is based on a visual division (e.g. the city looks its worst in March), appear sometimes suggests a distorted division (e.g. the setting sun made the spires appear ablaze). Thus similarity of denotational meaning of all members of the synonymic series is combined with a certain difference in the meaning of each member. [3]follows that relationship of synonymy implies certain differences in the denotational meaning of synonyms. In this connection a few words should be said about the traditional classification of vocabulary units into ideographic and stylistic synonyms. This classification proceeds from the assumption that synonyms may differ either in the denotational meaning (ideographic synonyms) or the connotation meaning, i.e. stylistic reference (stylistic synonyms). This assumption cannot be accepted as synonymous words always differ in the denotational component irrespective of the identity or difference of stylistic reference. The stylistic reference in the synonymous verbs seem, appear, look may be regarded as identical though we observe some difference in their denotational component. Difference in the denotational semantic component is also found in synonymous words possessing different connotational components. The verbs see and behold, e.g., are usually treated as stylistic synonyms; see is stylistically neutral and behold is described as bookish or poetic. It can be readily observed, however, that the difference between the two verbs is not confined solely to stylistic reference. Though they have a common denotational component 'to take cognizance of something by physical (or mental) vision', there is a marked difference in their comparable meanings. The verb behold suggests only 'looking at that which is seen', e.g. "behold them sitting in their glory" (Shelley), The verb see denotes 'have or use power of sight' (e.g. the blind cannot see), 'understand' (e.g. don't you see my meaning?), have knowledge or experience of (e.g. he has seen a good deal in his long life) and others., the interrelation of the denotational and the connotational meaning of synonyms is rather complex. Difference or rather variation of the denotational component does not imply difference in either the stylistic reference or the emotive charge of members of synonymic series. Difference of the connotational semantic component is invariably accompanied by some variation of the denotational meaning of synonyms. Therefore it would be more consistent to subdivide synonymous words into purely ideographic (denotational) and ideographic-stylistic synonyms. It should be pointed out that neither criterion the traditional definition of synonyms modified version suggested here provide for any objective criterion of similarity of meaning. Judgment as to semantic similarity is based solely on the linguistic intuition of the analyst. [4]is sometimes argued that the meaning of two words is identical if they can denote the same referent, in other words, if an object or a certain class of objects can always be denoted by either of the two words. For example in the sentence "Washington is the capital of the United States"-"Washington" and "the capital of the United States" have obviously the same referent, but there is no linguistic relationship of synonymy between the two lexical units.attempts have been made to introduce into the definition of synonymy the criterion of interchangeability in linguistic contexts. It is argued that for the linguistic similarity of meaning implies that the words are synonymous if either of them can occur in the same context. In this case the relationship of synonymy is defined as follows: "If A and B have almost identical environment except chiefly for sentences which contain both, we say they are synonyms" (cf. eye-doctor, oculist).well-known definition also proceeding from the contextual approach is the definition of synonyms as words which can replace each other in any given context without the slightest alteration either in the denotational or connotational meaning.contextual approach also invites criticism as words interchangeable in any given context are rarely found. This fact may be explained as follows: firstly, words synonymous in some lexical contexts may display no synonymy in others. As one of the English scholars aptly remarks, the comparison of the sentences "the rainfall in April was abnormal" and "the rainfall in April was exceptional" may give us grounds for assuming that exceptional and abnormal are synonymous. The same adjectives in a different context are by no means synonymous, as we may see by comparing "my son is exceptional" and "my son is abnormal". [5], it is evident that interchangeability alone cannot serve as a criterion of synonymy. Werner safely assumes that synonyms are words interchangeable in some contexts. But the reverse is certainly not true as semantically different words of the same part of speech are, as a rule, interchangeable in quite a number of contexts. For example, in the sentence "I saw a little girl playing in the garden" the adjective little may be formally replaced by a number of semantically different adjectives, e.g. ditty, tall, English, etc.a more acceptable definition of synonyms seems to be the following: Synonyms are words different in their sound-form, but similar in their denotational meaning or meanings and interchangeable at least in some contexts., the degree of synonymy of words may be calculated by the number of contexts in which these words are interchangeable. The simplest technique of such semantic analysis is substitution in various contexts. It is argued that two synonymous adjectives, e.g. deep and profound, could be analyzed in relation to each other by ascertaining how far they are interchangeable in different contexts, say, in combination with water, voice, remark, relief; what changes of denotational meaning and emotive charge occur when they are interchanged (cf. deep relief-profound relief); what is their proper antonym in each of these combinations (shallow, high, superficial); in how many of the possible contexts they are interchangeable without any considerable alteration of the denotational meaning, etc.English word-stock is extremely rich. Synonymic accounted for by abundant borrowing. '" English Quite a number of words in a synonymic set are usually of Latin or French origin. For instance, out of thirteen words making up the set see, behold, descry, espy, view, survey, contemplate, observe, notice, remark, note, discern, perceive only see and behold can be traced back to Old English (OE. seen and beheading), all others are either French or Latin borrowings. [6], a characteristic pattern of English synonymic sets is the pattern including the native and the borrowed words. Among the best investigated are the so called double-scale patterns: native versus Latin (e.g. bodily-corporal, brotherly- fraternal); native versus Greek or French (e.g. answer- reply, fiddle-violin). In most cases the synonyms differ in their stylistic reference, too. The native word is usually colloquial (e.g. bodily, brotherly), whereas the borrowed word may as a rule be described as bookish or highly literary (e.g. corporal, fraternal).by side with this pattern there exists in English a subsidiary one based on a triple-scale of synonyms: native- French and Latin or Greek [e.g. begin (start)-commence (Fr.)-initiate (/.); rise-mount (Fr.)-ascend (/,)]. In most of these sets the native synonym is felt as more colloquial, the Latin or Greek one is characterized by bookish stylistic reference, whereas the French stands between the two extremes. There are some minor points of interest that should be discussed in connection with the problem of synonymy. It has often been found that subjects prominent in the interests of a community tend to attract a large number of synonyms. It is common knowledge that in Beowulf there are 37 synonyms for hero or prince and at least a dozen for battle and fight. In Modern American English there are at least twenty words used to denote money: beans, bucks, the chips, do-re-mi, the needful, wherewithal, etc. This linguistic phenomenon is usually described as the law of synonymic attraction , it has also been observed that when a particular word is given a transferred meaning its synonyms tend to develop along parallel lines. We know that in early New English the verb overlook was employed in the meaning of 'look with an evil eye upon, cast a spell over' from which there developed the meaning 'deceive' first recorded in 1596. Exactly half a century later we find oversee a synonym of overlook employed in the meaning of 'deceive'. This form of analogy active in the semantic development of synonyms is referred to as "radiation of synonyms".

  • 152. Homonymy in English
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.05.2006

    Fast as an isolated word, therefore, may be regarded as a variable that can assume several different values depending on the conditions of usage, or, in other words distribution. All the possible values of each linguistic sign are listed in the dictionaries. It is the duty of lexicographers to define the boundaries of each word, i.e. to differentiate homonyms and to unite variants deciding in each case whether the different meanings belong to the same polysemantic word or whether there are grounds to treat them as two or more separate words identical in form. In speech, however, as a rule only one of all the possible values is determined by the context, so that no ambiguity may normally arise. There is no danger, for instance, that the listener would wish to substitute the meaning quick into the sentence: It is absurd to have hard and fast rules about anything2, or think that fast rules here are rules of diet. Combinations when two or more meanings are possible are either deliberate puns, or result from carelessness. Both meanings of liver, i.e. a living person and the organ that secretes bile are, for instance, intentionally present in the following play upon words:

  • 153. How "DNA" testing works
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    Неадекватное совещание: Вне некомпетентных адвокатов, кто населяют, любая назначенная судом система, Конгресс и администрация Клин тона поместила национальных 3,600 сожителей (сожительниц) камеры смертников в агонию, ловят (поймают) -22. Согласно Американскому Проекту Представления Смертной казни Ассоциации юристов, в государстве (состоянии) подобно Калифорнии, приблизительно третья часть (треть) сожителей (сожительниц) камеры смертников должен ждать в течение лет, которые будут назначены адвокаты, чтобы обратиться с их прямыми государственными обращениями. И на уровне постосуждений (пост убеждения) в некоторых наборах, сожители (сожительницы) не имеют доступ адвокатам вообще. Ловящийся (пойманный) isdiatdie 1996. И - терроризм и Эффективный Deatii Акт Штрафа имеют устав ограничений, требующих diat файл сожителей (сожительниц), федеральный habeas corpus ходатайства (просьбы о федеральном обзоре суда) в пределах одного года после умирают конец их прямого государственного обращения (привлекательности). Другими словами, потому что они не имеют никакого адвоката после того, как их прямые обращения, сожители (сожительницы) часто беспомощно наблюдают, умирают, часы заканчиваются на их шансе для федерального обзора. Это сокращает на фривольных обращениях - но также и на, которые могли показать несправедливость брутто.

  • 154. How the comintern was stalinised
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 22.06.2010

    Within a few days I was on my way to Moscow via Finland. At the time it was dangerous to travel through Poland. I was able to get through to Moscow without any trouble at all. That was because before I left Australia Moxon had advised me to place Communist Party papers on the top of my luggage so that at the Soviet Union border I would be quickly processed. It worked very well, and I was asked at the border if I knew what to do when I got to Moscow. "I know only one word," I said, "and that's Comintern!" The officer replied that would get me there.

  • 155. How to be happy in your family life
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 08.12.2010

    Good evening Ladies! Today we speak about relationships between man and woman. I tell you why you have conflicts in your family and give advice how can avoid this conflicts. Men and women are different creatures. They approach things differently and it is the root of some of the problems. Conflicts occur between men and women very often and prohibit mutually fulfilling loving relationships. Men and women cope with stress and problems differently. Women actually differ from men in that they prefer to talk about problems and vent their feelings; men think its far more efficient to sort things out on their own. While men value power, efficiency, competency and achievement women value love, communication, beauty and relationships. Men experience fulfillment through success and accomplishment but women experience fulfillment through sharing, relating and nurturing. Men are interested in the news, weather and sports, in «object» and «things» rather than people and feelings as for women are interested in romance, shopping and self help-books. We are concerned with living in harmony, community and loving cooperation but men are concerned with outdoor activities, like hunting, fishing and racing cars. Men really take pride in being able to do things and achieve things actually without help, totally on their own, as for women pride themselves in being considerate of the needs and feelings of others. Men fantasize about powerful cars, faster computers, gadgets, gizmos and new technology. But women fantasize about romance and family. I made many examples, which come between the sexes. And now, I give you some advice. The best thing to do is be aware that were different. Realize that men and women have a different style of approaching things and then learn to put up with it. We must respect and accept differences between us. We can counteract these differences in communication styles, emotional needs, and modes of behavior, promote a greater understanding between individual partners.

  • 156. How to make career in hotel business
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2006

    3) The peculiarities of the hotel service are:

    1. The processes of the production and the consumption are not synchronous. This means that several kinds of service do not connect with the presence of the client (cleaning the rooms).
    2. Limited possibility of the keeping.
    3. Urgency of the service. The problem concerning the service must be solved very quickly. The urgency and the situation of the hotel are the most important factors by the choice of the hotel.
    4. The broad participation of the staff in the production process. Personal service cannot be mechanized or automated. Some technologies are being instituted to speed up routine tasks, but the human element is the determining one of the hospitality business. Therefore the problem of the standardization is significant in the lodging industry. The standards of the service are worked out at many hotels. They are the rules of the service, which guarantee the level of quality of all operations. These are the time of the official registration, the knowledge of foreign languages and the out-word appearance of the personal. The work at the hotel brings the employee into contact with people from all walks of life. Guests will include the wealthy and the poor, engaging and obnoxious. Each guest offers the employee an opportunity learns more about human nature. Employees not only have direct responsibility for guest service, the also have the benefit of witnessing the guests satisfaction. The managers generally need more hands-on experience before assuming managerial positions. The skills of understanding, motivation and directing people can best be developed through experience.
    5. Seasonal demand for the hotel service. It has an influence on the loading of the hotel.
    6. Interdependency between the hotel service and the purpose of the traveling.
  • 157. How to make your child gifted?
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 25.08.2006

    The question of whether genius is innate or acquired has not been answered by the scientists yet. THOMAS EDISON gave his famous formula for genius as 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.We often hear statements such as “She is a born artist”, or “Hes a natural athlete”, or on the contrary “Success never came easy for me” or “He is a self-made man”. Those who manifest giftedness obviously have some inborn factors plus the motivation and stamina (выносливость, стойкость) to learn from and cope with the rigors (raigors) of living.

  • 158. How to write exam essay
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 09.07.2010
  • 159. Human resousce management
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 03.05.2010

    Work is done by реорlе: what does work mean to them? Again, this question is more соmрlех than it might seem. One aspect of the meaning of work for individuals is that bу their occupations they are defined as реорlе. In other words, when реорlе want to place other реорlе, to put them into meaningful categories, the first question they ask is “What does he/she dо?” А person's occupation can say а great deal about him as а person. “Не is а systems analyst”, “She is а social worker” conjure uр а whole range of expected attributes ways of talking, thinking, behaving, etc. - in the minds of those who ask the question. Occupation' is also а powerful determinant of social status - the prestige, positive or negative judgment а person has in the eyes of others. Occupations on the higher levels of the occupational hierarchy confer аll kinds of benefits besides the high earnings that usually go with high status. Doctors are listened to with respect on аll kinds, of issues which have nothing directly to dо with medicine, and рrоbablу саn easier get their cars serviced or work done on their houses, since association with them also confers status. Road sweepers, sewage workers and kitchen hands, on the other hand, mау be less 1ikely to mention their occupations outside work because the status of these jobs is low. Indeed, they will probably be more successful socially if don't, mention what they dо.

  • 160. Humanity in J. Conrad's and W. Somerset's creativity
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 13.04.2010

    The Elizabethan era saw a great flourishing of literature, especially in the field of drama. The Italian Renaissance had rediscovered the ancient Greek and Roman theatre, and this was instrumental in the development of the new drama, which was then beginning to evolve apart from the old mystery and miracle plays of the Middle Ages. The Italians were particularly inspired by Seneca (a major tragic playwright and philosopher, the tutor of Nero) and Plautus (its comic clichés, especially that of the boasting soldier had a powerful influence on the Renaissance and after). However, the Italian tragedies embraced a principle contrary to Seneca's ethics: showing blood and violence on the stage. In Seneca's plays such scenes were only acted by the characters [18, 123]. But the English playwrights were intrigued by Italian model: a conspicuous community of Italian actors had settled in London and Giovanni Florio had brought much of the Italian language and culture to England. It is also true that the Elizabethan Era was a very violent age and that the high incidence of political assassinations in Renaissance Italy (embodied by Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince) did little to calm fears of popish plots. As a result, representing that kind of violence on the stage was probably more cathartic for the Elizabethan spectator. Following earlier Elizabethan plays such as Gorboduc by Sackville & Norton and The Spanish Tragedy by Kyd that was to provide much material for Hamlet, William Shakespeare stands out in this period as a poet and playwright as yet unsurpassed. Shakespeare was not a man of letters by profession, and probably had only some grammar school education. He was neither a lawyer, nor an aristocrat as the "university wits" that had monopolised the English stage when he started writing. But he was very gifted and incredibly versatile, and he surpassed "professionals" as Robert Greene who mocked this "shake-scene" of low origins [23, 145]. Though most dramas met with great success, it is in his later years (marked by the early reign of James I) that he wrote what have been considered his greatest plays: Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, and The Tempest, a tragicomedy that inscribes within the main drama a brilliant pageant to the new king. Shakespeare also popularized the English sonnet which made significant changes to Petrarch's model.