Иностранные языки

  • 121. Florida state university
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 18.07.2010

    Florida State University is located in Tallahassee, Florida. There are branch campuses located in Panama City and Sarasota in Florida, and an international branch in the Republic of Panama. Florida State University was founded in 1851 as a small public institution., became a 4-year school in 1901, and received university status in 1947. The University has existed in many different forms prior to becoming a university, including a separate male and female colleges. The University now awards associate, bachelors, masters, doctoral, and professional degrees. It is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.

  • 122. Folk etymology
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 27.12.2010

    The term "folk etymology", as referring both to erroneous beliefs about derivation and the consequent changes to words, is derived from the German Volksetymologie. Similar terms are found in other languages, e.g. volksetymologie in Dutch, Afrikaans volksetymologie, Danish folkeetymologi, Swedish folketymologi, and full parallels in non-Germanic languages, e.g. Hungarian népetimológia, French étymologie populaire and Israeli Hebrew etimológya amamít (popular etymology). Examples of alternative names are Italian pseudoetimologia and paretimologia (<paraetimologia), as well as English etymythology. The phenomenon becomes especially interesting when it feeds back into the development of the word and thus becomes a part of the true etymology. Because a population wrongly believes a word to have a certain origin, they begin to pronounce, spell, or otherwise use the word in a manner appropriate to that perceived origin, in a kind of misplaced pedantry. Thus a new standard form of the word appears which has been influenced by the misconception. In such cases it is often said that the form of the word has been "altered by folk etymology". (Less commonly, but found in the etymological sections of the OED, one might read that the word was altered by pseudo-etymology, or false etymology.) Pyles and Algeo give the example of "chester drawers" for "chest of drawers"; similarly, "chaise lounge" for "chaise longue".

  • 123. Foreign words in E. Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea: semantics, functions, frequency
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 05.06.2011
  • 124. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 22.10.2009

    Not all parties are able to develop a scientifically based, socially balanced, constructive program of activities. Policy documents of many parties do not contain a clear vision of the political, socio-economic and spiritual development, characterized by eclecticism ideological conclusions, vagueness, uncertainty about the future society. Despite the fact that most parties favor a transition to a market economy, democracy and the rule of law, the sovereignty of Belarus, in their programs there is no mechanism for such a transition, balanced and professional assessment of the situation, competitive proposals, the development of specific measures and ways to achieve goals. Program number of political parties are obsolete and do not correspond to the realities of our time. With many of the provisions of the party documents can not agree. Proposals are available in the arsenals of a number of parties, need to be analyzed to determine their suitability in terms of historical experience.

  • 125. Formation in England
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 17.10.2010

    The private schools of Britain can be mixed and unisexual (that there is only for the girls, only for the boys), they can be also urban and out-of-town, specialized and general profile, by preparatory (for the children from 7 to 13 years) and the highest step (from 14 to 18), internatnogo type and only day instruction. In the boarding schools, or, as them call, boarding of schools, which in Britain it is counted today into 800, are trained 80 thousand children, which is altogether only one percent of the total number of British schoolboys. Of 7% of studying quotients stake is formed half of all students of British universities. 9 of 10 graduates of private schools obtain the desired university start in life. The difference in the educational standards of the state and independent from the state private school clearly demonstrates the following the number: 11-year age examinations for the preparatory or initial classes successfully pass 90% of studying private schools and only 62% of the schools of state. However, that. however, is determined difference? First of all where stronger materiel of rich private schools, is thoroughly the exacting select sionirovannyy teaching staff, and also difference in school programs. Indeed, besides the financial independence from the state, private schools are independent also in their educational programs, these programs, in contrast to the public schools, do not get down directive on top, but they are developed on the spot, taking into account the special features of this concrete educational institution. In the solid private schools is as a rule, studied considerably more objects, than in the schools of state. Here usually study Greek and Latin, history, skill and religion, classical civilizations and contemporary foreign languages, exact science and applied skill, music, dramaturgy and information texnologies. So in the renowned Itonskiy college mathematics and Latin, earliest history and information texnologies teach in the upper classes at the level of the requirements of Cambridge university. One of the laths of famous Radli of cheek-bones - so to ensure all graduates - the knowledge of information texnologies at the level of the requirements of Cambridge. And this by no means utopia, and accessible reality: to sufficiently say which to 600 students Of radli is necessary 110 computers with the output in Internet. In the same school it is found by one of the richest libraries of Britain through the meeting of classical literature. High(ly)-class artistic workshops, where are mastered almost all conceivable applied skills, here exist. Also here there are the remarkable design studios, equipped with [v] to the last word of technology. Finally - here there is everything that it is necessary to adolescents for the physical development - gymnastic hall and stadium, several swimming pools, 20 tennis Korts, golf course and its own stable with its own kennel in order to train for the dear national sport of Englishmen - hunting. So, if not more, are luxurious the material bases of other renowned private schools - such as Eaton, To kherrou… As it is not difficult to surmise, to public schools to be pulled with them is not easy. However, besides all those enumerated above, advantages of quotient over the quotient state in school there is one additional privilege - to carry out the selective selection students, i.e., to enroll in the numbers of its students bright, capable and gifted. Reason, private schools to private schools dissension, but in this case the speech of idet about strong and serious of them. But how does occur the selection of students into most prestigious of public of schools in Britan? For example in order to fall in Eaton - to it is more accurate say in order to obtain chance into it to fall - it is necessary to be written down into this school after… 10 years forward - i.e., at the age of three years. Moreover this at the worst. However, it is betterIn total to enter the name since a birth. The list of competitors is huge, and "waiting list" guarantees nothing. To find those who is capable to think and think, think non-standard and creatively. In a word, it is necessary high IQ. If testing reveals its presence then the competitor is waited with the invitation to the final test which takes place in two years.

  • 126. Forms of Ownership
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 06.10.2010

    Now lets turn the important question: which of the considered forms of ownership is better? Usually this question is in the form of a dilemma: public or private property? In fact, such an alternative formulation of the question is counterproductive. It should go about finding the most rational, optimal combination of both forms. Criterion for evaluation can be only one: what kind of property in a given historical moment and in longer term, offers higher level needs satisfaction of the population, while taking into account the indicators of life quality. From the combination of these criteria, preference should be given to private property, which is now the core of the developed market economies of the West. To create just such an economic system, developing and former socialist countries are striving. It contains the profit motive and competition, the realization of which brings the highest economic efficiency and better meets the needs. However, private ownership has its drawbacks, especially regarding employment and unemployment. After all, the profit motive and competition is forcing businesses constantly to seek perhaps a greater reduction in production costs, including economy in labor force. In Western countries, a wave of privatization in the 80's, the first half of the 90's led to a reduction in the proportion of state ownership in the production of GDP from 9 am to 7% on average, that means overcoming the legacy of the prewar and early postwar years. In the 30-ies state's direct participation in the economy expanded in the process of overcoming the deepest crisis in the history of capitalism of 1929 - 1933 years. State ownership in the prewar years in most Western countries was significantly strengthened as a sort of "backup" of private enterprises, that had revealed the sequential weaknesses, and as an instrument of maintaining the strength of the social system. In the late 40's - 50's in Western Europe and Japan, private capital was temporarily weakened by war damage and certain other circumstances. Such a gap as a need occurred was filled by the state, what is now not necessary.

  • 127. Frame analysis
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 06.04.2012

    can provide valuable tools for the linguistic and conceptual analysis/ Frame analysis has bee successfully applied to research into semantic and grammatical (mainly syntactic) issues as well as some important problems in contrastive linguistics, translation studies, artificial intelligence, text comprehension, studies.working in the frame paradigm are interested in problems related to the meaning of the verbs that belong to a frame. The frame notion has already been used for detailed semantic analyses of a number of verbs (e.g., speak, talk, say, tell; risk ) and this has developed into the project of a frame-based dictionary.frame approach presents a unified view of syntactic patterns. A sentence can be analyzed as an instance of the event-frame (event-frame analysis).Talmy [1991] dealt with conceptualization of various types of events and the language we use to talk about them. For instance, six cognitive components are distinguished in the conceptual structure of a motion event, namely FIGURE, GROUND, PATH, MOTION, MANNER, CAUSE. All these components occupy typically specific positions in sentences, as shown in the following examples.MOTION MANNER PATH GROUNDpencil rolled off the table.pencil lay on the table. MOTION CAUSE PATH GROUNDpencil blew off the table.pencil stuck on the table.six components are not of equal importance. It is perfectly possible to conceptualize a motion event whose CAUSE is unknown. Similarly, and of course this is particularly frequent for locative events, the manner, in which an object moves often is not expressed. By contrast, it is impossible to think of a motion without invoking each of the other four components, figure, GROUND, PATH, and MOTION. The outcome of these observations is that figure,-ground, PATH and MOTION are felt to belong together as the central and defining elements of the motion event. Taimy extends this idea of аn identifying core structure of an event to other event types and arrives at the definition of the notion of event-frame: a set of conceptual elements and relationships that are evoked together or co-evoke each other can be said to lie within or constitute an event-frame, while the elements that are conceived of as incidental whether evoked weakly or not at all - lie outside the event-frame.the basis of this definition L.Taimy has identified the following five types of event frames: motion event-frames, causation event-frames, cyclic event-frames, participant-interaction event-frames, and interrelationship event-frames.of the central elements of the motion event PATH may be expressed through the verb, as in French entrer and Spanish entrar. In view of this, French and Spanish are verb-framed languages. Conversely, PATH can be rendered by a preposition, as in English go into, or by a verbal prefix, as in German hineingehen. Hence, English and German can be called satellite-framed languages.. Talmy has argued that probably all languages of the world can be categorized in terms of verb-framing and satellite-framing. The group of verb-framed languages includes all Romance languages, Semitic languages (as Arabic and Hebrew), Japanese and many others. Satellite-framed languages besides English and German are all Indo-European languages (apart from the Romance languages), Finno-Ugric languages and Chinese.applying event-frame analysis to the comparison between different languages and between different narrative texts researchers make some interesting observations. Apparently, a satellite-framed language such as English is better suited for descriptions of MANNER, and elaborate PATH descriptions including dynamic descriptions of locations along the PATH. The reasons are that in satellite-framed languages MANNER is often incorporated in the verb meaning, and the information on the PATH and setting can be expressed in the same clause as the motion event by opening attentional windows. Since Spanish is a verb-framed language, descriptions of motion events tend to be restricted to the motion itself. Often the description of MANNER is only possible at the cost of extended and rather awkward constructions. Similarly, if details of the PATH and the setting are to be given, they are expressed in additional clauses. As this will sometimes slow down the pace of narratives considerably, Spanish speakers may opt for fewer MANNER and PATH details in favour of a more vivid MOTION description.is not the only discipline where frame analysis has been applied with quite impressive results. Another important field of research has been artificial intelligence that studies the ability of computers to behave like human beings. Here, the frame notion has been used in a more general, though also more technical, way than in linguistics. In this use of the term, the relevance of frames extends over the boundaries of single sentences to much larger linguistic and cognitive unitsnotion of frame was introduced into artificial intelligence as an attempt to equip computers with with necessary world knowledge. The computer scientist Marvin Minsky defined a frame as a datastructure for representing a stereotyped situation. This is a remembered framework to be adapted to fit reality by changing details as necessary.idea is that a cognitive category PLANE, for example, would activate a whole bundle of other categories which belong to the same [flying on the plane] frame., for example PILOT, FLIGHT ATTENDANT, LIFE VEST, SAFETY BELT, FIRST CLASS, ECONOMY CLASS and so on. All these categories and the specific relations that exist between them are part of the frame and must somehow be fed into the computer. In addition to this rather general frame there are many so-called subframes which capture the knowledge of still more specific situations of a flight.[FLYING ON THE PLANE] frame exhibits a very predictable temporal structure in which one stage is often a prerequisite for the next stage. If we view the flight from such a sequential perspective, we go beyond simple frames and move into the so-called scripts, i.e. knowledge structures that are particularly designed for frequently recurring event sequences.

  • 128. Francium
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.11.2009


    1. Actually the least unstable isotope, Fr-223
    2. Some synthetic elements, like technetium, have later been found in nature.
    3. a b c d e f g h i j k l CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 4, CRC, 2006, p. 12, ISBN 0-8493-0474-1
    4. a b c d e f g Price, Andy (2004-12-20). "Francium". http://www.andyscouse.com/pages/francium.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
    5. Winter, Mark. "Electron Configuration". Francium. The University of Sheffield. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Fr/eneg.html. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
    6. Kozhitov, L. V.; Kol'tsov, V. B.; Kol'tsov, A. V. (2003). "Evaluation of the Surface Tension of Liquid Francium". Inorganic Materials 39 (11): 11381141. doi:10.1023/A:1027389223381.
    7. Pauling, Linus (1960). The Nature of the Chemical Bond (3rd Edn.). Cornell University Press. pp. 93.
    8. Allred, A. L. (1961). "Electronegativity values from thermochemical data". J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 17 (34): 215221. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(61)80142-5.
    9. Andreev, S.V.; Letokhov, V.S.; Mishin, V.I., (1987). "Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr". Physical Review Letters 59: 127476. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.1274.
    10. Hyde, E. K. (1952). "Radiochemical Methods for the Isolation of Element 87 (Francium)". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 74 (16): 41814184. doi:10.1021/ja01136a066.
    11. E. N K. Hyde Radiochemistry of Francium,Subcommittee on Radiochemistry, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council; available from the Office of Technical Services, Dept. of Commerce, 1960.
    12. Maddock, A. G. (1951). "Radioactivity of the heavy elements". Q. Rev., Chem. Soc. 3: 270314. doi:10.1039/QR9510500270.
    13. Winter, Mark. "Uses". Francium. The University of Sheffield. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Fr/uses.html. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
    14. Bentor, Yinon. "Chemical Element.com - Francium". http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/fr.html. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
    15. a b c d e f Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 151153. ISBN 0-19-850341-5.
    16. Gagnon, Steve. "Francium". Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele087.html. Retrieved 2007-04-01.
    17. a b c Considine, Glenn D., ed (2005). Chemical Elements, in Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. New York: Wiley-Interscience. p. 332. ISBN 0-471-61525-0.
    18. Haverlock, TJ (2003). "Selectivity of calix[4]arene-bis(benzocrown-6) in the complexation and transport of francium ion". J Am Chem Soc 125: 1126-7. doi:10.1021/ja0255251. PMID 12553788.
    19. Gomez, E; Orozco, L A, and Sprouse, G D (2005-11-07). "Spectroscopy with trapped francium: advances and perspectives for weak interaction studies". Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 (1): 79118. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/69/1/R02.
    20. Peterson, I (1996-05-11). "Creating, cooling, trapping francium atoms". Science News 149 (19): 294. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/pdfs/data/1996/149-19/14919-06.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
    21. a b c d e Adloff, Jean-Pierre; Kaufman, George B. (2005-09-25). Francium (Atomic Number 87), the Last Discovered Natural Element. The Chemical Educator 10 (5). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
    22. a b c d e Fontani, Marco (2005-09-10). "The Twilight of the Naturally-Occurring Elements: Moldavium (Ml), Sequanium (Sq) and Dor (Do)". International Conference on the History of Chemistry. Lisbon. pp. 18. Archived from the original on 2006-02-24.
    23. a b c d Van der Krogt, Peter (2006-01-10). "Francium". Elementymology & Elements Multidict. http://www.vanderkroft.net/elements/elem/fr.html. Retrieved 2007-04-08.
    24. "Alabamine & Virginium". TIME. 1932-02-15. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,743159,00.html. Retrieved 2007-04-01.
    25. MacPherson, H. G. (1934). "An Investigation of the Magneto-Optic Method of Chemical Analysis". Physical Review (American Physical Society) 47 (4): 310315. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.47.310.
    26. a b c "Francium", McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 7, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2002, pp. 493494, ISBN 0-07-913665-6
    27. Grant, Julius (1969), "Francium", Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, McGraw-Hill, pp. 279280
    28. "History". Francium. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 2007-02-20. http://fr.physics.sunysb.edu/francium_news/history.HTM. Retrieved 2007-03-26.
    29. Winter, Mark. "Geological information". Francium. The University of Sheffield. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Fr/geol.html. Retrieved 2007-03-26.
    30. a b "Cooling and Trapping". Francium. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 2007-02-20. http://fr.physics.sunysb.edu/francium_news/trapping.HTM. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
    31. "Production of Francium". Francium. State University of New York at Stony Brook. 2007-02-20. http://fr.physics.sunysb.edu/francium_news/production.HTM. Retrieved 2007-03-26.
    32. "Francium". Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemistry Division. 2003-12-15. http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/87.html. Retrieved 2007-03-29.
    33. Considine, Glenn D., ed (2005). Francium, in Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry. New York: Wiley-Interscience. p. 679. ISBN 0-471-61525-0.
    34. National Nuclear Data Center (1990). "Table of Isotopes decay data". Brookhaven National Laboratory. http://ie.lbl.gov/toi/nuclide.asp?iZA=870223. Retrieved 2007-04-04.
    35. National Nuclear Data Center (2003). "Fr Isotopes". Brookhaven National Laboratory. http://ie.lbl.gov/education/parent/Fr_iso.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-04.
  • 129. Free word groups. Phraseological units
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 06.11.2010

    The term «idioms» generally implies that the essential feature of the linguistic units under consideration is idiomaticity or lack of motivation. Uriel Weinreich expresses his view that an idiom is a complex phrase, the meaning of which cannot be derived from the meanings of its elements. He developed a more truthful supposition, claiming that an idiom is a subset of a phraseological unit. Ray Jackendoff and Charles Fillmore offered a fairly broad definition of the idiom, which, in Fillmores words, reads as follows: «…an idiomatic expression or construction is something a language user could fail to know while knowing everything else in the language». Chafe also lists four features of idioms that make them anomalies in the traditional language unit paradigm: non-compositionality, transformational defectiveness, ungrammaticality and frequency asymmetry.

  • 130. Functional Materials Based on Self-Assembly of Polymeric Supramolecules
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 25.12.2010

    ×òîáû ïðîèëëþñòðèðîâàòü óïðàâëÿåìîå ðàñïîçíàâàíèåì ôîðìèðîâàíèå ìàêðîìîëåêóë â ïîëèìåðàõ, à òàêæå ïîñëåäóþùóþ ñàìîîðãàíèçàöèþ è ïîäãîòîâêó ôóíêöèîíàëüíûõ ìàòåðèàëîâ è íàíî-îáúåêòîâ, ìû ñîñðåäîòî÷èìñÿ íà àðõèòåêòóðå â ôîðìå «ãðåá¸íêè», âîçíèêíîâåíèþ êîòîðîé ñïîñîáñòâóåò ïîâûøåííàÿ ðàñòâîðèìîñòü òàê íàçûâàåìûõ ïîëèìåðîâ-ïðóòèêîâ, ïîêðûòûõ âîëîñêàìè. Ñàìûé ïðîñòîé ñëó÷àé - ãèáêèé ïîëèìåð, èìåþùèé ñâÿçàííûå ó÷àñòêè ïî ñâîåé îñíîâå. Ïîýòîìó îñíîâà îáû÷íî ïîëÿðíà, à îòòàëêèâàþùèåñÿ íåïîëÿðíûå áîêîâûå ãðóïïû ìîãóò áûòü ñâÿçàíû äîïîëíèòåëüíûìè ñâÿçÿìè, ÷òî ïðèâîäèò ê îáðàçîâàíèþ ìàêðîìîëåêóë â ôîðìå «ãðåá¸íêè», êîòîðûå â ñâîþ î÷åðåäü ñàìîîðãàíèçîâûâàþòñÿ. Ìû øèðîêî èñïîëüçîâàëè îáðàçîâàíèå âîäîðîäíîé ñâÿçè èëè êîîðäèíàöèþ, ÷òîáû ñâÿçàòü áîêîâûå öåïè ñ ïîëèìåðíîé îñíîâîé. Àíòîíèåòòè è äð. èñïîëüçîâàëè èîííûå âçàèìîäåéñòâèÿ â êîìïëåêñàõ ïîëèýëåêòðîëèòàïîâåðõíîñòíî-àêòèâíîãî âåùåñòâà, ÷òîáû ñôîðìèðîâàòü êîìïëåêñû ïîâåðõíîñòíî-àêòèâíîãî âåùåñòâà ïîëèýëåêòðîëèòà â ôîðìå «ãðåá¸íêè». Ïîëó÷åííûå ñàìîîðãàíèçîâàííûå ìíîãîäîìåííûå ñòðóêòóðû ìîãóò áûòü âûðîâíåíû ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì, íàïðèìåð, ïîòîêà, ÷òîáû ïðèáëèçèòü èõ ê ìîíîäîìåííûì. Ìîæíî òàêæå íàñòðàèâàòü ñâîéñòâà ïîäãîíêîé õàðàêòåðà áîêîâûõ öåïåé. Íàïðèìåð, åñëè áîêîâûå öåïè - ÷àñòè÷íî ôòîðèðîâàíû, ïîëó÷àþòñÿ íèçêèå ðåçóëüòàòû ïîâåðõíîñòíîé ýíåðãèè, ÷òî ó÷èòûâàåò èñïîëüçîâàíèå, âåäóùåå ê óìåíüøåíèþ òðåíèÿ.  äðóãîì ñëó÷àå, îñíîâà ñîñòîèò èç äâîéíîé âèíòîâîé ñïèðàëè ÄÍÊ, è ñàìîîðãàíèçàöèÿ äîñòèãàåòñÿ èîííûì ïðèñîåäèíåíèåì êàòèîííûõ ëèïîñîì èëè êàòèîííûõ ïîâåðõíîñòíî-àêòèâíûõ âåùåñòâ ê àíèîííûì ôîñôîðíîêèñëûì ó÷àñòêàì. Ýòî ó÷èòûâàåò ðàçðàáîòêó ìàòåðèàëîâ ïîìèìî òðàäèöèîííîãî äèàïàçîíà áèîõèìè÷åñêèõ ïðèëîæåíèé. Íàïðèìåð, êðàñèòåëü ìîæåò áûòü âñòàâëåí â ñïèðàëè, ïîäàâëÿÿ èõ òåíäåíöèþ ê ñêîïëåíèþ è ïðèâîäÿ ê ìíîãîîáåùàþùèì ñâîéñòâàì, òàêèì êàê øàáëîíû äëÿ ôîòîííûõ ïðèëîæåíèé.  òàêîé ñòðóêòóðå ïîëèìåðíàÿ îñíîâà ìîæåò ñîäåðæàòü äâà èëè äàæå áîëüøåå êîëè÷åñòâî âèäîâ îáÿçàòåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ãäå ìîãóò áûòü ñâÿçàíû ðàçëè÷íûå äîáàâêè.

  • 131. Functional words in the English language. Prepositions. Linking words
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 25.11.2011

    words are characterized by their ambiguous lexical meaning and by their capacity to organize grammatical relationships between words within a sentence. There are a relatively small and fixed number of function words (as opposed to verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, which are limited but expandable sets). Prepositions, conjunctions, determiners, pronouns, and auxiliary verbs are all considered function words. Most of these words are uninflected although a few are inflected and may take affixes.Verbs are verbs whose function is to characterize the main verbs they accompany with shades of meaning pertaining to tense and/or modality. Regarding tense, the core meaning of the verb can be modified to express perfect, progressive, or passive voices. Regarding modality, the main verb is altered to denote judgment or opinion in terms of ability, advice, expectation, intention/willingness, likelihood, necessity, permission/prohibition, or degrees of politeness. verbs are necessary to form questions and negatives in English. If auxiliary verbs are used only to serve these functions, they are referred to as dummy auxiliaries. Additionally, the auxiliaries 'do', 'does', and 'did' can be inserted preceding the main verb for emphasis. Modal verbs are distinguished from other auxiliary verbs by their inability to function as main verbs and their lack of complete conjugations (infinitive for example). are uninflected function words that serve to conjoin words, clauses, phrases, or sentences. There are three basic forms: single word (however), compound (as long as), and correlative (so... that). In terms of function, conjunctions can be grouped into additive (so, thus), adversative (but, instead), causative (so, because), and temporal (after, then). are not structural elements in a clause. Rather, they are external elements that establish grammatical relations (coordination, correlation, subordination) between clauses. Certain adverbial and prepositional phrases can also act as conjunctions (subsequently, in addition to that). are inflected function words employed as noun modifiers and that serve to alter the referents of noun phrases in terms of amount, location, possession, and general versus specific. In terms of form, determiners are simple (two, their, the) or compound (a number of, one half, a little). Also, possessive and demonstrative adjectives are considered determiners. determiner class is often divided into articles (a, an, the), determiners (both, neither, whichever), and quantifiers (much, various, little). are uninflected function words that combine with nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases to form prepositional phrases that can have, in turn, adverbial or adjectival relationships with other words. Prepositions can be simple (as, of) or compound (next to, in view of) forms. In terms of function, at least the following types of preposition can be distinguished: time (until, circa), location (along, amid), logical (since, given), possession (including, pertaining to), and movement (toward, to). can also occur in post position with: nouns (interest in, need for), adjectives (familiar with, sure of), participles (married to, made of), and verbs (give up, look forward). In this situation, the composite can be thought of as a unit. are inflected function words employed in place of nouns or noun phrases. In terms of form, pronouns are simple (nothing, herself) and compound (each other, one another). Also, some pronoun composites are used in relative clauses (all of whom, several of which). are classified into the following classes: subject personal (I, he, we), object personal (me, him, us), possessive (mine, his, ours), reflexive (myself, himself, ourselves), demonstrative (this, these, such), relative (who, all, that), indefinite (each, anybody, none), reciprocal (each other, one another), and interrogative (how, who, why). Additionally, reflexives also operate as so-called intensive pronouns when they are employed to emphasize an antecedent noun or pronoun (as in, "The boss himself prepared the coffee" or "I myself could not believe it").

  • 132. Functions of Management
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 09.05.2010

    Three ways of looking at motivation are: needs, rewards and effort. The needs approach stems from the notion that peoples' unsatisfied needs drive their behavior. Figure out a person's needs, satisfy the needs and the person will be motivated. For example, a person with a high need to satisfy goals is motivated by production targets. The rewards approach is based on the expectation that rewarded behavior is repeated. Giving a person a bonus for excellent performance during a difficult harvest period encourages the person to make a special effort during the next difficult harvest. The effort approach to motivation is based on the expectation that effort brings the worker what he or she wants. The thought that working hard leads to advancement and new career opportunities is consistent with the effort approach. The effort approach includes a presumption that the employer is fair, i.e., effort is recognized and rewarded. Managers cannot reduce motivation to a simple choice of one of these approaches. Each of the three approaches contributes to an understanding of motivation and how motivation varies person to person and over time.

  • 133. Future of aboriginal Australians
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 27.06.2010

    Problems such as alcoholism and drugs are proportionately higher among Aboriginal youth. The health problems of Aboriginal communities are worse than those of whites, and the life expectancy of Aboriginals is lower than that of whites. In addition to this, and for all the above reasons, the proportion of Aboriginals in the prison system is far higher than the proportion in the community. (This has been the case for the last 30 or 40 years. Before that, for the whole of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century, the Irish Catholics numerically dominated the prison system, out of all proportion to their numbers in society at large, much to the mock horror of upper-class British Australia, which got very worked up about the criminal propensities of Catholics. The reason for this over-representation of Catholics in the prisons was exactly the same as the current over-representation of Aboriginals. At that stage Irish Catholics were the poorest of the population, at the bottom of the social heap. In Paul Sheehan's book, he also makes great chauvinist mileage from the proposition that Vietnamese, Arabs, Turks and Maoris (Sheehan's codeword for Maoris is "New Zealanders"), recent immigrants from poor countries or poor circumstances, are somewhat over-represented in the prison system. So what's new?)

  • 134. Genocide in Australia
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 17.06.2010

    Throughout the nineteenth century, massacres, disease and malnutrition took a heavy toll, leading to a serious decline in the full descent Indigenous population. However, the mixed descent population was increasing, due no doubt to the widespread practice of the rape of Aboriginal women and girls by white settlers. These developments led to a somewhat different approach from the authorities. In social Darwinist “survival of the fittest” terms, the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders were “doomed races”, destined to extinction because they couldnt compete with a more “advanced” society. The task of government and missionaries was therefore to “smooth the dying pillow”. Indigenous people of mixed descent, however, were to be absorbed into European society and forced to join the workforce. This policy of “merging” would both save the government money and provide cheap labour for the developing capitalist economy, and it made the removal of children an even more vital part of the process, to keep full descent and mixed descent Aborigines apart.

  • 135. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 12.05.2010
  • 136. Global and worldly Englishes Discommunities and subcultural empires
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 28.06.2010


    1. Akindes, Fay Yokomizo. 2001. Sudden rush: Na Mele Paleoleo (Hawaiian Rap) as liberatory discourse. Discourse 23 (1) 82-98.
    2. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    3. Auzanneau, M (2002) Rap in Libreville, Gabon: An urban sociolinguistic space. In. A-P Durand (Ed) Black, Blanc, Beur: Rap music and hip-hop culture in the Francophone world. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press. (pp 106-123).
    4. Bailey, Richard. 1991 Images of English: A cultural history of the language. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
    5. Cameron, Deborah. 1995. Verbal Hygiene. London: Routledge.
    6. Canagarajah, Suresh. 1999a. Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    7. Canagarajah, Suresh. 1999b On EFL teachers, awareness and agency. ELT Journal 53 (3) 207-214.
    8. Claiborne, R. (1983). The life and times of the English language: The history of our marvellous tongue. London: Bloomsbury.
    9. Crawford, Anne. 1999 “We cant all understand the whites language: an analysis of monolingual health services in a multilingual society". International Journal of the Sociology of Language.136, 27-45
    10. Crystal, David. 1997. English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    11. Dasgupta, Probal. 1993. The Otherness of English: Indias Auntie Tongue Syndrome. New Delhi: Sage Publications
    12. Dua, Hans. 1994. Hegemony of English. Mysore: Yashoda Publications
    13. George, J. (1867). The mission of Great Britain to the world, or some of the lessons which she is now teaching. Toronto: Dudley and Burns.
    14. Guest, E. (1882). A history of English rhythms. London: George Bell and Sons (Original version 1838).
    15. Graddol, David. 1997. The Future of English? London: British Council.
    16. Han Suyin (1956)... And the Rain my Drink. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    17. Hanson, John. 1997. The mother of all tongues. Review of D. Crystal, English as a Global Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Times Higher Education Supplement, 1288, July 11, 1997. p22.
    18. Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. 2000. Empire. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press
    19. Hill, Jane. 1999. Styling locally, styling globally: What does it mean? Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3/4 542-556.
    20. Holborow, Marnie. 1999. The Politics of English: A Marxist View of Language. London: Sage Publications
    21. Hutnyk, John. 2000. Critique of Exotica: Music, Politics and the Culture Industry London: Pluto Press
    22. Kachru, Braj. 1985. Standards, codification, and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the Outer Circle. In R. Quirk and H. G. Widdowson (Eds) English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.11-30.
    23. Kachru, Braj. 1986. The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions and Models of Nonnative Englishes. Oxford: Pergamon.
    24. Kachru, Braj. 1997. World Englishes and English-using communities. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics.17, 66-87.
    25. Kachru, Braj and Cecil Nelson. 1996. World Englishes. In Sandra McKay and Nancy Hornberger (Eds) Sociolinguistics in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,.71-102.
    26. Kandiah, Thiru. 1998. Epiphanies of the deathless native users manifold avatars: A post-colonial perspective on the native-speaker. In Rajendra Singh (Ed) The Native Speaker: Multilingual Perspectives. New Delhi: Sage Publications.79-110
    27. Kramsch, C (1999) Global and local identities in the contact zone. In C Gnutzmann (Ed) Teaching and learning English as a global language: Native and non-native perspectives. Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag, pp 131-143.
    28. Krims, A. (2000) Rap music and the poetics of identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    29. Krishnaswamy, N. and Archana Burde. 1998. The Politics of Indians English: Linguistic Colonialism and the Expanding English Empire. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    30. Loh Fook Seng, P. (1970) The nineteenth century British approach to Malay education, Jurnal Pendidekan, 1 (1), 105-115.
    31. Lugard, F. D. (1910) Hong Kong University. Objects, history, present position and prospects. Hong Kong: Noronha.
    32. Makoni, S and A Pennycook (Eds) (In press) Disinventing language Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    33. Mignolo, Walter. 2000. Local Histories/ Global Designs: Coloniality, Subaltern Knowledges, and Border Thinking. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    34. Mitchell, Tony. 2001. Introduction: Another root - Hip-Hop outside the USA. In Tony Mitchell (Ed) Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press.1-38.
    35. Mufwene, Salikoko. 1994. New Englishes and criteria for naming them. World Englishes, 13/1: 21-31.
    36. Mufwene, Salikoko. 1998. Native speaker, proficient speaker and norms. In Rajendra Singh (Ed) The Native Speaker: Multilingual Perspectives. New Delhi: Sage Publications.111-123.
    37. Ordoñez, E 1999 “English and decolonization". Journal of Asian English Studies, 2 (1&2), 17-21
    38. Parakrama, Arjuna. 1995. De-hegemonizing Language Standards: Learning From (Post) colonial Englishes About English. Basingstoke: MacMillan.
    39. Pennycook, A. (1998) English and the Discourses of Colonialism. London: Routledge
    40. Pennycook, A (2000) Language, ideology and hindsight: lessons from colonial language policies. In T. Ricento (Ed) Ideology, politics and language policies: Focus on English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (49-66)
    41. Pennycook, A. (2002) Language policy and docile bodies: Hong Kong and governmentality. In J. Tollefson (Ed) Language policies in education: Critical issues Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, (pp91-110).
    42. Pennycook, Alastair. 2002. Turning English inside out. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics 28/2: 25-43
    43. Pennycook, Alastair. 2003. Beyond homogeny and heterogeny: English as a global and worldly language. In C. Mair (Ed) The Cultural Politics of English. Amsterdam: Rodopi
    44. Pennycook, Alastair. 2004. Disciplinarity, performativity, and language studies. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: An International Journal.1/1, 1-19
    45. Pennycook, A and S Coutand-Marin (2003) Teaching English as a Missionary Language. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education 17/3, 337-353
    46. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    47. Phillipson, R. 1994, English language spread policy. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 107, pp7-24.
    48. Phillipson, Robert. 1999. Voice in global English: Unheard chords in Crystal loud and clear. Review of David Crystal, English as a Global Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Applied Linguistics 20/2: 265-276.
    49. Pratt, Mary Louise. 1987. Linguistic utopias. In N. Fabb et al (Eds) The Linguistics of Writing. Manchester: Manchester University Press.48-66.
    50. Rajagopalan, Kanavillil. 1999. Of EFL teachers, conscience and cowardice. ELT Journal 53/3: 200-206.
    51. Rampton, Ben. 1995. Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents. London: Longman.
    52. Rampton, Ben. 1999. Styling the Other: Introduction. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3/4: 421-427.
    53. Reagan, T 2004 Objectification, positivism and language studies: A reconsideration. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies: An International Journal.1/1, 41-60.
    54. Report (1882) Report of the Education Commission appointed by His Excellency Sir John Pope Hennessy, K. C. M. G... to consider certain questions connected with Education in Hong Kong, 1882. Hong Kong Government (1883)
    55. .
    56. Sarkar, M, Winer, L and Sarkar K (2003) Multilingual code-switching in Montreal hip-hop: Mayhem meets method or, Tout moune qui talk trash kiss mon black ass do nord. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism.
    57. Scott, David. 1999. Refashioning Futures: Criticism After Postcoloniality. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    58. Singh, J. (1996) Colonial Narratives/Cultural Dialogues: "Discoveries of India in the Language of Colonialism. London: Routledge
    59. Singh, Udaya Narayana. 1998. Introduction by the series editor. In Rajendra Singh (Ed) The Native Speaker: Multilingual Perspectives. New Delhi: Sage Publications.11-25
    60. Sonntag, Selma 2003, The local politics of global English: Case studies in linguistic globalization. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books
    61. Straits Settlements (Various years) Straits Settlements Annual Departmental Reports. Singapore: Government Printing Office.
    62. Tollefson, J. (2000) Policy and ideology in the spread of English. In J. K. Hall and W. Eggington (Eds) The sociopolitics of English language teaching. Clevedon: Multilingual matters.
    63. Tsuda, Yukio. 1994. The diffusion of English: Its impact on culture and communication. Keio Communication Review 16: 49-61.
    64. Williams, Glyn. 1992. Sociolinguistics: A Sociological Critique. London: Routledge.
    65. Yano, Yasukata. 2001. World Englishes in 2000 and beyond. World Englishes 20/2: 119-131.
  • 137. Great Britain
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 28.04.2012

    Birmingham is the most important city in the Midlands, one of Englands most productive regions, with large industrial areas such as the Black Country in the West Midlands. However, there is also a lot of farming country, for example in the counties of Shropshire, Worcestershire and Leicestershire. This region has some beautiful countryside in the Peak District National Park, the Cotswold Hills and the Malvern Hills.upon-Avon is well-known all over the world. Here, at Henley Street, a son was born to John and Mary Shakespeare in April 1564. His mother was the daughter of Robert Arden, an important farmer in Warwickshire. His father was a rich citizen whose business was making and selling leather gloves.parents did not guess that their son, William, was going to be such an important figure in English poetry and drama, and that his plays would still be acted four hundred years later-not only in England, but all over the world!still a teenager of nineteen, William married Anne Hathaway, a farmers daughter some years older than himself. We dont know how he earned his living during these early years. He may have helped his father in the family business or he may have been a country schoolmaster for a time. During these years his three children were born: Susannah, the eldest, then twins-a son, Hamnet (not Hamlet!), and another girl, Judith. In 1587 Shakespeare went to work in London, leaving Anne and the children at home. One story says this is because he killed some deer which belonged to a rich landowner nearby, and that he had to run away from the law.soon began to act and to write plays. By 1592 he was an important member of a well-known acting company, and in 1599 the famous Globe Theatre was built on the south bank of the river Thames. It was in this theatre that most of his plays were performed and, like all Elizabethan theatres, it was a round building with a stage in the centre open to the sky. If it rained, the actors got wet! If the weather was too bad, there was no performance.1603, the year when Queen Elizabeth I died, Shakespeare was already the leading poet and dramatist of his time. He continued to write for the next ten years, but in 1613 he finally stopped writing and went to live in Stradford where he died in 1616. He is buried in Holy Trinity Church, Stradford-upon-Avon.Jonson, who lived from 1572 to 1637, and who was also a famous writer of plays, called Shakespeare Sweet swan of Avon. Shakespeare has been known as the Swan of Avon ever since.has been a town where Oxford now stands for many centuries-even before 912, the first written record of its existence.University began to establish itself in the middle of the 12th century, and by 1300 there were already 1,500 students. At this time Oxford was a wealthy town, but by the middle of the 14th century it was poorer, because of a decline in trade and because of the terrible plague, which killed many people in England. Relations between the students and the townspeople were very unfriendly, and there was often fighting in the streets. On 10th February 1355, the festival of St. Scholastica, a battle began which lasted two days. The townspeople were punished for this in two ways: they had to walk through the town to attend a special service on every St. Scholasticas day until 1825. Worse than this, the University was given control of the town for nearly 600 years., there are about 12,000 students in Oxford, and the University and the town live happily side by side!, Oxford is not only famous for its University and its magnificent architecture. (The best-known description of Oxford is by Matthrew Arnold, the 19th century poet, who wrote about that sweet city with her dreaming spires.) In the 20th century, it has developed quickly as an industrial and commercial centre. The British Leyland factory at Cowley, for example, is an important part of Britains motor industry. It is also an important centre in the world of medicine, it is the home of Oxfam, the charity which raises millions of pounds to help poor people all over the world; and its airport contains Europes leading airtraining school.

  • 138. Greenpeace
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 25.02.2011

    Являясь всемирной организацией, Гринпис сосредоточился на борьбе с самыми серьезными мировыми опасностями, угрожающими разнообразию и окружающей среде нашей планеты. Организация проводит кампании, направленные на остановку климатических изменений, защиту старых лесов, спасение океанов, прекращение охоты на китов, протестует против генной инженерии, ядерной угрозы, уничтожения токсических химикатов.

  • 139. Guevara and Cuba
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 02.07.2010

    Thе fаіlurе оf thе rеvоlutіоn tо sprеаd prоvеd tо bе cаtаstrоphіc fоr thе Russіаn rеvоlutіоn, fоr еvеn іf іt survіvеd thе аssаult оf thе whіtе аrmy, 14 оthеr іmpеrіаlіst аrmіеs, аnd thе cоnsеquеncеs оf thе cіvіl wаr, іt dіd іt аt а hіgh cоst. Much оf іndustry wаs dеstrоyеd (еcоnоmіc оutput wаs rеducеd tо 13% оf thе 1913 prе-Wоrld Wаr І fіgurеs), hungеr аnd dіsеаsе wеrе wіdеsprеаd, thоusаnds flеd thе cіtіеs fоr thе cоuntrysіdе, аnd thе wоrkіng clаss wаs dеcіmаtеd (St. Pеtеrsburg sаw іts wоrkіng clаss dеcrеаsе by mоrе thаn 50% оf іts prе-cіvіl wаr lеvеls). Whаt rеmаіnеd оf thе wоrkеrs stаtе wаs оnly а shеll: thе Russіаn Cоmmunіst Pаrty (RCP) hоldіng оn tо pоwеr hоpіng fоr thе rеvоlutіоn tо sprеаd tо thе wеst. Durіng thе cоursе оf thе cіvіl wаr thе RCP аnd thе stаtе grаduаlly swеllеd wіth burеаucrаts аnd fоrmеr Tsаrіst functіоnаrіеs whо hаd tо bе usеd tо run thе stаtе bеcаusе thеrе wеrе nо quаlіfіеd wоrkеrs оr nо wоrkеrs аt аll-mоst оf thе clаss cоnscіоus wоrkеrs еіthеr dіеd оr wеrе аt thе frоnt dеfеndіng thе rеvоlutіоn. Thus thе lаck оf іntеrnаtіоnаl rеvоlutіоn аnd thе burеаucrаtіsаtіоn prеpаrеd thе grоund fоr Jоsеf Stаlіn, іn thе lаtе 1920s, tо tаkе hоld оf thе аdmіnіstrаtіvе аppаrаtus аnd sеt bаck аll thе gаіns оf thе rеvоlutіоn. Frоm thіs pоіnt оnwаrds, Stаlіn, rеprеsеntіng а nеw burgеоnіng rulіng clаss (thе burеаucrаcy), turnеd upsіdе dоwn thе trаdіtіоn оf strugglе оf thе Bоlshеvіks, аnd whіlе prеsеrvіng а lеft-wіng rhеtоrіc sеt оut tо еlіmіnаtе аlmоst еvеry Bоlshеvіk whо wаs іnvоlvеd іn thе 1917 rеvоlutіоn. Аgаіnst Mаrxіsms cеntrаl аrgumеnt оf іntеrnаtіоnаl rеvоlutіоn, Stаlіn put fоrwаrd thе slоgаn оf “Sоcіаlіsm іn Оnе Cоuntry" аs а cоvеr fоr thе burеаucrаcys аіm оf tеchnоlоgіcаl аnd іndustrіаl dеvеlоpmеnt оf thе Sоvіеt Unіоn іn оrdеr tо cаtch up wіth thе wеst. Thе аіm wаs tо аccumulаtе (cаpіtаl аs mаchіnеry) іn оrdеr tо cоmpеtе mіlіtаrіly. Thе wоrkеrs lоst аll cоntrоl оvеr thеіr pаrty, thеіr stаtе аnd thеіr unіоns. Thе cоncеpt оf thе fаthеrlаnd wаs rеіntrоducеd tо justіfy thе оpprеssіоn оf thе dіffеrеnt nаtіоnаlіtіеs thаt cоmprіsеd thе Sоvіеt Unіоn-аs оppоsеd tо Lеnіns dеfеncе оf thе rіght tо sеlf-dеtеrmіnаtіоn оf оpprеssеd nаtіоns. Wоmеn, gаys, еthnіc mіnоrіtіеs lоst thеіr rіghts, pеаsаnt lаnd wаs fоrcеfully cоllеctіvіsеd, аnd fоrcеd lаbоur wаs іntrоducеd. Suppоsеdly, аll іn thе nаmе оf sоcіаlіsm, but wіth thе еxplіcіt purpоsе оf cоmpеtіng wіth thе wеst. Stаlіns nеw Russіа, іn spіtе оf іts rhеtоrіc оf sоcіаlіsm, functіоnеd аs а cаpіtаlіst sоcіеty, thаt іs, а stаtе cаpіtаlіst sоcіеty. Thе nеw rulіng clаss wаs thе burеаucrаcy, thе cоmpаny Russіа Іnc.

  • 140. Hamlet by William Shakespeare
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 05.07.2011

    Hamlet is a play written by William Shakespeare that very closely follows the dramatic conventions of revenge in Elizabethan theater. All revenge tragedies originally stemmed from the Greeks, who wrote and performed the first plays. After the Greeks came Seneca who was very influential to all Elizabethan tragedy writers. Seneca who was Roman, basically set all of the ideas and the norms for all revenge play writers in the Renaissance era including William Shakespeare. The two most famous English revenge tragedies written in the Elizabethan era were Hamlet, written by Shakespeare and The Spanish Tragedy, written by Thomas Kyd. These two plays used mostly all of the Elizabethan conventions for revenge tragedies in their plays. Hamlet especially incorporated all revenge conventions in one way or another, which truly made Hamlet a typical revenge play. "Shakespeares Hamlet is one of many heroes of the Elizabethan and Jacobean stage who finds himself grievously wronged by a powerful figure, with no recourse to the law, and with a crime against his family to avenge." Seneca was among the greatest authors of classical tragedies and there was not one educated Elizabethan who was unaware of him or his plays. There were certain stylistic and different strategically thought out devices that Elizabethan playwrights including Shakespeare learned and used from Senecas great tragedies. The five act structure, the appearance of some kind of ghost, the one line exchanges known as stichomythia, and Senecas use of long rhetorical speeches were all later used in tragedies by Elizabethan playwrights. Some of Senecas ideas were originally taken from the Greeks when the Romans conquered Greece, and with it they took home many Greek theatrical ideas. Some of Senecas stories that originated from the Greeks like Agamemnon and Thyestes which dealt with bloody family histories and revenge captivated the Elizabethans. Senecas stories werent really written for performance purposes, so if English playwrights liked his ideas, they had to figure out a way to make the story theatrically workable, relevant and exciting to the Elizabethan audience who were very demanding. Senecas influence formed part of a developing tradition of tragedies whose plots hinge on political power, forbidden sexuality, family honor and private revenge. "There was no author who exercised a wider or deeper influence upon the Elizabethan mind or upon the Elizabethan form of tragedy than did Seneca." For the dramatists of Renaissance Italy, France and England, classical tragedy meant only the ten Latin plays of Seneca and not Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles. "Hamlet is certainly not much like any play of Senecas one can name, but Seneca is undoubtedly one of the effective ingredients in the emotional charge of Hamlet. Hamlet without Seneca is inconceivable."the time of Elizabethan theater, plays about tragedy and revenge were very common and a regular convention seemed to be formed on what aspects should be put into a typical revenge tragedy. In all revenge tragedies first and foremost, a crime is committed and for various reasons laws and justice cannot punish the crime so the individual who is the main character, goes through with the revenge in spite of everything. The main character then usually had a period of doubt , where he tries to decide whether or not to go through with the revenge, which usually involves tough and complex planning. Other features that were typical were the appearance of a ghost, to get the revenger to go through with the deed. The revenger also usually had a very close relationship with the audience through soliloquies and asides. The original crime that will eventually be avenged is nearly always sexual or violent or both. The crime has been committed against a family member of the revenger. " The revenger places himself outside the normal moral order of things, and often becomes more isolated as the play progresses-an isolation which at its most extreme becomes madness." The revenge must be the cause of a catastrophe and the beginning of the revenge must start immediately after the crisis. After the ghost persuades the revenger to commit his deed, a hesitation first occurs and then a delay by the avenger before killing the murderer, and his actual or acted out madness. The revenge must be taken out by the revenger or his trusted accomplices. The revenger and his accomplices may also die at the moment of success or even during the course of revenge. It should not be assumed that revenge plays parallel the moral expectations of the Elizabethan audience. Church, State and the regular morals of people in that age did not accept revenge, instead they thought that revenge would simply not under any circumstances be tolerated no matter what the original deed was. " It is repugnant on theological grounds, since Christian orthodoxy posits a world ordered by Divine Providence, in which revenge is a sin and a blasphemy, endangering the soul of the revenger." The revenger by taking law into his own hands was in turn completely going against the total political authority of the state.should therefore never think that revenge was expected by Elizabethan society. Although they loved to see it in plays, it was considered sinful and it was utterly condemned. The Spanish Tragedy written by Thomas Kyd was an excellent example of a revenge tragedy. With this play, Elizabethan theater received its first great revenge tragedy, and because of the success of this play, the dramatic form had to be imitated. The play was performed from 1587 to 1589 and it gave people an everlasting remembrance of the story of a father who avenges the murder of his son. In this story, a man named Andrea is killed by Balthazar in the heat of battle. The death was considered by Elizabethan people as a fair one, therefore a problem occurred when Andreas ghost appeared to seek vengeance on its killer. Kyd seemed to have used this to parallel a ghost named Achilles in Senecas play Troades. Andreas ghost comes and tells his father, Hieronimo that he must seek revenge. Hieronimo does not know who killed his son but he goes to find out. During his investigation, he receives a letter saying that Lorenzo killed his son, but he doubts this so he runs to the king for justice. Hieronimo importantly secures his legal rights before taking justice into his own hands. The madness scene comes into effect when Hieronimos wife, Usable goes mad, and Hieronimo is so stunned that his mind becomes once again unsettled. Finally Hieronimo decides to go through with the revenge, so he seeks out to murder Balthazar and Lorenzo, which he successfully does. Hieronimo becomes a blood thirsty maniac and when the king calls for his arrest, he commits suicide. As well as the fact that Elizabethan theater had its rules about how a revenge tragedy had to be, so did Thomas Kyd. He came up with the Kydian Formula to distinguish revenge tragedies from other plays. His first point was that the fundamental motive was revenge, and the revenge is aided by an accomplice who both commit suicide after the revenge is achieved. The ghost of the slain watches the revenge on the person who killed him. The revenger goes through justifiable hesitation before committing to revenge as a solution. Madness occurs due to the grieve of a loss. Intrigue is used against and by the revenger. There is bloody action and many deaths that occur throughout the entire play. The accomplices on both sides are killed. The villain is full of villainous devices. The revenge is accomplished terribly and fittingly. The final point that Thomas Kyd made about his play was that minor characters are left to deal with the situation at the end of the play. The Spanish Tragedy follows these rules made by Kyd very closely, simply because Kyd developed these rules from the play. The fundamental motive was revenge because that was the central theme of the play. The ghost of Andrea sees his father kill the men who murdered Andrea originally. Hieronimo hesitates first because he goes to the king and then he is faced with Isabellas madness which is caused by Andreas death.play is filled with all kinds of bloody action and many people die throughout the course of the play. The accomplices in the play also all end up dead. Lorenzo who is the true villain, is full of all kinds of evil villainous devices. The revenge works out perfectly, in that both Lorenzo and Balthazar get murdered in the end by Hieronimo. The minor characters were left to clean up the mess of all of the deaths that occurred during the play. The Spanish Tragedy also follows the conventions of Elizabethan theater very closely. The murder was committed and Hieronimo had to take justice into his own hands, because true justice just simply wasnt available. Hieronimo then delays his revenge for many different reasons that occur in the play. The ghost of Andrea appeared and guided Hieronimo to the direction of his killer. Also at the end of the play, both Hieronimo and his accomplices die after they were successful in committing the revenge. In Hamlet, Shakespeare follows regular convention for a large part of the play. In the beginning, Shakespeare sets up the scene, having a ghost on a dark night. Everyone is working and something strange is happening in Denmark. It is as if Shakespeare is saying that some kind of foul play has been committed. This sets up for the major theme in the play which is of course revenge. The ghost appears to talk to Hamlet. It is quite obvious that the play had a gruesome, violent death and the sexual aspect of the play was clearly introduced when Claudius married Hamlets mother Gertrude. The ghost tells Hamlet that he has been given the role of the person who will take revenge upon Claudius. Hamlet must now think of how to take revenge on Claudius, although he doesnt know what to do about it. He ponders his thoughts for a long period of time, expecting to do the deed immediately, but instead he drags it on until the end of the play. Although what was important to note was that all tragic heroes of plays at that time delayed their actual revenge until the end of the play. In most revenge plays, the revenger was often anonymous and well disguised, stalking the enemy about to be killed, but Hamlet started a battle of wits with Claudius by acting mad and calling it his "antic disposition", although the whole thing was a ploy to get closer to Claudius to be able to avenge his fathers death more easily. The tactic was a disadvantage in that it drew all attention upon himself. More importantly though it was an advantage that his "antic disposition", isolated him from the rest of the court because of the people not paying attention to what he thought or did because of his craziness.important part of all revenge plays is that after the revenge is finally decided upon, the tragic hero delays the actual revenge until the end of the play. Hamlets delay of killing Claudius takes on three distinct stages. Firstly he had to prove that the ghost was actually telling the truth, and he did this by staging the play "The Mousetrap" at court. When Claudius stormed out in rage, Hamlet knew that he was guilty. The second stage was when Hamlet could have killed Claudius while he was confessing to god. If Hamlet had done it here then Claudius would have gone to heaven because he confessed while Hamlets father was in purgatory because he did not get the opportunity to confess. So Hamlet therefore decided not to murder Claudius at this point in the play. The third delay was the fact that he got side tracked. He accidentally killed Polonius which created a whole new problem with the fact that Laertes now wanted Hamlet dead. After he commit this murder he was also sent off and unable to see the king for another few weeks until he could finally do the job. "What makes Hamlet stand out from many other revenge plays of the period is not that it rejects the conventions of its genre but that it both enacts and analyses them." It can be easily understood that Hamlet very closely follows the regular conventions for all Elizabethan tragedies.Hamlet is faced with the fact that he has to avenge the murder of his father and since there is no fair justice available, he must take the law into his own hands. The ghost of his father appears to guide Hamlet to Claudius and inform Hamlet of the evil that Claudius has committed. Then Hamlet constantly delays his revenge and always finds a way to put it off until he finally does it in Act V, Scene 2. Hamlet at the same time continues to keep a close relationship with the audience with his seven main soliloquies including the famous, "To be, or not to be..."(Act 3 Scene 1). The play also consists of a mad scene where Ophelia has gone mad because her father Polonius had been killed and because Hamlet was sent off to England. The sexual aspect of the play was brought in when Claudius married Gertrude after he had dreadfully killed Old Hamlet and taken his throne. Hamlet also follows almost every aspect of Thomas Kyds formula for a revenge tragedy. The only point that can be argued is that the accomplices on both sides were not killed because at the end of the play, Horatio was the only one to survive, although if it wasnt for Hamlet, Horatio would have commit suicide when he said, " I am more an antique Roman than a Dane. Heres some liquor left."(Act V Scene 2, 346-347). If Horatio had killed himself, then Hamlet would have followed the Kydian formula as well as the regular conventions for Elizabethan revenge tragedy. Hamlet is definitely a great example of a typical revenge tragedy of the Elizabethan theater era. It followed every convention required to classify it as a revenge play quite perfectly. Hamlet is definitely one of the greatest revenge stories ever written and it was all influenced first by Sophocles, Euripides and other Greeks, and then more importantly by Seneca. Hamlet as well as The Spanish Tragedy tackled and conquered all areas that were required for the consummation of a great revenge tragedy. Revenge although thought to be unlawful and against the Church was absolutely adored by all Elizabethan people. " The Elizabethan audience always insisted on seeing eventual justice, and one who stained his hands with blood had to pay the penalty. That no revenger, no matter how just, ever wholly escapes the penalty for shedding blood, even in error." This was also a very important point that was also dealt with brilliantly by Shakespeare in finding a way to kill Hamlet justly even though he was required to kill Claudius. Hamlet was written with the mighty pen of Shakespeare who once again shows people that he can conjure up any play and make it one of the greatest of all time. Hamlet was one of the greatest of all time.