Иностранные языки

  • 101. English writer Jane Austen
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 12.11.2010

    ``The progress of the friendship between Catherine [Morland] and Isabella was quick as its beginning had been warm... and if a rainy morning deprived them of other enjoyments, they were still resolute in meeting in defiance of wet and dirt, and shut themselves up, to read novels together. Yes, novels; - for I will not adopt that ungenerous and impolitic custom so common with novel-writers, of degrading by their contemptuous censure the very performances, to the number of which they are themselves adding - joining with their greatest enemies in bestowing the harshest epithets on such works, and scarcely ever permitting them to be read by their own heroine, who, if she accidentally take up a novel, is sure to turn over its insipid pages with disgust. Alas! If the heroine of one novel be not patronized by the heroine of another, from whom can she expect protection and regard? I cannot approve of it. Let us leave it to the Reviewers to abuse such effusions of fancy at their leisure, and over every new novel to talk in threadbare strains of the trash with which the press now groans. Let us not desert one another; we are an injured body. Although our productions have afforded more extensive and unaffected pleasure than those of any other literary corporation in the world, no species of composition has been so much decried. From pride, ignorance, or fashion, our foes are almost as many as our readers. And while the abilities of the nine-hundredth abridger of the History of England, or of the man who collects and publishes in a volume some dozen lines of Milton, , and , with a paper from the Spectator, and a chapter from , are eulogized by a thousand pens, - there seems almost a general wish of decrying the capacity and undervaluing the labour of the novelist, and of slighting the performances which have only genius, wit, and taste to recommend them. "I am no novel-reader - I seldom look into novels - Do not imagine that I often read novels - It is really very well for a novel." - Such is the common cant. - "And what are you reading, Miss - -?" "Oh! it is only a novel!" replies the young lady, while she lays down her book with affected indifference, or momentary shame. "It is only CeciliaCamillaBelinda"; or, in short, only some work in which the greatest powers of the mind are displayed, in which the most thorough knowledge of human nature, the happiest delineation of its varieties, the liveliest effusions of wit and humour, are conveyed to the world in the best-chosen language. Now, had the same young lady been engaged with a volume of the Spectator, instead of such a work, how proudly would she have produced the book, and told its name; though the chances must be against her being occupied by any part of that voluminous publication, of which either the matter or manner would not disgust a young person of taste: the substance of its papers so often consisting in the statement of improbable circumstances, unnatural characters, and topics of conversation which no longer concern anyone living; and their language, too, frequently so coarse as to give no very favourable idea of the age that could endure it.

  • 102. Environmental protection
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 03.09.2010
  • 103. Epoche der Rationalitаt, der Vernunft und des Empirismus - Aufklаrun (1720 bis 1785)
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 18.01.2011

    Die Epoche war weites gehend durch den Absolutismus geprägt. Die Zeit der uneingeschränkten Herrschaft der Fürsten und Könige. Im Volk waren Unwissenheit, Aberglaube, Vorurteile und Pessimismus weit verbreitet. Im 18Jh. begannen Teile des Bürgertums die Zustände zu kritisieren. Der absolute Staat stand über einer Gesellschaft, in der jeder in einen bestimmten Stand hineingeboren wurde, den er nicht verlassen konnte. An der Spitze stand der Adel, der Steuerfreiheit und Grundherrschaft besaß. Darunter kam das Bürgertum, Träger und Nutznießer der staatlich gelenkten Wirtschaft hatte aber weder politischen Einfluss wie der Adel, noch seine Privilegien. Die größte Last trugen die Bauern: Steuern für den Staat und Abgaben für den Grundherrn, auf dessen Land sie arbeiteten. Die mit Königen und Fürsten verbündete katholische und protestantische Kirche predigte der ländlichen Bevölkerung Ergebenheit in ihr Schicksal, welches einen tiefen Pessimismus verbreitete. Dieses Verhindern einer fortschrittlichen Entwicklung durch die Provinzialisierung wurde vom Adel und Bürgertum kritisiert. Die neuen Ideen waren: Freiheit statt Absolutismus, Gleichheit statt Stände, wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis statt Vorurteile und Aberglaube und Optimismus bezüglich des Jenseits. Die Menschen sollten über ihre politische, soziale und geistige Unterdrückung „aufgeklärt“ werden. Die Aufklärung startete bei Adligen, reichen und gebildeten Bürgern, ging dann in Lesegesellschaften über. Der literarische Markt wurde zum Regelfall und der Schriftsteller produzierte nur noch für den Verleger.

  • 104. Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 12.11.2010

     

    1. Áàðõóäàðîâ Ë.Ñ., Øòåëèíã Ä.À. Ãðàììàòèêà àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. - Ì.: Âûñøàÿ øêîëà, 1973 424 ñòð.
    2. Áîíê Í.À., Ëóêúÿíîâà Í.À., Ïàìóõèíà Ë.Ã. Ó÷åáíèê àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà.  2-õ òîìàõ. Ìîñêâà Õàðüêîâ: Äåêîíò Òîðñèíã, 1997 637 ñòð. Ò1.
    3. Áîíê Í.À., Ëóêúÿíîâà Í.À., Ïàìóõèíà Ë.Ã. Ó÷åáíèê àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà.  2-õ òîìàõ. Ìîñêâà Õàðüêîâ: Äåêîíò Òîðñèíã, 1997 - 311 ñòð. Ò2.
    4. Âåðáà Ë.Ò. Ãðàììàòèêà ñîâðåìåííîãî àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. - Ê.: Çíàíèå, 2001 370 ñòð.
    5. Æèìàëåíêîâà Ò.Ì., Ìûëüöîâà Í.À. Óíèâåðñàëüíûé ñïðàâî÷íèê ïî ãðàììàòèêå àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ì.: ÃËÎÑÑÀ, 1997 0 250 ñòð.
    6. Çðàæåâñêàÿ Ò.À., Áåëÿåâà Ë.Ì. Òðóäíîñòè ïåðåâîäà ñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà íà ðóññêèé. Ì.: Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå îòíîøåíèÿ, 1972 56 ñòð.
    7. Êà÷àëîâà Ê.Í., Èçðàèëåâè÷ Å.Å. Ïðàêòè÷åñêàÿ ãðàììàòèêà àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ñ óïðàæíåíèÿìè è êëþ÷àìè. Êèåâ: Ìåòîäèêà - 2000 365 ñòð. Ò1.
    8. Êà÷àëîâà Ê.Í., Èçðàèëåâè÷ Å.Å. Ïðàêòè÷åñêàÿ ãðàììàòèêà àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà ñ óïðàæíåíèÿìè è êëþ÷àìè. Êèåâ: Ìåòîäèêà - 2000 304 ñòð. Ò2.
    9. Õîôìàí Õ. Ñàìîó÷èòåëü àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Ê.: Çíàíèå, 2000 272 ñòð.
    10. Øàõíàçàðîâà Â.Ñ. Ïðàêòè÷åñêèé êóðñ àíãëèéñêîãî ÿçûêà. Àìåðèêàíñêèé âàðèàíò. Ì.: Âå÷å, 2000 464 ñòð.
    11. Bussines writhing specifics. Practical manual. Ïîä ðåä. Ôåäîðÿ÷åíêî Ë.Â. Ê.: Çíàíèå, 1998 114.
    12. English for daytime students. Ïîä ðåä. Ëåáåäîâè÷à Â.À. Ê.: Òàâðèÿ, 2001 100 ñòð.
    13. Kaushanskaya V.L. and others, A grammar of the English language. Ë.: Ïðîñâåùåíèå, 1973 285.
    14. Murphy Raymond. English Grammer in USE, Cambridge University Press, 1985 328.
    15. World English Institute / English Course // Learning about verbs, adverbs, prepositions. USA: WET, 2000 48 Book#2.
    16. Àíãëî-ðóññêèé ñëîâàðü / Ñîñò. Ìþëëåð Â.Ê. 22-å èçä. Ì.: Ðóññêèé ÿçûê, 1989 - 84 ñòð.
    17. Ðóññêî-àíãëèéñêèé ñëîâàðü / Ñîñò. Àõìàíîâà Î.Ñ. 19-å èçä. Ì.: Ðóññêèé ÿçûê, 1997 - 468 ñòð.
    18. Lewis C.S. Book 4 in the chronicles of Narnia The Silver Chair. - N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1970 218. V4.
    19. Lewis C.S. Book 4 in the chronicles of Narnia The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. - N.Y.: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1970 186. V1.
    20. Ëüþèñ Êëàéâ, Ëåâ, êîëäóíüÿ è ïëàòÿíîé øêàô. Ïåðåâîä ñ àíãëèéñêîãî Îñòðîâñêàÿ Ò. - Ì.: Âàðèàíò, 1992 128 ñòð.
    21. Ëüþèñ Êëàéâ, Ñåðåáðÿííîå êðåñëî. Ïåðåâîä ñ àíãëèéñêîãî Øàïîøíèêîâà Ò. ïîä ðåä. Òðàóáåð Í.Ã. - Ì.: Âàðèàíò, 1992 - 105 ñòð.
    22. Iofik L.L.,Chakhoyan L.P. ,Readings in the theory of English grammar-Ë.: Ïðîñâåùåíèå.1972-220 ñòð.
    23. Jesperson O.,A modern English grammar on Historical Principles, Part IV, Heidelberg,1931; Part V,Copenhagen,1931-278p.
  • 105. Establishing and development of the theory of translation as a science in the 20 century
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 24.01.2011

    Interpretation is rendered in one mode: simultaneous. In simultaneous interpreting, the interpreter immediately speaks the message in the target-language whilst listening to it in the source language. Consecutive interpretation is rendered as “short consecutive interpretation” and “long consecutive interpretation”. In short consecutive interpretation, the interpreter relies on memory; each message segment being brief enough to memories. In long consecutive interpretation, the interpreter takes notes of the message to aid rendering long passages. These informal divisions are established with the client before the interpretation is effected, depending upon the subject, its complexity, and the purpose of the interpretation. On occasion, document sight translation is required of the interpreter, usually in consecutive interpretation work. Sight translation combines interpretation and translation; the interpreter must read aloud the source-language document to the target language as if it were written in the target language. Sight translation occurs usually, but not exclusively, in judicial and medical work. Relay interpretation occurs when several languages are the target language. A source language interpreter renders the message to a language common to every interpreter, who then renders the message to his or her specific target language. For example, a Japanese source message first is rendered to English to a group of interpreters, then it is rendered to Arabic, French, and Russian, the other target languages. In simultaneous interpretation, the interpreter renders the message in the target-language as quickly as he or she can formulate it from the source language, while the source-language speaker continuously speaks: sitting in a sound-proof booth, the SI interpreter speaks into a microphone, while clearly seeing and hearing the source-language speaker via earphones. The simultaneous interpretation is rendered to the target-language listeners via their earphones. Moreover, SI is the common mode used by sign language interpreters. Note: Laymen often incorrectly describe SI and the SI interpreter as “simultaneous translation” and as the “simultaneous translator”, ignoring the definite distinction between interpretation and translation. In whispering interpreting, the interpreter sits or stands next to the small target-language audience whilst whispering a simultaneous interpretation of the matter to hand; this method requires no equipment. Chuchotage is used in circumstances where the majority of a group speaks the source language, and a minority (ideally no more than three persons) do not speak it. In consecutive interpreting, the interpreter speaks after the source-language speaker has finished speaking. The speech is divided into segments, and CI interpreter sits or stands beside the source-language speaker, listening and taking notes as the speaker progresses through the message. When the speaker pauses or finishes speaking, the interpreter then renders the entire message in the target-language. Consecutively-interpreted speeches, or segments of them, tend to be short. Fifty years ago, the CI interpreter would render speeches of 20 or 30 minutes, today, 10 or 15 minutes is considered long, particularly since audiences dont like to sit through 20 minutes of speech they cannot understand. Often, the source-language speaker is unaware that he or she may speak at length before the CI interpretation is rendered, and might stop after each sentence to await its target-language rendering. Sometimes, the inexperienced or poorly trained interpreter asks the speaker to pause after each sentence; sentence-by-sentence interpreting requires less memorization, yet its disadvantage is in the interpreter's not having heard the entire speech or its gist, and the overall message is harder to render both because of lack of context and because of interrupted delivery (e.g., imagine a joke told in bits and pieces, with breaks for translation in between). This method is often used in rendering speeches, depositions, recorded statements, court witness testimony, and medical and job interviews, but it is always best to complete a whole idea before it is translated. Full consecutive interpreting allows for the source-language message's full meaning to be understood before the interpreter renders it to the target language. This affords a truer, accurate, and accessible interpretation than does simultaneous interpretation. Liaison interpreting involves relaying what is spoken to one, between two, or among many people. This can be done after a short speech, or consecutively, sentence-by-sentence, or as chuchotage (whispering); aside from note taken then, no equipment is used. Conference interpreting is the interpretation of a conference, either simultaneously or consecutively, although the advent of multi-lingual meetings has consequently reduced the consecutive interpretation in the last 20 years. Conference interpretation is divided between two markets: the institutional and private. International institutions, holding multi-lingual meetings, often favour interpreting several foreign languages to the interpreters' mother tongues. Local private markets tend to bi-lingual meetings (the local language plus another) and the interpreters work both into and out of their mother tongues; the markets are not mutually exclusive. The International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) is the only world-wide association of conference interpreters. Founded in 1953, it assembles more than 2.800 professional conference interpreters in more than 90 countries. Legal, court, or judicial interpreting, occurs in courts of justice, administrative tribunals, and wherever a legal proceeding is held (i.e. a conference room for a deposition or the locale for taking a sworn statement). Legal interpreting can be the consecutive interpretation of witnesses' testimony for example, or the simultaneous interpretation of entire proceedings, by electronic means, for one person, or all of the people attending. The right to a component interpreter for anyone who does not understand the language of the court (especially for the accused in a criminal trial) is usually considered a fundamental rule of justice. Therefore, this right is often guaranteed in national constitutions, declarations of rights, fundamental laws establishing the justice system or by precedents set by the highest courts. Depending upon the regulations and standards adhered to per state and venue, court interpreters usually work alone when interpreting consecutively, or as a team, when interpreting simultaneously. In addition to practical mastery of the source and target languages, through knowledge of law and legal and court procedures is required of court interpreters. They often are required to have formal authorization from the State to work in the Courts and then are called sworn interpreters. In many jurisdictions, the interpretation is considered an essential part of the evidence. Incompetent interpretation, or simply to swear in the interpreter, can lead to a mistrial. In focus group interpreting, an interpreter sits in a sound proof booth or in on observer's room with the clients. There is usually a one way mirror between the interpreter and the focus group participants, wherein the interpreter can observe the participants, but they only see their own reflection. The interpreter hears the conversation in the original language through headphones and simultaneously interpreters into the target language for the clients. Since there are usually anywhere between 2 to 12 (or more) participants in any given focus group, experienced interpreters will not only interpret the phrases and meaning but will also mimic intonation, speech patterns, tone, laughs, and emotions. In escort interpreting, an interpreter accompanies a person or a delegation on a tour, on a visit, or to a meeting or interview. An interpreter in this role is called an escort interpreter or an escorting interpreter. This is liaison interpreting. Also known as community interpreting is the type of interpreting occurring in fields such as legal, health, and local government, social, housing, environmental health, education, and welfare services. In community interpreting, factors exist which determine and affect language and communication production, such as speech's emotional content, hostile or polarized social surroundings, its created stress, the power relationship among participants, and the interpreter's degree of responsibility in many cases more than extreme; in some cases, even the life of the other person depends upon the interpreter's work. Medical interpreting is a subset of public service interpreting, consisting of communication, among medical personnel and the patient and his or her family, facilitated by an interpreter, usually formally certified and qualified to provide such interpretation services. In some situations medical employees who are multilingual may participate part-time as members of internal language banks. The medical interpreter must have a strong knowledge of medicine, common medical procedures, the patient interview, the medical examination processes, and the daily workings of the hospital or clinic were he or she works, in order to effectively serve both the patient and the medical personnel. Moreover, and very important, medical interpreters often are cultural liaisons for people (regardless of language) who are unfamiliar with or uncomfortable in hospital, clinical, or medical settings. When a hearing person speaks, an interpreter will render the speaker's meaning into the sign language used by the deaf party. When a deaf person signs, an interpreter will render the meaning expressed in the signs into the spoken language for the hearing party, which is sometimes referred to as voice interpreting or voicing. This may be performed either as simultaneous or consecutive interpreting, Skilled sign language interpreters will position themselves in a room or space that allows them both to be seen by deaf participants and heard by hearing participants clearly and to see and hear participants clearly. In some circumstances, an interpreter may interpret from one sign language into an alternate sign language. Deaf people also work as interpreters. They team with hearing counterparts to provide interpretation for deaf individuals who may not share the standard sign language used in that country. In other cases the hearing interpreted sign may be too pidgin to be understood clearly and the Deaf interpreter might interpret it into a more clear translation. They also relay information from one form of language to another for example, when a person is signing visually, the deaf interpreter could be hired to copy those signs into a deaf-blind person's hand plus include visual information. By its very nature, media interpreting has to be conducted in the simultaneous mode. It is provided particularly for live television coverages such as press conferences, live or taped interviews with political figures, musicians, artists, sportsmen or people from the business circle. In this type of interpreting, the interpreter has to sit in a sound-proof booth where ideally he/she can see the speakers on a monitor ant the set. All equipment should be checked before recording begins. In particular, satellite connections have to be double-checked to ensure that the interpreter's voice is not sent back and the interpreter gets to hear only one channel at a time. In the case of interviews recorded outside the studio and some current affairs programme, the interpreter interprets what he or she hears on a TV monitor. Background noise can be a serious problem. The interpreter working for the media has to sound as slick and confident as a television presenter. Media interpreting has gained more visibility and presence especially after the Gulf War. Television channels have begun to hire staff simultaneous interpreters. The interpreter renders the press conference, telephone beepers, interviews and similar live coverage for the viewers. It is more stressful than other types of interpreting as the interpreter has to deal with a wide range of technical problems coupled with the control room's hassle and wrangling during live coverage.

  • 106. Euphemisms: history, types and examples
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 19.11.2010

    Other common euphemisms include:

    • getting smashed or hammered instead of 'drinking' or 'being drunk'
    • big, fluffy, full-figured or heavy-set instead of 'fat'
    • lost their lives for 'were killed'
    • wellness for benefits and treatments that tend to only be used in times of sickness
    • restroom for toilet room in American English (the word toilet was itself originally a euphemism)
    • a love of musical theatre, light in the loafers, good fashion sense or confirmed bachelor for male homosexuality
    • woman in sensible shoes for lesbian
    • acting like rabbits, making love to, getting it on, cheeky time, doing it, making the beast with two backs, or sleeping with for having sex with
    • sanitary landfill for garbage dump (and a temporary garbage dump is a transfer station), also often called a Civic Amenity in the UK
    • ill-advised for very poor or bad
    • an intestinal release of pressure for fart
    • pre-owned vehicles or even "pre-loved" for used cars
    • motivation for bribe
    • a student being held back a grade level for having failed or flunked the grade level
    • correctional facility for prison
    • peer homework help or comparing answers for cheating
    • the north of Ireland for Northern Ireland, which is seen by many Irish people as a term imposed by the British and therefore a profanity; however, saying the north of Ireland may be primarily a way of identifying oneself with the Irish Nationalist cause, rather than a euphemism
    • the big C for cancer (in addition, some people whisper the word when they say it in public, and doctors euphemistically use technical terminology when discussing cancer in front of patients, e.g., "c.a." or "neoplasia"/"neoplastic process", "carcinoma" for "tumor"); euphemisms for cancer are used even more so in the Netherlands, because the Dutch word for cancer can be used as a curse word
    • bathroom tissue, t.p., or bath tissue for toilet paper (usually used by toilet paper manufacturers)
    • custodian or caretaker for janitor (Also originally a euphemism in Latin, it means doorman. In the British Secret Service, it may still carry the ancient meaning. It does in the novels of John le Carré.)
    • sanitation worker (or, sarcastically, sanitation officer or sanitation engineer), or garbologist, for "bin man" or garbage man
    • economically depressed neighborhood or culturally-deprived environment for ghetto or slum
    • force, police action, peace process or conflict for war
    • alcohol-related, single-car crash for drunk driver
    • mature or been around the block for old or elderly
    • haem or heme (Americanism) for blood, often used in medical settings ("severe heme loss").
    • enhanced interrogation technique for torture
    • persuasion for torture
    • take legal action for sue
    • fee for fine
    • gaming for gambling
    • specific about what one eats for being a picky eater
    • intellectually challenged for being mentally retarded
    • Before that, mentally retarded for feeble minded
    • Before that, feeble minded for halfwit
    • adult entertainment, adult material, or erotica for pornography
    • to have been paid for 'being fired from or by one's employer'
    • to cut excesses (in a budget) for to fire employees
    • legal capital for stated capital
    • gravitationally challenged for clumsy
    • gender reassignment for sex change
    • differently abled for disabled
    • chemical dependency for drug addiction
    • dual-diagnosed for having both mental illness and drug problems
    • co-morbidity for simultaneous existence of related mental and physical health issues (a dysphemism, perhaps...)
    • gentlemen's club for go-go bar or strip club
    • fertility center for infertility center
    • mental health center for mental illness center
    • it's snowin' down south for your slip is showing
    • vertically-challenged for short
    • feeling no pain (and dozens of others) for drunk
    • your fly is undone for your zip is down
  • 107. Euro-Atlantic integration and Ukrainian youth. Opinions and problems
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 05.01.2010

    Official representative of YATA in Ukraine is Youth Centre of Atlantic Council in Ukraine (YCACU), public organization established within the framework of Youth Program of Ukrainian Atlantic Council with a purpose of spreading among the youth the information and propaganda the ideas of Ukraines integration into European and Euroatlantic structures. The main working activities of Youth Centre ACU are:

    1. informing and popularizing of the main objectives of the centre, including working with the media;
    2. contribution to researching work, organization and consulting work regarding formation of political, economical, scientific, technical priorities as well as strategic interests of Ukraine.
  • 108. European Union
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 29.09.2010
  • 109. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a standard from the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) on packet data in GSM systems [6], [14]. By adding GPRS functionality to the existing GSM network, operators can givetheir subscribers resource-efficient wireless access to external Internet protocol-bases networks, such as the Internet and corporate intranets. The basic idea of GPRS is to provide a packet-switched bearer service in a GSM network. As impressively demonstrated by the Internet, packet-switched networks make more efficient use of the resources for bursty data applications and provide more flexibility in general. In previous work, several analytical models have been developed to study data services in a GSM network. Ajmone Marsan et al. studied multimedia services in a GSM network by providing more than one channel for data services [1]. Boucherie and Litjens developed an analytical model based on Markov chain analysis to study the performance of GPRS under a given GSM call characteristic [4]. For analytical tractability, they assumed exponentially distributed arrival times for packets and exponential packet transfer times, respectively. On the other hand, discrete-event simulation based studies of GPRS were conducted. Meyer et al. focused on the performance of TCP over GPRS under several carrier to interference conditions and coding schemes of data [10]. Furthermore, they provided a detailed implementation of the GPRS protocol stack [11]. Malomsoky et al. developed a simulation based GPRS network dimensioning tool [9]. Stuckmann et al. studied the correlation of GSM and GPRS users with the simulator GPRSim [13]. This paper describes a discrete-event simulator for GPRS on the IP level. The simulator is developed using the simulation package CSIM [12] and considers a cellcluster comprising of seven hexagonal cells. The presented performance studies were conducted for the innermost cell of the seven cell cluster. The simulator focuses on the communication over the radio interface, because this is one of the central aspects of GPRS. In fact, the air interface mainly determines the performance of GPRS. We studied the correlation of GSM and GPRS users by a static and dynamic channel allocation scheme. A first approach of modeling dynamic channel allocation was introduced by Bianchi et al. and is known as Dynamic Channel Stealing (DCS) [3].

  • 110. Evolution of Christianity
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 18.07.2010
  • 111. Examples of modern determinations of culture
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 08.11.2010

    Certainly, present means progress in area of psychology of development in explanation that, how individuals arrive at different cognitive and communicative capabilities. We have some key concepts about by a logically by a ration thought, about a language and other symbolic systems. But empiric, problem-oriented nature of greater part of researches on psychology of development, creates difficulty for those, who to aim to affect more all-purpose, but also thinner, difficult perceptible themes, styles of value, which are also included in understanding of culture. The method of achievement of competence (for example, in a political sphere) or role (for example, roles of friend) absents in psychology of development. In the total skepticism appears concerning that, whether there are these difficult perceptible themes in principles by suitable themes for the advanced study. From this point of view anthropologists experience difficulty in that, to assert reality of culture. Really, "super-organic" makes the head stone of this discipline. However in this case resistance to determination of culture is created, as life of individual can in general absent here. Id est there is a paradox in determination of acceptance of culture. A culture is the same necessary part of surroundings of child, as air, which he breathes and as fairy-tales which he listens. There are many researches about perception of culture, done as within the framework of psychology of development, so within the framework of cultural anthropology: many of the last are executed in psychoanalytical tradition and tradition of school "Culture and Personality". But it should be noted that these most works concentrated on a question, as an individual develops as personality, but not as individuals develop as fruitful and interactive members of the examined culture. Small attention spared to the processes by means of which individuals develop a cognitive competence are those capabilities and ways of thinking, which are required by mastering of different roles in technological and economic spheres of their society. Such blank unsurprising foremost because contiguity with cognition only recently affected psychology and yet later anthropological sciences. To work out the all-purpose theory of mastering of culture comparative researches are needed. But we need not only new information about the processes of development in the different corners of the world, but we does not possess even an acceptable category chart for comparison and analysis of these researches. To attain our purpose we must do a few preliminary remarks. A culture must not be examined as single, inviolable, not differentiable integrity. Opposite, for heuristic approach it is necessary to divide a culture on a separate area, each of which can be analyzed separately. Description of area includes judgments and flexibility. An area can be in relation to wide, as a cognitive area by comparison to a social area, or very specific, as an area of algebra or nuclear physics. Fundamentally here that everybody can legally investigate the private area of achievement into a culture, to describe select the eventual state is inherent to the adult member of culture, and then to begin to determine different steps and stages on the way of achievement of this eventual state. Such "regional approach" implies that initially a young organism into society has a competence in this area. Such supposition sets much work to the social researchers, and those, who supposes, that a competence is to a great extent the genetically determined process (as Chomsky considered), and those, who supposes that achievement of competence is completely the result of teaching (as behaviorists) process, and those, who prefers approach related to instinctive co-operation (as Piage), and to many psychologists of development… In addition to this statement about existence and autonomy of different areas of competence, we developing the theory of the cultural understanding, must look at her from four different points of view. First two can be examined as diametrically opposite to one other. From one side it is a culture as unit, including the different areas, beliefs and values. Other extreme point of view is an individual, equipped by his genetic legacy, including different neurological and psychological mechanisms. The third point of view is the system of symbols, being into a culture. Fourth - modus of transmission of the cultural understanding… I consider a necessity to consider three spheres, which necessarily must be compared in the different corners of the world. It is a 1) physical world, 2) the world, artifact created by a man, 3) the social world. In every culture a man must find funds, in an order to purchase capabilities, enabling to him effectively deal with these three spheres. Moreover, an individual must develop these capabilities both at intuitional and practical level and at the level of explicit cognition. An individual must attain and «know as well as «know that» in all these spheres. Certainly, between cultural distinctions in methods which these cultural knowledge are coded, passed and realized makes a main question for philosophers, anthropologists and other social researchers. Cultures considerably differentiate in regard to methods which they determine these three spheres (and making their areas), in the gamut of more or less explicit forms cognitions which embrace every sphere and, that can be it is most important, in values which they have in every culture.

  • 112. Excursion in old Riga
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 23.05.2010
  • 113. Exercises on lexicon and the English grammar
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 04.03.2011

     

    1. Telephone Conversation with the British Firm 1 person (I) in Present or Future Indefinite Tense, Active Voice;
    2. Continental Equipment. Can I help you?
    3. Id like to speak to Mr. Cartwright?
    4. Mr. Cartwright? Whos calling, please?
    5. This is Victor Klimenko, from TST Systems.
    6. Hold on, please. Ill find out if he is in.
    7. What is it, Miss Elliot?
    8. Mr. Klimenko wants to talk to you, sir.
    9. Im very busy at the moment. Ask him to phone later.
    10. Yes, sir.
    11. Oh … wait a minute, Miss Elliot. Who is Mr. Klimenko?
    12. He said he was from TST Systems.
    13. From TST System? … Oh, ask him what his telephone number is. Ill ring him back.
    14. Hello? Is that TST Systems?
    15. Yes
    16. This is John Cartwright from Continental Equipment. May I speak to Mr. Klimenko?
    17. Yes. Klimenko speaking … .
    18. Did you want to speak to me?
    19. Yes, Mr. Cartwright. Im the new Commercial Director of TST Systems. Ive pleasure in informing you that we carefully studied your materials and decided to accept your proposal.
    20. Thank you. Mr. Klimenko. Goodbye.
    21. Goodbye Mr. Cartwright.
    22. The contract in Past Tense, Passive Voice;
  • 114. Facilities of placing of tourists
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 17.04.2010

    A hotel number includes for itself almost all of elements of habitation of man here must be a place for rest and sleep, work, guest reception. There is an antechamber in him, closet for clothes, bath room. Numbers take place on housings floors, where apartments are also for a duty personnel which serves these apartments.Block of group of apartments of restaurant economy. Functional organization of this group of apartments decides taking into account the category of hotel. All personnel which serves the group of apartments of restaurant economy must have a private entrance in a hotel with the, by shower-baths, bath rooms, rooms of rest and administrative apartments.

  • 115. Family and relatives
    Контрольная работа пополнение в коллекции 31.01.2010

    Karlsson's Grandmother: Ok! Ok! He is right. He is with me since the age of five. But I had too much work about the house and had no time to bring you up carefully. That's why, children, he usually does whatever he wants. I shouted at him, punished him, but it didn't work. And one day he said that he wanted to live as a grown-up alone in the city. I had to agree with it or he could just disappear to nowhere. So I send him money, food every week, take him on summer holidays. But my dear Karlsson still lives absolutely alone in his parent's house. I worry about him a lot and the worst thing is that he doesn't like to come to school.

  • 116. Fashion business in Ukraine
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 26.02.2011

    2. Talented young designers. A lot of various displays and competitions are conducted in Ukraine. The most known are: the Ukrainian week pret-and-port «fashion Seasons», the International festival of a fashion «Kiev podium», International contest of one dress «the Crystal silhouette» and a lot of others. Constantly new names appear, and known designers in the country work with known clients (for example, Ajna Gase, Alexey Zalevsky, Anna Babenko, Sergey Byzov). Some Ukrainian fashion designers are more known in Europe than in the homeland - designers look for more adequate and solvent consumer. But many of them find methods to advance their collections in the homeland too. One of the vivid examples - some fashion lines and accessories, and also a chain store system of fashionable house Victoria GRES (the fashion designer Victoria Gres). Very good example is Lilija Pustovit. The talented designer, having connected the name with a trade mark of the investor, has created design brand NB Poustovit - for today one of the most successful Ukrainian fashion brands in the country, under the same scheme works Nota Bene and Karavay. The close partnership with one more supplier of a fabric has given the chance to develop successfully and to other brand - Golets by Dolcedonna (the designer - Elena Golets), and also its more mass "sister" - trade mark Dolcedonna.

  • 117. Features of syntactic structures in sports journalism (on the basis of the newspapers "Sport-express" and "Izvestia")
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 30.09.2011

    order to identify examples of syntactic constructions in the sports press, we have analyzed the issues of the newspaper Izvestia and the newspaper "Sport Express" for the period from February 1 to April 25, 2011. Socio-political newspaper "Izvestia" published 5 times a week (except Saturday and Sunday) with a volume of 12 to 48 pages, format - A2. Circulation in Russia is about 150 thousand copies. Circulation in Moscow, has about 50 thousand copies. The thematic range of newspapers included coverage of events in Russia and abroad, analysis and commentary, review of business and economics, cultural events and sports life.newspaper "Sport-Express" is published 6 times a week (except Sunday) in 32 cities around the world. Daily circulation is about 1.2 million copies, in Moscow and St. Petersburg is about 200 thousand, format - A2. The main themes - coverage of football and hockey events. The next priority themes are biathlon, volleyball, basketball, tennis, boxing.on the quantitative analysis provided in the table, it is clear that in the newspaper "Sport Express" more types of syntactic structures are presented. While in the newspaper "Izvestia" ellipse, polisindeton, nominative representation are not represented.the newspaper Izvestia the most frequent syntactic structures are insertions (40%) and rhetorical questions (19%). Further, it should be noted question-answer structures (6%), parceling (6%), syntactic parallelism (5%), the connecting constructions (5%) and incomplete sentences (4%). constructions with homogeneous members of the proposals (3%) and rhetorical exclamations, a series of rhetorical questions, graduations, nominative sentences, structures with spoken modal particles (2%), as well as constructions with interjection "well" and the introductory word "mole" (1%) are used less often.the newspaper "Sport Express" insertions (24%), rhetorical questions (13%), and parcelling (13%) and rhetorical ejaculations (11%) are often used. Then follow series of rhetorical questions (6%), question-answer constructions (5%), constructions with syntactic parallelism (5%), constructions with homogeneous members of the proposals (4%). At the same time, there are almost no constructions with spoken modal particles (3%), connecting constructions, ellipsis, polisindeton, nominative constructions representation, constructions with interjection "well" and the introductory word "mole" (2%), graduation and nominative sentences (1%).

  • 118. Financial Institutions in Turkey
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 05.07.2010
  • 119. Finanzierung In Deutschland
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 17.01.2010

    Die langfristigen Darlehen werden vor allem von den Realkreditinstituten - privaten Hypothekenbanken und offentlich-rechtlichen Grundkreditanstalten - und den Spezialkreditinstituten - wie etwa der Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau - sowie den Girozentralen und den Sparkassen gewahrt,die bei ihren Ausleihungen auf den „Bodensatz der sich bei ihnen kurz-, mittel- und langfristig ansammelnden Mittel zuruckgreifen. Die Kredite der genannten Institute werden im allgemeinen nur im Rahmen erstrangiger Sicherheiten ausgegeben, bei Realkreditinstituten fast ausschliesslich im Rahmen erstelliger Hypotheken. Die Ruckzahlung der Darlehen geschieht normalerweise entweder durch regelmassig zu leistenden gleichbleibende Annuitaten, die sich aus - im Laufe der Zeit steigenden - Tilgungsquoten und - im Laufe der Zeit zuruckgehenden - Zinsbetragen zusammensetzen, oder durch regelmassige Zahlung gleicher Tilgungsbetrage.

  • 120. Finland
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 26.12.2007

    In 1991, Finland fell into a severe depression caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign markets and the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union. More than twenty percent of Finnish trade was with the Soviet Union before 1991, and in the following two years the trade practically ceased. The growth in the 1980s was based on debt, and when the defaults began rolling in, an avalanche effect increased the unemployment from a virtual full employment to one fifth of the workforce. However, civil order remained and the state alleviated the problem of funding the welfare state by taking massive debts. 1991 and again in 1992, Finland devalued the markka to promote export competitiveness. This helped stabilise the economy; the depression bottomed out in 1993, with continued growth through 1995. Since then the growth rate has been one of the highest of OECD countries, and national debt has been reduced to 41.1 percent of GDP (fulfilling the EU's Stability and Growth Pact requirement). Unfortunately, the unemployment has been persistent, and is currently at about 7 percent.