Разное

  • 201. America Under Attack
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    On Tuesday night, FBI issued several search warrants on U.S. residents based on preliminary information on how two of the planes were hijacked. They said a flight attendant called authorities from the airborne American Airlines Flight 11, reporting that two flight attendants had been stabbed and that intruders had broken into the cockpit. The Christian Science Monitor reported that air traffic controllers could hear the hijackers of Flight 11 instructing the pilots in English.

  • 202. American and British Schools
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    In Britain there are "state" schools, which are free, and private schools for which parents pay, Many British private schools are "boarding" schools. The children stay at school all the time, and only come home in the holidays. They usually wear uniforms.

  • 203. American character
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Yet, in spite of all the informality, Americans, even in the way they address each other, show consciousness of social distinction. For example, one is likely to use somewhat more formal language when talking to superiors. While the informal "Hello" is an acceptable greeting from employee to employer, the employee is more apt to say "Hello, Mr. Ferguson," while the employer may reply "Hello, Jim." Southerners make a point of saying "Yes, sir," or "Yes, Ma'am," or "No, sir," or "No, Ma'am," when talking to an older person or a person in a position of authority. While this is good form all over the United Stales, "Yes. Mr. Weston" or "No, Mrs. Baker" is somewhat more common in a similar situation in the North or West.

  • 204. American Cinema
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    The illusion of movement was first noted in the early 19th century. In 1824 the English physician Peter Mark Roget published an article the persistence of vision with regard to moving objects. Many inventors put his theory to the test with pictures posted on coins that were flipped by the thumb, and with rotating disks of drawings. A particular favorite was the zoetrope, slotted revolving drum through which could be seen clowns and animals that seemed to leap. They were hand drawn on strips of paper fitted inside the drum. Other similar devices were the hemitrope, the phasmatrope, the phenakistoscope, and the praxinoscope. It is not possible to give any one person credit for having invented the motion picture. In the 1880s the Frenchman Etienne Jules Marey developed the rotating shutter with a slot to admit light, and George Eastman, of New York, developed flexible film. In 1888 Thomas Edison, of New Jersey, his phonograph for recording and playing sound on wax cylinders. He tried to combine sound with motion pictures. Edisons assistant, William Dickson, worked on the idea, and in 1889, he both appeared and spoke in a film. Edison did not turn his attention to the projected motion picture at first. The results were still not good enough, and Edison did not think that films would not have large appeal. Instead he produced and patented the kinetoscope, which ran a continuous loop of film about 15 meters (50 feet) long. Only one person could view it at a time. By 1894, hand-cranked kinetoscope appeared all over the United States and Europe. Edison demonstrated a projecting kinetoscope. The cinematograph based on Edisons kinetoscope was invented by two Frenchmen, Louis and Auguste Lumiere. This machine consisted of a portable camera and a projector. In December 1895, The Lumiere brothers organized a program of short motion pictures at a Parisian cafe.

  • 205. American Cinema (Кино и театры Америки)
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    The illusion of movement was first noted in the early 19th century. In 1824 the English physician Peter Mark Roget published an article the persistence of vision with regard to moving objects. Many inventors put his theory to the test with pictures posted on coins that were flipped by the thumb, and with rotating disks of drawings. A particular favorite was the zoetrope, slotted revolving drum through which could be seen clowns and animals that seemed to leap. They were hand drawn on strips of paper fitted inside the drum. Other similar devices were the hemitrope, the phasmatrope, the phenakistoscope, and the praxinoscope. It is not possible to give any one person credit for having invented the motion picture. In the 1880s the Frenchman Etienne Jules Marey developed the rotating shutter with a slot to admit light, and George Eastman, of New York, developed flexible film. In 1888 Thomas Edison, of New Jersey, his phonograph for recording and playing sound on wax cylinders. He tried to combine sound with motion pictures. Edisons assistant, William Dickson, worked on the idea, and in 1889, he both appeared and spoke in a film. Edison did not turn his attention to the projected motion picture at first. The results were still not good enough, and Edison did not think that films would not have large appeal. Instead he produced and patented the kinetoscope, which ran a continuous loop of film about 15 meters (50 feet) long. Only one person could view it at a time. By 1894, hand-cranked kinetoscope appeared all over the United States and Europe. Edison demonstrated a projecting kinetoscope. The cinematograph based on Edisons kinetoscope was invented by two Frenchmen, Louis and Auguste Lumiere. This machine consisted of a portable camera and a projector. In December 1895, The Lumiere brothers organized a program of short motion pictures at a Parisian cafe.

  • 206. American economy
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Despite the fact that the United States government supports many segments of the nation's economy, economists estimate that the public sector accounts for only one-fifth of American economic activity, with the remainder in private hands. In agriculture, for example, farmers benefit from public education, roads, rural electrification and support prices, but their land is private property to work pretty much as they desire. More than 86.7 percent of America's 208.8 million farms are owned by the people who operate them; the rest are owned by business corporations. With increasingly improved farm machinery, seed and fertilizers, more food is produced each year, although the number of farmers decrease annually. There were 15,669,000 people living on farms in 1960; by 1989 that total had decreased to 4,801,000. Farm output has increased dramatically: just 50 years ago a farmer fed 10 persons; today the average farmer feeds 75. America exports some 440.9 thousand million worth of farm products each year. The United States produces as much as half the world's soybeans and corn for grain, and from 10 to 25 percent of its cotton wheat, tobacco and vegetable oil.

  • 207. American Federalism in 1990s
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    Perhaps the best recent example of such a demand for national action may be found in public safety area. There is a general perception, that high levels of criminal activity made the persons and property of the average citizen in this country unsafe. In general, however, the definition and control of criminal behavior has historically been a state and local responsibility. Our national officials sense that there is a demand for them to do something in response to state and local failures. The result is anti-crime legislation at the national level which has been proposed by the President and which is largely supported by members of Congress. While many of us doubt the effectiveness of the specific legislation, few people have seriously objected to this activity as destructive of basic fabric of our federal system.

  • 208. American Federalism in 1990s.
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Perhaps the best recent example of such a demand for national action may be found in public safety area. There is a general perception, that high levels of criminal activity made the persons and property of the average citizen in this country unsafe. In general, however, the definition and control of criminal behavior has historically been a state and local responsibility. Our national officials sense that there is a demand for them to do something in response to state and local failures. The result is anti-crime legislation at the national level which has been proposed by the President and which is largely supported by members of Congress. While many of us doubt the effectiveness of the specific legislation, few people have seriously objected to this activity as destructive of basic fabric of our federal system.

  • 209. American holidays
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    The 4th of July is Independence Day. It is the biggest national holiday in the USA. The Declaration of Independence was proclaimed in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, when the American colonies were fighting for independence against England.

  • 210. American Literature books summary
    Методическое пособие пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    In America in the early years of the 18th century, some writers, such as Cotton Mather, carried on the older traditions. His huge history and biography of Puritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in 1702, and his vigorous Manuductio ad Ministerium, or introduction to the ministry, in 1726, were defenses of ancient Puritan convictions. Jonathan Edwards, initiator of the Great Awakening, a religious revival that stirred the eastern seacoast for many years, eloquently defended his burning belief in Calvinistic doctrine--of the concept that man, born totally depraved, could attain virtue and salvation only through God's grace--in his powerful sermons and most notably in the philosophical treatise Freedom of Will (1754). He supported his claims by relating them to a complex metaphysical system and by reasoning brilliantly in clear and often beautiful prose.But Mather and Edwards were defending a doomed cause. Liberal New England ministers such as John Wise and Jonathan Mayhew moved toward a less rigid religion. Samuel Sewall heralded other changes in his amusing Diary, covering the years 1673-1729. Though sincerely religious, he showed in daily records how commercial life in New England replaced rigid Puritanism with more worldly attitudes. The Journal of Mme Sara Knight comically detailed a journey that lady took to New York in 1704. She wrote vividly of what she saw and commented upon it from the standpoint of an orthodox believer, but a quality of levity in her witty writings showed that she was much less fervent than the Pilgrim founders had been. In the South, William Byrd of Virginia, an aristocratic plantation owner, contrasted sharply with gloomier predecessors. His record of a surveying trip in 1728, The History of the Dividing Line, and his account of a visit to his frontier properties in 1733, A Journey to the Land of Eden, were his chief works. Years in England, on the Continent, and among the gentry of the South had created gaiety and grace of expression, and, although a devout Anglican, Byrd was as playful as the Restoration wits whose works he clearly admired.The wrench of the American Revolution emphasized differences that had been growing between American and British political concepts. As the colonists moved to the belief that rebellion was inevitable, fought the bitter war, and worked to found the new nation's government, they were influenced by a number of very effective political writers, such as Samuel Adams and John Dickinson, both of whom favoured the colonists, and Loyalist Joseph Galloway. But two figures loomed above these--Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine.Franklin, born in 1706, had started to publish his writings in his brother's newspaper, the New England Courant, as early as 1722. This newspaper championed the cause of the "Leather Apron" man and the farmer and appealed by using easily understood language and practical arguments. The idea that common sense was a good guide was clear in both the popular Poor Richard's almanac, which Franklin edited between 1732 and 1757 and filled with prudent and witty aphorisms purportedly written by uneducated but experienced Richard Saunders, and in the author's Autobiography, written between 1771 and 1788, a record of his rise from humble circumstances that offered worldly wise suggestions for future success.Franklin's self-attained culture, deep and wide, gave substance and skill to varied articles, pamphlets, and reports that he wrote concerning the dispute with Great Britain, many of them extremely effective in stating and shaping the colonists' cause.Thomas Paine went from his native England to Philadelphia and became a magazine editor and then, about 14 months later, the most effective propagandist for the colonial cause. His pamphlet "Common Sense" (January 1776) did much to influence the colonists to declare their independence. "The American Crisis" papers (December 1776-December 1783) spurred Americans to fight on through the blackest years of the war. Based upon Paine's simple deistic beliefs, they showed the conflict as a stirring melodrama with the angelic colonists against the forces of evil. Such white and black picturings were highly effective propaganda. Another reason for Paine's success was his poetic fervour, which found expression in impassioned words and phrases long to be remembered and quoted.

  • 211. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    In America in the early years of the 18th century, some writers, such as Cotton Mather, carried on the older traditions. His huge history and biography of Puritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in 1702, and his vigorous Manuductio ad Ministerium, or introduction to the ministry, in 1726, were defenses of ancient Puritan convictions. Jonathan Edwards, initiator of the Great Awakening, a religious revival that stirred the eastern seacoast for many years, eloquently defended his burning belief in Calvinistic doctrine--of the concept that man, born totally depraved, could attain virtue and salvation only through God's grace--in his powerful sermons and most notably in the philosophical treatise Freedom of Will (1754). He supported his claims by relating them to a complex metaphysical system and by reasoning brilliantly in clear and often beautiful prose.But Mather and Edwards were defending a doomed cause. Liberal New England ministers such as John Wise and Jonathan Mayhew moved toward a less rigid religion. Samuel Sewall heralded other changes in his amusing Diary, covering the years 1673-1729. Though sincerely religious, he showed in daily records how commercial life in New England replaced rigid Puritanism with more worldly attitudes. The Journal of Mme Sara Knight comically detailed a journey that lady took to New York in 1704. She wrote vividly of what she saw and commented upon it from the standpoint of an orthodox believer, but a quality of levity in her witty writings showed that she was much less fervent than the Pilgrim founders had been. In the South, William Byrd of Virginia, an aristocratic plantation owner, contrasted sharply with gloomier predecessors. His record of a surveying trip in 1728, The History of the Dividing Line, and his account of a visit to his frontier properties in 1733, A Journey to the Land of Eden, were his chief works. Years in England, on the Continent, and among the gentry of the South had created gaiety and grace of expression, and, although a devout Anglican, Byrd was as playful as the Restoration wits whose works he clearly admired.The wrench of the American Revolution emphasized differences that had been growing between American and British political concepts. As the colonists moved to the belief that rebellion was inevitable, fought the bitter war, and worked to found the new nation's government, they were influenced by a number of very effective political writers, such as Samuel Adams and John Dickinson, both of whom favoured the colonists, and Loyalist Joseph Galloway. But two figures loomed above these--Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Paine.Franklin, born in 1706, had started to publish his writings in his brother's newspaper, the New England Courant, as early as 1722. This newspaper championed the cause of the "Leather Apron" man and the farmer and appealed by using easily understood language and practical arguments. The idea that common sense was a good guide was clear in both the popular Poor Richard's almanac, which Franklin edited between 1732 and 1757 and filled with prudent and witty aphorisms purportedly written by uneducated but experienced Richard Saunders, and in the author's Autobiography, written between 1771 and 1788, a record of his rise from humble circumstances that offered worldly wise suggestions for future success.Franklin's self-attained culture, deep and wide, gave substance and skill to varied articles, pamphlets, and reports that he wrote concerning the dispute with Great Britain, many of them extremely effective in stating and shaping the colonists' cause.Thomas Paine went from his native England to Philadelphia and became a magazine editor and then, about 14 months later, the most effective propagandist for the colonial cause. His pamphlet "Common Sense" (January 1776) did much to influence the colonists to declare their independence. "The American Crisis" papers (December 1776-December 1783) spurred Americans to fight on through the blackest years of the war. Based upon Paine's simple deistic beliefs, they showed the conflict as a stirring melodrama with the angelic colonists against the forces of evil. Such white and black picturings were highly effective propaganda. Another reason for Paine's success was his poetic fervour, which found expression in impassioned words and phrases long to be remembered and quoted.

  • 212. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    When Bradstreet wrote her poem Upon the Burning of Our House, she was fifty-four, an old age at that time. She might have been a rebel when she was younger, but she definitely is not one at that time. Her belief in god is sincere. As soon as she realizes that her house is on fire, she asks the Lord “to strengthen me [Bradstreet] in my distress” (269). Later, when her house has burnt to the ground, Anne is not angry with God at all. On the contrary, she praises him. “I praised His name that gave and took […] it was his own, it was not mine,” the poetess says (270). Taylor uses almost the same words describing the death of his children. Everything belongs to God. The humans existence on Earth is nothing but a preparation to eternal life. According to Puritans belief there is no sense n being upset about the burned home because for everyone there is “a house on high erect, framed by that mighty Architect” (270).

  • 213. American Sports and Games
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Football is the most popular game in the autumn. There are professional football teams in all the main cities of the United States. In American football there are eleven players in each team, as in original football, but the rules are different. Players are often hurt in American football. So the teams wear special clothing and helmets as in hockey.

  • 214. American values
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    The most important thing to understand about American is probably their devotion to individualism. They have been trained since very early in their lives to consider themselves as separate individuals who are responsible for their own situations in life and their own destinies. They have not been trained to see themselves as members of a close-knit, tightly interdependent family, religious group, tribe, nation, or other collectivity. Conversely Russians find themselves part of some group. They always have some kind of attachment, especially family relations.

  • 215. Amis ou leurs parents
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    1789(mille sept quatre-vingts-neuf) a lieu la prise de la astille. On decore les fenetres de drapeaux tricolores.Le matin,il y a le defile du 14 Juillet.A Paris,il a lieu sur les Champ-Elysees.Le President de la Republique passe en revue les troupes de larmee

  • 216. Amon duul
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    В 1984 году увидел свет альбом "Experimente", представлявший собой двадцать четыре трека, записанные коллективом в опять же в 1969-м в результате экспериментирования со студийным оборудованием. Позднейший состав группы включал в себя Райнера и Эллу Бауэров, Ули Леопольда, Клауса Эссера (гитара, бас, ударные), Хельги и Анжелики Филянда. В ноябре-декабре 1970 года при содействии Ханси Фишер (флейта, бонги), Джона Вайнцирля и Шрата из "Amon Duul II" они записали еще один англоязычный альбом "Paradieswartz Duul" - и сингл "Eternal Flow"/"Paramechanical World". В создании пластинок также участвовали Усхи Обермайер (маракасы) и Карлхайнц Хаусманн. Здесь уже звучал более расслабленный, хотя и необычный рок с вкраплением фолка, с акцентом на многочисленные гитары и включающий единственные в своем роде длинные импровизационные фрагменты. Участники ансамбля "гостили" на выполненной в схожей стилистике композиции "Sandoz In The Rain" с альбома "Yeti" группы "Amon Duul II".

  • 217. Amorphis
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Диск получил восторженные отклики в музыкальной прессе и очень хорошо продавался, что побудило "Relapse Records" издать ранние композиции в виде мини-альбома "Privilege Of Evil". Тогда же в группе появился еще один музыкант - клавишник Каспер Мартенсон. С 1994 года "Amorphis" стали исполнять клавишно-ориентированный прогрессив-дэт-метал. Второй альбом, "Tales From A Thousand Lakes" был основан на финском народном эпосе "Калевала". Диск также включал кавер "Light my fire" от " Doors". Пластинка оказалась очень успешной, и за "Amorphis" закрепилась слава культовой группы. Команда долгое время провела на гастролях, выступая в Штатах в компании с " Entombed", а в Европе вместе с " Tiamat". В 1995-м начались изменения в составе. Сначала Рехбергера за ударными сменил Пекка Касари. Затем в команде появились новый клавишник Ким Рантала (экс-"Stone") и новый вокалист Паси Коскинен.

  • 218. Anal cunt
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Тем временем музыканты нашли возможность поучаствовать в других проектах. Так, Сет записывался на сингле "Shit scum" ("Manson Is Jesus"), а остальные побывали на сессиях "Post mortem". К 1990 году было принято решение распустить команду, но перед этим ребята съездили на гастроли в Европу. Потом около года они развлекались в других проектах, а в 1991-м реанимировали вывеску "Anal cunt". Теперь вместе с Тимом и Сетом в одной упряжке играл Фред Ордонез, а музыка стала чуть более удобоваримой. Обновленный состав записал один сингл, одну EP-шку "Master of noise", а затем изловчился и выдал на-гора первый в мире релиз с нойзкором анплуггед. Европейские гастроли 1992 года оказались проблематичными, поскольку Тим немного сачканул, и парни долго и безуспешно пытались заменить его долбежку. Их мучения были прерваны, когда Морс все-таки возвратился в родной коллектив. Заодно в состав добавили второго гитариста, Джона Козика. Так что в период с 1993 по 1994-й в команде играли то Козик, то Ордонез, то оба вместе.

  • 219. Analysis of Sufism Through Art of Sufi Poetry
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    Sufis way of life does not exhibit the most accurate instance of severe asceticism and a practice of physical rigors. The perfect Sufi lives in accordance with Quran and “never forgets God for a single moment.”(Abu Said, Ch.1, p.40) The essence of the mystics life corresponds to constant remembrance of God. Islamic mystics are aware of the true value and function of everything in the world; thus they accentuate Reality as the major concern of a human life. They advocate moderation in food and physical comforts as a profound condition to liberate hearts and minds from everything that is peripheral and transitory, and stay focused on God (Al-Ghazzali, Ch.1, p.37.) The eternal path of Sufis commences with their approach to daily life. Soul remains the primary tool in search of Reality. Body serves only as means of ensuring physical health, and the care for it is provided as to a camel in a caravan without adoration and contemplation, for camel is merely a device to reach the destination (al-Ghazzali, Ch.2, p.47.) Sufis destination is the unity with God, the truth and knowledge exposed when the “veil” is elevated. Muslim mystics teach that nothing is perpetual and everything is perishable in the world (Attar, Ch.6, p.80.) Everything has a beginning, a purpose and an end, and after completing the cycle returns to its original pattern. “The end is maturity, and the goal is freedom. The circle is complete. Completing the circle of existence is freedom” (Nasaft, Ch.2, p.53.)

  • 220. Analysis of Sufism Through Art of Sufi Poetry.
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Sufis way of life does not exhibit the most accurate instance of severe asceticism and a practice of physical rigors. The perfect Sufi lives in accordance with Quran and “never forgets God for a single moment.”(Abu Said, Ch.1, p.40) The essence of the mystics life corresponds to constant remembrance of God. Islamic mystics are aware of the true value and function of everything in the world; thus they accentuate Reality as the major concern of a human life. They advocate moderation in food and physical comforts as a profound condition to liberate hearts and minds from everything that is peripheral and transitory, and stay focused on God (Al-Ghazzali, Ch.1, p.37.) The eternal path of Sufis commences with their approach to daily life. Soul remains the primary tool in search of Reality. Body serves only as means of ensuring physical health, and the care for it is provided as to a camel in a caravan without adoration and contemplation, for camel is merely a device to reach the destination (al-Ghazzali, Ch.2, p.47.) Sufis destination is the unity with God, the truth and knowledge exposed when the “veil” is elevated. Muslim mystics teach that nothing is perpetual and everything is perishable in the world (Attar, Ch.6, p.80.) Everything has a beginning, a purpose and an end, and after completing the cycle returns to its original pattern. “The end is maturity, and the goal is freedom. The circle is complete. Completing the circle of existence is freedom” (Nasaft, Ch.2, p.53.)