Разное

  • 181. Alan Parsons project
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Парсонс стал первым музыкантом, пробившим барьер отождествления у широкой публики творца роковой музыки с обаятельным и процветающим певцом или инструменталистом, чьи непринужденно-раскованные, неукротимо-темпераментные или дико заросшие, соответственно, позы, фигуры и лица были до мельчайших деталей спроектированы опытнейшими профессионалами. Он показал, что на первом плане может находиться и человек в наушниках, сидящий в студии среди огромного количества приборов, регулирующий уровни и спектр комбинируемых им сигналов и склеивающий куски монтируемой им пленки. Бравурная трактовка техники и электроники, как средства выражения в "новом музыкальном языке", кажется в творчестве Алана Парсонса столь же естественной, как и его постоянные обращения к литературной и философской трактовке, достаточно удаленной от банальной "поп-энд-роковой" музыки. Главным соавтором овеянных ореолом мистицизма пластинок группы Парсонса "Alan Parsons Project", в том числе и последующих "Pyramid" и "Eve", стал Эрик Вулфсон, который являлся не только автором текстов, но также и сокомпозитором большинства созданных группой произведений. Если диск "I Robot" был взглядом из сегодняшнего дня в будущий, то следующий альбом можно назвать взглядом из сегодня в прошлое. Тему египетских пирамид Парсонс и Вулфсон выбрали не случайно. "Вряд ли в последние годы в США писали о чем-нибудь больше, чем о пирамидах и их некоей магической силе", - говорил Вулфсон.

  • 182. Alaska
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    Treaty of Cession 15 Stat. 539 Treaty concerning the Cession of the Russian Possessions in North America by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias to the United States of America; Concluded March 30, 1867; Ratified by the United States May 28, 1867; Exchanged June 20, 1867; Proclaimed by the United States June 20, 1867. BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA A PROCLAMATION Whereas, a treaty between the United States of America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias was concluded and signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington, on the thirtieth day of March, last, which treaty, being in the English and French languages, is, word for word, as follows: The United States of America and his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being desirous of strengthening, if possible, the good understanding which exists between them, have, for that purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries: the President of the United States, William H. Seward, Secretary of State; and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the Privy Councillor Edward de Stoeckl his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States. And the said Plenipotentiaries, having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in due form, have agreed upon and signed the following articles: ARTICLE I His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias agrees to cede to the United States, by this convention, immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications thereof, all the territory and dominion now possessed by his said Majesty on the continent of America and in the adjacent islands, the same being contained within the geographical limits herein set forth, to wit: The eastern limit is the line of demarcation between the Russian and the British possessions in North America, as established by the convention between Russia and Great Britain, of February 28 - 16, 1825, and described in Articles III and IV of said convention, in the following terms: III. "Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of 54 degrees 40 minutes north latitude, and between the 131st and the 133d degree of west longitude (meridian of Greenwich,) the said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland channel, as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the 56th degree of north latitude; from this last-mentioned point, the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast as far as the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude (of the same meridian;) and finally, from the said point of intersection, the said meridian line of the 141st degree, in its prolongation as far as the Frozen ocean. IV. "With reference to the line of demarcation laid down in the preceding article, it is understood - "1st. That the island called Prince of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia," (now, by this cession, to the United States.) "2nd. That whenever the summit of the mountains which extend in a direction parallel to the coast from the 56th degree of north latitude to the point of intersection of the 141st degree of west longitude shall prove to be at the distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the limit between the British possessions and the line of coast which is to belong to Russia as above mentioned (that is to say, the limit to the possessions ceded by this convention) shall be formed by a line parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom." The western limit within which the territories and dominion conveyed, are contained, passes through a point in Behring's straits on the parallel of sixty-five degrees thirty minutes north latitude, at its intersection by the meridian which passes midway between the islands of Krusenstern, or Inaglook, and the island of Ratmanoff, or Noonarbook, and proceeds due north, without limitation, into the same Frozen ocean. The same western limit, beginning at the same initial point, proceeds thence in a course nearly southwest through Behring's straits and Behring's sea, so as to pass midway between the northwest point of the island of St. Lawrence and the southeast point of Cape Choukotski, to the meridian of one hundred and seventy-two west longitude; thence, from the intersection of that meridian, in a southwesterly direction, so as to pass midway between the island of Attou and the Copper island of the Kormandorski couplet or group in the North Pacific ocean, to the meridian of one hundred and ninety-three degrees west longitude, so as to include in the territory conveyed the whole of the Aleutian islands east of that meridian. ARTICLE II In the cession of territory and dominion made by the preceding article are included the right of property in all public lots and squares, vacant lands, and all public buildings, fortifications, barracks, and other edifices which are not private individual property. It is, however, understood and agreed, that the churches which have been built in the ceded territory by the Russian government, shall remain the property of such members of the Greek Oriental Church resident in the territory, as may choose to worship therein. Any government archives, papers and documents relative to the territory and dominion aforesaid, which may be now existing there, will be left in the possession of the agent of the United States; but an authenticated copy of such of them as may be required, will be, at all times, given by the United States to the Russian government, or to such Russian officers or subjects as they may apply for. ARTICLE III The inhabitants of the ceded territory, according to their choice, reserving their natural allegiance, may return to Russia within three years; but if they should prefer to remain in the ceded territory, they, with the exception of uncivilized native tribes, shall be admitted to the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens of the United States, and shall be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion. The uncivilized tribes will be subject to such laws and regulations as the United States may, from time to time, adopt in regard to aboriginal tribes of that country. ARTICLE IV His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias shall appoint, with convenient despatch, an agent or agents for the purpose of formally delivering to a similar agent or agents appointed on behalf of the United States, the territory, dominion, property, dependencies and appurtenances which are ceded as above, and for doing any other act which may be necessary in regard thereto. But the cession, with the right of immediate possession, is nevertheless to be deemed complete and absolute on the exchange of ratifications, without waiting for such formal delivery. ARTICLE V Immediately after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, any fortifications or military posts which may be in the ceded territory shall be delivered to the agent of the United States, and any Russian troops which may be in the territory shall be withdrawn as soon as may be reasonably and conveniently practicable. ARTICLE VI In consideration of the cession aforesaid, the United States agree to pay at the treasury in Washington, within ten months after the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, to the diplomatic representative or other agent of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, duly authorized to receive the same, seven million two hundred thousand dollars in gold. The cession of territory and dominion herein made is hereby declared to be free and unencumbered by any reservations, privileges, franchises, grants, or possessions, by any associated companies, whether corporate or incorporate, Russian or any other, or by any parties, except merely private individual property holders; and the cession hereby made, conveys all the rights, franchises, and privileges now belonging to Russia in the said territory or dominion, and appurtenances thereto. ARTICLE VII When this convention shall have been duly ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, on the one part, and on the other by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within three months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible. In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed this convention, and thereto affixed the seals of their arms. Done at Washington, the thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven. [SEAL] WILLIAM H. SEWARD [SEAL] EDOUARD DE STOECKL And whereas the said Treaty has been duly ratified on both parts, and the respective ratifications of the same were exchanged at Washington on this twentieth day of June, by William H. Seward, Secretary of State of the United States, and the Privy Counsellor Edward de Stoeckl, the Envoy Extraordinary of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, on the part of their respective governments, Now, therefore, be it known that I, Andrew Johnson, President of the United States of America, have caused the said Treaty to be made public, to the end that the same and every clause and article thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington, this twentieth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States the ninety-first. [SEAL] ANDREW JOHNSON By the President:

  • 183. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    The State of Alaska is frightened of extinction. More than 1,000 wolves killed every year. Not a single wolf pack is protected from hunting and trapping throughout its entire variety in Alaska. Trapping within and outside of the park, cruelly impacts Denali National Park wolves, the longest studied and most widely viewed in the world. Trappers killed Denalis Savage River pack, and the last remaining female of the Headquarters pack. Nearly 12,000 grizzly bears were killed in Alaska in the past 10 years. Alaska hunters kill about 22,000 caribou every year.

  • 184. Albrecht Durer
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    In about 1508 Dьrer began to collect material for a major work on mathematics and its applications to the arts. This work would never be finished but Dьrer did use parts of the material in later published work. He continued to produce art of outstanding quality, and he produced one of his most famous engravings Melancholia in 1514. It contains the first magic square to be seen in Europe, cleverly including the date 1514 as two entries in the middle of the bottom row. Also of mathematical interest in Melancholia is the polyhedron in the picture. The faces of the polyhedron appear to consist of two equilateral triangles and six somewhat irregular pentagons. An interesting reconstruction of the polyhedron is given in , see also for further details.

  • 185. Alcatrazz
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Взяв ориентацию на стиль " Rainbow" группа за полгода записала свой первый альбом "No parole from rock'n'roll". Пластинку спасла лишь отличная игра Мальмстина, благодаря чему диск попал в биллбордовский Топ 200. К сожалению Ингви оказался под стать своему учителю Ричи очень эгоцентричным типом и после выхода альбома решил заняться сольной карьерой. Правда, в первом туре "Alcatrazz" он все же принял участие. В течение этих гастролей был записан концертник "Live sentence", основанный на выступлении группы в токийском "Nakano Sun Plaza". Релиз этот не принес ничего хорошего, поскольку мало чем отличался от студийника "No parole…".

  • 186. Alcohol and the Workplace
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Walsh and colleagues (34) compared the outcomes of 227 employees who were referred to an EAP for alcohol problems and assigned to either inpatient treatment followed by attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), AA alone, or a treatment plan chosen by the employee in consultation with EAP staff. The employees were seen weekly by the EAP for 1 year, excluding periods of inpatient treatment. Two years later, all three groups showed substantial improvement in job measures with no significant differences among them. Fewer than 15 percent of employees reported job-related problems at the 2-year followup, and 76 percent of the supervisors interviewed at that time rated the employees' job performance as "good" or "excellent." The groups did differ on drinking measures, however. Employees who had received inpatient treatment were significantly more likely than those in the other groups to report not drinking and not drinking to intoxication during the followup period. When employees did relapse, drinking problems preceded job-related problems, suggesting that treatment followup is important for detecting relapse before job problems occur (34).

  • 187. Alcoholism
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    Alcohol has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body, and failure to take care of nutritional and other physical needs during prolonged periods of excessive drinking may further complicate matters. Advanced cases often require hospitalization. The effects on major organ systems are cumulative and include a wide range of digestive-system disorders such as ulcers, inflammation of the pancreas, and cirrhosis of the liver. The central and peripheral nervous systems can be permanently damaged. Blackouts, hallucinations, and extreme tremors may occur. The latter symptoms are involved in the most serious alcohol withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, which can prove fatal despite prompt treatment. This is in contrast to withdrawal from narcotic drugs such as heroin, which, although distressing, rarely results in death. Recent evidence has shown that heavy and even moderate drinking during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the unborn child: physical or mental retardation, or both; a rare but severe expression of this damage is known as foetal alcohol syndrome (Markov et al.).

  • 188. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Besides brilliancy and ambition, Hamilton had other qualities which served him well. He possessed great personal attractiveness. With reddish-brown hair, bright brown eyes, fine forehead, and firm mouth and chin, he was very handsome, his face animated and pleasant when he talked, severe and thoughtful when he was at work. He liked a lively dinner party and shone in any circle which offered intellectual companions, and witty talk. As leader of the New York patriots, he was brought to Washington's notice and made him the general's principal aide, it enabled him to lead a dramatic assault at the siege of Yorktown, it rendered him the principal figure in Washington's administration, and it gave him command of a great party. He had remarkable talents as an executive and organizer. He wrote and spoke much. Yet he also showed striking defects. He was quick-tempered. He quarrelled with Washington near the end of the war and rejected the advances that Washington made to heal the breach. His arrogance of spirit brought him into unnecessarily conflicts - with Jefferson, with the Washington administration, and with Aaron Burr, ending in his own death in a duel.

  • 189. Alfred Nobel
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Alfred Nobel, the great Swedish inventor and industrialist, was a man on many contrasts. He made a fortune but lived a simple life, he was cheerful in company but said in private. A lover of mankind, he never had a family or wife to love him. He was a patriotic son of his native land and he died on foreign soil. He invented dynamite, to improve the peacetime industries of road mining and road building, but he saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injured his fellow man. During his life he often felt he was useless. He was world famous for his works he was never personally well known, for throughout his life he avoid publicity. But since his death his name brought fame and glory to others.

  • 190. Alfred Tennyson
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    His father, George Clayton Tennyson (17781831), was a rector for Somersby (18071831), also rector of Benniworth and Bag Enderby, and vicar of Grimsby (1815). The reverend was the elder of two sons, but was disinherited at an early age by his own father, the landowner George Tennyson (17501835) (who belonged to the Lincolnshire gentry as the owner of Bayons Manor and Usselby Hall),[3] in favour of his younger brother Charles, who later took the name Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt. Rev. George Clayton Tennyson raised a large family and "was a man of superior abilities and varied attainments, who tried his hand with fair success in architecture, painting, music, and poetry."[3] Rev. Tennyson was "comfortably well off for a country clergyman and his shrewd money management enabled the family to spend summers at Mablethorpe and Skegness, on the eastern coast of England."[3] His mother, Elizabeth Fytche (17811865) was the daughter of Stephen Fytche (17341799), vicar of Louth (1764) and rector of Withcall (1780), a small village between Horncastle and Louth.[3] Tennyson's father "carefully attended to the education and training of his children."[3]

  • 191. Alice in Chains
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Эта команда была сформирована в 1987 году в Сиэтле, США, Лэйном Стэйли (р. 22 августа 1967, Киркленд, США; вокал) и Джерри Кантреллом (р. 18 марта 1966, Такома, США; вокал, гитара) при участии Майка Старра (бас) и Сина Кинни (р. 27 июня 1966, Сиэтл, США; ударные). "Alice In Chains" представила саунд, замешанный на риффах в стиле " Black Sabbath", нетрадиционной вокальной манере Стэйли и Кантрелла и сильной композиционной постановке. Кантрелл поначалу играл в своей родной Такоме в банде под названием "Music Bank", а затем перебрался в Сиэтл. Он пригласил в ритм-секцию Кинни и Старра, а потом рекрутировал Стэйли из местной фанк-металлической команды. Первоначальная идея была назвать группу "Fuck", но Стэйли предложил другую версию "Alice in chains", как бы в пародию на "металлистов", всегда увешанных какими-то цепями. Группа подписала престижный контракт на выпуск дисков, несмотря на то, что некоторых представителей фирм грамзаписи отпугивало агрессивное поведение Стэйли в ранний период.

  • 192. Alien ant farm
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    И вот вся четверка собралась вместе, и свой первый концерт отыграла на дне рождения Митчелла. Название "Alien ant farm" ("Муравьиная ферма инопланетян") придумал Теренс Корсо. С самого начала концерты коллектива привлекали много народу. Команда гастролировала по западным штатам и по Европе. Популярность "Alien ant farm" неуклонно росла, и вскоре ее песни начали крутить радиостанции. В 1999 году музыканты на свои деньги на инди-лейбле "Chick records" выпустили дебютный альбом, скромно назвав его "Greatest hits". Этот релиз на церемонии "Music awards" в Лос-Анжелесе удостоился звания лучшего независимого альбома. Вслед за этим "Alien ant farm" заключили контракт с "New noise", лейблом, к которому были подписаны и "Papa Roach". В марте 2001 года вышел второй альбом группы, "Anthology".

  • 193. All the King’s Men
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    After learning about Anne's afiair with Willie Stark, Jack ees westward. He spends several days driving to California, then, after he arrives, three days in Long Beach. On the way, he remembers his past with Anne Stanton, and tries to understand what happened that led her to Willie. When they were children, Jack spent most of his time with Adam Stanton, and Anne simply tagged along. But the summer after his junior year at the State University, when he was twenty-one and Anne was seventeen, Jack fell in love with Anne, and spent the summer with her. They played tennis together, and swam together at night, and pursued an increasingly intense physical relationship-- Jack remembers that Anne was not prudish, that she seemed to regard her body as something they both possessed, and that they had to explore together. Two nights before Anne was scheduled to leave for her boarding school, they found themselves alone in Jack's house during a thunderstorm, and nearly made love for the first time--but Jack hesitated, and then his mother came home early, ending their chance. The next day Jack tried to convince Anne to marry him, but she demurred, saying that she loved him, but seemed to feel that something in his unambitious character was an impediment to her giving in to her love. After Anne left for school, they continued to write every day, but their feelings dwindled, and the next few times they saw each other, things were difierent between them. Over Christmas, Anne wouldn't let Jack make love to her, and they had a fight about it. Eventually the letters stopped, and Jack got thrown out of law school, and began to study history, and then eventually he was married to Lois, a beautiful sexpot whose friends he despised and who did not interest him as a person. Toward the end of their marriage, he entered into a phase of the Great Sleep, and then left her altogether.

  • 194. Allocation of powers between directors and shareholders
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    c)Delegation of Authority--the board has the power to appoint committees of its own members to act for it either in particular matters or to handle day-to-day management between board meetings. Typically, these committees cannot amend the articles or bylaws, adopt or recommend major corporate changes (e.g., merger), recommend dissolution, declare a dividend, or authorize issuance of stock unless permitted by the articles or bylaws. Note that while the board may delegate operation of the business to an officer or management company, the ultimate control must be retained by the board.

  • 195. Almighty
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Тем не менее коллектив заключил новый договор на менеджмент от "Sanctuary" и на дистрибьюцию от "Chrysalis". На новом лейбле группа дебютировала с альбомом "Crank", где начались заигрывания с панком. Это было заметно не только в музыке обложку пластинки оформлял Джейми Рейд, сотрудничавший ранее с "Sex pistols". В Англии диск попал на 15-е место, а в Японии его ждал еще больший успех 5-я позиция. Раскрутка альбома началась во Франции на фестивале "Bol D'or", а закончилась европейскими гастролями совместно с " Pantera". В 1996 году "Almighty" выпустили припопсованный альбом "Just add life" и тут же объявили о своем роспуске. В результате "Chrysalis" приостановил продажи пластинки, а через несколько недель она была издана с другой обложкой на лейбле "Rawpower".

  • 196. Altdorfer, Albrecht
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    No architectural work by him is known, but his interest in architecture and his skill in handling intricate problems of perspective are demonstrated by his Birth of the Virgin (Alte Pinakothek, Munich). It is possible that he was involved in the design of the pilgrim church Zur Schцnen Madonna (now the new Neupfarrkirche) at Regensburg. Although none of his architectural projects survive, the influence of Venetian, Milanese and Lombard architecture, and to a lesser extent that of Bramante, can be seen in the prominent structure in his 1526 painting of Susanna in the Bath and the Stoning of the Elders. In his extant works there is a nearly pantheistic synthesis of man and nature that has been compared both the writings of Paracelsus and the Neo-Platonists. His paintings assert the primacy of landscape, his figures are rarely individualized, and he produced only a handful of portraits. While Altdorfer seems to have had a large workshop, few individual members other than his brother, Erhard (c. 1480-1561), and Hans Mielich are identifiable.

  • 197. Alyonushka
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    It was hard for the merchant to agree to kill Ivanushka, as he loved the goat like a person. But, begin deceived by the witch, he felt his wife's wishes to be the most important. Ivanushka asked the merchant if he could go to the river for one last drink before he died, and the merchant agreed. There at the river's edge the goat cried out to his sister, and she answered him that she couldn't help him with a stone tied around her neck. Neither the brother nor sister realized that this time a peasant had overheard their conversation, and was on his way to stop the merchant form killing Ivanushka.

  • 198. Amadeus - глобальная распределительная система туристических услуг
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    Система Amadeus является самой молодой из всех современных систем бронирования авиаперевозок, и была разработана в 1987 году и начала полноценное функционирование с 1992 г. Структура управления системой включает в себя штаб квартиру (Мадрид, Испания), технологический центр по обработке всей информации (Эрдинг, Германия) и центр по развитию системы (София Антиполис, Франция).

    1. В 1989 году система Amadeus впервые достигла отметки в 1 млн. забронированных билетов. Все основные гостиницы и специализированные системы бронирования гостиниц подписали договор с Amadeus о продвижении своих услуг через систему Amadeus.
    2. В 1990 году был открыт центр обработки данных в Эрдинге, недалеко от Мюнхена.
    3. В 1992 году Amadeus выпускает свои продукты Amadeus Cars и Amadeus Hotels.
    4. В том же году система Amadeus становится доступной для всех авиакомпаний.
    5. В 1993 - 1995 годах Amadeus открывает свои представительства в Южной Америке и Азии.
    6. В 1995 году Amadeus объединяется с американской системой бронирования System One. Авиакомпания Continental Airlines становится совладельцем компании Amadeus.
    7. В том же году Amadeus формирует стратегический альянс с немецкой компанией START по ведению международного бизнеса.
    8. В 1998 году окончательно завершается самой большой в туристическом бизнесе процесс объединения систем - Amadeus и System One. Система Amadeus 6 раз подряд объявляется лучшей глобальной распределительной системой.
    9. Компьютерная система бронирования Amadeus, представленная на российском рынке с 1993 г., в последнее время испытывает рост интереса со стороны турфирм. Вместе с увеличением интенсивности резервирования растет и число агентств - пользователей системы.
  • 199. America
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Вслед за ним был выпущен альбом "America", сделанный примерно в том же ключе и также занявший неплохую позицию (14-е место). После успеха в Англии группа отправилась покорять Северную Америку, начав с тура в поддержку " Everly Brothers". Весной в Штатах был переиздан "A Horse With No Name", вскоре обосновавшийся на вершине тамошних чартов, скинув оттуда "Heart of Gold" Нила Янга. Забив еще один сингл, "I Need You", в горячую десятку, "America" засела за создание второго лонгплея. Пока пластинка готовилась сингл "Ventura Highway" также оказался в Топ 10. По итогам 1972 года группа получила "Грэмми" в номинации "Best New Artist". "Homecoming", увидевший свет в январе 1973-го в Англии занял всего лишь 21-е место, зато в Америке он снова был в лучшей десятке. Саунд команды практически не изменился, правда, стал немного более отполированным.

  • 200. America and Indian race
    Курсовой проект пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    The territory west of the Mississippi, it turned out, was not so remote as had been supposed. The discovery of gold in California (1848) started a new sequence of treaties, designed to extinguish Indian title to lands lying in the path of the overland routes to the Pacific. The sudden surge of thousands of wagon trains through the last of the Indian country and the consequent slaughtering of prairie and mountain game that provided subsistence for the Indians brought on the most serious Indian wars the country had experienced. For three decades, beginning in the 1850s, raids and sporadic pitched fighting took place up and down the western Plains, highlighted by such incidents as the Custer massacre by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians (1876), the Nez Perce chief Joseph's running battle in 1877 against superior U.S. army forces, and the Chiricahua Geronimo's long duel with authorities in the Southwest, resulting in his capture and imprisonment in 1886. Toward the close of that period, the Ghost Dance religion, arising out of the dream revelations of a young Paiute Indian, Wovoka, promised the Indians a return to the old life and reunion with their departed kinsmen. The songs and ceremonies born of this revelation swept across the northern Plains. The movement came to an abrupt end December 29, 1890, at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota. Believing that the Ghost Dance was disturbing an uneasy peace, government agents moved to arrest ringleaders. Sitting Bull was killed (December 15) while being taken into custody, and two weeks later units of the U.S. 7th Cavalry at Wounded Knee massacred more than 200 men, women, and children who had already agreed to return to their homes. A further major shift of policy had occurred in 1871 after congressional discussions lasting several years. U.S. presidents, with the advice and consent of the Senate, had continued to make treaties with the Indian tribes and commit the United States to the payment of sums of money. The House of Representatives protested, since a number of congressmen had come to the view that treaties with Indian tribes were an absurdity (a view earlier held by Andrew Jackson). The Senate yielded, and the act of March 3, 1871, declared that "hereafter no Indian nation or tribe" would be recognized "as an independent power with whom the United States may contract by treaty." Indian affairs were brought under the legislative control of the Congress to an extent that had not been attempted previously. Tribal authority with respect to criminal offenses committed by members within the tribe was reduced to the extent that murder and other major crimes were placed under the jurisdiction of the federal courts. The most radical undertaking of the new legislative policy was the Dawes General Allotment Act of 1887. By that time the Indian tribes had been moved out of the mainstreams of traffic and were settled on lands that they had chosen out of the larger areas that they had formerly occupied. Their choice in most cases had been confirmed by treaty, agreement, act of Congress, or executive order of the president. The tribes that lived by hunting over wide areas found reservation confinement a threat to their existence. Generally, they had insisted on annuity payments or rations, or both, and the U.S. peace commissioners had been willing to offer such a price in return for important land cessions. In time the view came to be held that reservation life fostered indolence and perpetuated customs and attitudes that held Indians back from assimilation. The strategy offered by proponents of this theory was the Allotment Act authorizing the president to divide the reservations into individual parcels and to give every Indian, whether he wanted it or not, a particular piece of the tribally owned land. In order not to make the transition too abrupt, the land would be held in trust for a period of 25 years, after which ownership would devolve upon the individual. With it would go all the rights and duties of citizenship. Reservation land remaining after all living members of the tribes had been provided with allotments was declared surplus, and the president was authorized to open it for entry by non-Indian homesteaders, the Indians being paid the homestead price. A total of 118 reservations was allotted in this manner, but the result was not what had been anticipated. Through the alienation of surplus lands (making no allowance for children yet unborn) and through patenting of individual holdings, the Indians lost 86,000,000 acres (34,800,000 hectares), or 62 percent, of a total of 138,000,000 acres in Indian ownership prior to 1887. A generation of landless Indians resulted, with no vocational training to relieve them of dependence upon land. The strategy also failed in that ownership of land did not effect an automatic acculturation in those Indians who received individual parcels. Through scattering of individuals and families, moreover, social cohesiveness tended to break down. The result was a weakening of native institutions and cultural practices with nothing offered in substitution. What was intended as transition proved to be a blind alley. The Indian population had been dwindling through the decades after the mid-19th century. The California Indians alone, it was estimated, dropped from 100,000 in 1853 to not more than 30,000 in 1864 and 19,000 in 1906. Cholera in the central Plains in 1849 struck the Pawnee. As late as 1870-71 an epidemic of smallpox brought disaster to the Blackfeet, Assiniboin, and Cree. These events gave currency to the concept of the Indian as "the vanishing American." The decision of 1871 to discontinue treaty making and the passage of the Allotment Act of 1887 were both founded in the belief that the Indians would not survive, and hence it did not much matter whether their views were sought in advance of legislation or whether lands were provided for coming generations. When it became obvious after about 1920 that the Indians, whose numbers had remained static for several years, were surely increasing, the United States was without a policy for advancing the interests of a living people.