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  • 121. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    "Regional" support for the Internet is provided by various consortium networks and "local" support is provided through each of the research and educational institutions. Within the United States, much of this support has come from the federal and state governments, but a considerable contribution has been made by industry. In Europe and elsewhere, support arises from cooperative international efforts and through national research organizations. During the course of its evolution, particularly after 1989, the Internet system began to integrate support for other protocol suites into its basic networking fabric. The present emphasis in the system is on multiprotocol interworking, and in particular, with the integration of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) protocols into the architecture.

  • 122. A Child
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    No, Im not talking about the children becoming criminals but about the “normal” children making life with them completely intolerable. They bother, disturb, shout, cry, run around you dont giving even a minute for rest. Their curiosity and plays could cause the terrible consequences. For instance the bicycling of the young Demean Storn almost cause his “mothers” death in the mystic movie “Omen”. He had a three-wheeled bicycle. She stayed on the chair near the parapet trying to do something with the lustre. Demean went out of his room and directed the bicycle to mother of him. He struck the chair and having flied over the parapet she fell down. Certainly Demean Storn was moved by the devils will but it should be noticed that such accident could take place in any family.

  • 123. A Comparison between Beowulf & Redcrosse Knight
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Additionally both heroes have an encounter with a character from hell. Beowulf dives into the lake (personification of hell) where Grendels mother is waiting to attack. He cannot cut her with his sword, so he tosses it away and finds a larger sword killing Grendels mother by cutting her head off. He sees Grendel dead body nearby and cuts off his head as a trophy and return to Denmark (pg. 61, 1356-84). This expresses an important virtue, loyalty. Redcrosse Knight encounters Lucifera (Queen of Hell) and the parade of vices. He has been weakened by his visit to the House of Pride. Although he had the instinctive good sense to flee from that castle, his conscience is still at work. This failure leads him near death in the dungeon of Orgoglio, a giant that represents godless pride. Arthur (represents magnificence) comes along and helps Redcrosse rise up from his lowest state (Canto 7). Redcrosse also defeats the dragon. Just as Christ descended to hell to defeat Satan, Redcrosse had to enter the hellish mouth of the dragon to finally kill it. He is not victorious alone he is saved twice by very timely help. The Well of Life and The Tree of Life, both represents the grace that God gives to mankind, which aids Christian in danger of falling prey to sin (Canto 10). No matter how well equipped or prepared a Christian is, he is no match for sin and death without the underserved grace of God. Thus the message about the Christian life is one of humility; we can never take the credit for Gods victory.

  • 124. A country across the channel
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    SCOTLAND. The ocean bounds Scotland on all sides except for its southern. On the west coast there are a lot of sea lochs and islands. The country may be divided into the Highlands and the Lowlands. The highest peak in the Highland and in all Britain is Ben Nevis. The east coast is drier than the west, where even in summer rainstorms and showers are frequent. Scotland is famous the world over as a land of beautiful scenery. Fishing remains an important activity in Scotland. Modern Scotland is also a land of steel and ships, coal and iron. Some of the traditional Scottish industries, such as coal, steel and shipbuilding, are declining. Edinburgh has been the capital of Scotland since 1437. The landscape of Northern Ireland is gentle. It is green because in rains a lot. Population and industry are concentrated on the eastern seaboard. The traditional important industries are shipbuilding and linen. Belfast is one of the youngest capitals in the world. There are many cultural and leisure facilities: the Art Gallery, Belfast Cathedral and others.

  • 125. A Family of Scientists
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Their three grandchildren became scientists. Howard was a talented entomologist, William and Joan were both physicists. The latter was almost the only woman-physicist who took part in the work at the atomic project of the USA. Their second daughter Margaret is known as the mother of the outstanding English mathematician Jeffrey Tailor who is a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Their third daughter Alicia was a specialist in the field of multidimensional space. The fourth daughter Lucy was the first woman-professor who was the head of a chemistry department. But the youngest daughter Ethel Lilian is the most famous. She married the Polish scientist and revolutionist Voynich. Her wonderful book 'The Gadfly" is translated into many languages and is popular in many countries of the world.

  • 126. A holyday which went wrong
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    And guess what we did. Our pilot forgot to switch on flight gears and he landed our plane on the hull. By some grate miracle no one did get hurt. Because there were no taxies we started to the walk to our hotel, which was 20 miles away from the airport (another little thing that my traveling agent forgot to tell me). When we had walked about 5 miles the weather turned real bad: wind started to blow about 25 m/s and there was so much rain that we didnt saw the road anymore. And of course we got completely lost. So there we were dripping wet at a foreign country and with no idea what to do.

  • 127. A little information about Turkmenistan
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    I have to explain that Turkmenistan doesn't have any nuclear weapons because Russia reclaimed all of its nuclear weapons after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In answer to the question of whether my parents were communists or not, I just say that the all people in the Soviet Union were communist, and citizens of that country had no other choice but to be one. People were prosecuted for having different ideas or beliefs about the government during the Soviet era. Of course the Soviet Union made nuclear weapons against United States, because the United States built the same weapons against the Soviet Union. Was the United States the biggest enemy of the Soviet Union, or was it the other way around? Or was it both ways at once?

  • 128. A Little information about Turkmenistan english
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    I have to explain that Turkmenistan doesn't have any nuclear weapons because Russia reclaimed all of its nuclear weapons after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In answer to the question of whether my parents were communists or not, I just say that the all people in the Soviet Union were communist, and citizens of that country had no other choice but to be one. People were prosecuted for having different ideas or beliefs about the government during the Soviet era. Of course the Soviet Union made nuclear weapons against United States, because the United States built the same weapons against the Soviet Union. Was the United States the biggest enemy of the Soviet Union, or was it the other way around? Or was it both ways at once?

  • 129. A man cooking meals and a woman using tools
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    There is a certain sort of a man in the world, a man who can be a good cook. If he marries a woman, who is a good cook too, there will be no harmony in their family. The man will always interfere in the kitchen. The woman will shout and drive him away. It is generally assumed that cooking is the housewife's job. Take for example, different advertisements. You can see a certain picture: a hungry man is sitting and looking expectantly at table, meanwhile his wife is bustling to and from the stove. Then she gives her husband a dish which ensures his adoration for ever.

  • 130. A Modern Invention I Can’t Live Without
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    It is very interesting how those people in 50s lived without all this. At that time the word “computer” (electronic counting machine) sounded like something really mysterious and much-dreaded. People heard about them only by hearsay. Thus, there was no use for these great opportunities which PC gave. However, that time computers were so big in size that they could occupy the whole room that is inconceivable for our present time barebone-systems (small PCs which often resemble the main block of music systems, excluding speakers). It was a hard job of those computer system administrators who controlled these giants: using of punched cards that leaved much to be desired. Every command must be entered to the computer with thousands of punched cards, so that the whole process, for instance, A4-paper size text printing, took approximately an hour.

  • 131. A museum
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    A museum is a stock of the worlds masterpieces, it is the place, where you can enrich knowledge, you can look at the achievements of mankind, you can satisfy your aesthetic taste. Museums give the possibility to be always in touch with the past and every time discover something new for yourself. Besides, museums play an important role in the life of any nation. A museum is just the right place to find out lots of interesting things about history, traditions and habits of different peoples. One may find in museums papers, photos, books, scripts, works of art, personal things of famous people etc. All this helps us to better understand historical events, scientific discoveries, character and deeds of well-known personalities.

  • 132. A new weapon shooting from behind a corner is invented in Israel
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Technically the decision appeared simple, as well as all ingenious. The weapon has been supplied with the precision videocamera attached to a travelling barrel and with a videosight with the monitor on invisible to the opponent part. It is it that allows aiming from behind a corner. Parents of the invention became the Israeli technology and the American investments.

  • 133. A perfect circle
    Доклад пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Другие музыканты "A perfect circle" не стали терять времени, а нашли себе занятие в других проектах. Так, Ленчантин приняла участие в "Zwan", Ван Ливен помог " Queens of the stone age" в создании "Songs for the deaf", а Фриз успел развлечься в " Evanescence". Все эти отвлечения закончились перетасовкой состава, и к сессиям второго альбома "A perfect circle" вышли в обновленной конфигурации. Место бас-гитариста теперь занял Джорди Уайт (не кто иной, как Твигги Рамирез из " Marilyn Manson"), а вторую гитару оккупировал Джеймс Иха из " Smashing pumpkins".

  • 134. A question of taste. Fashion.
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    My style and the range of clothes that I have are defined by the activities I engage in. Work occupies most of my time and therefore most of the clothes that I have corresponds with the dress code, registered in the policy of our company. According to the dress code, an employee is not allowed to wear certain items of clothing to work. For example, men are supposed to wear ties and business suits, and nobody is allowed to wear jeans, except on Fridays. Womens clothes are not supposed to be skin-tight, too short and too open. All of the shirts are supposed to have collars. Clothes also cant be too bright, the colors should correspond to the corporate colors dark blue and white.

  • 135. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    1. Our moral responsibilities to future human beings (sometimes called sustainable development) require that we stop using technology and science for short-term gains at the expense of long-term risks of very negative ecological effects for future people. In several official declarations and policy-documents this idea has been expressed as "the precautionary principle", roughly the idea that we should not use particular means of production, distribution etc. unless they have been shown not to effect too serious risks. However, it is far from clear what is meant by this. What determines whether or not the effecting of a certain risk (in order to secure some short-term gain) is too serious or not? - and what determines whether or not this has been "shown"? Some traditional decision-theorists would say that it is a question of traditional instrumental efficiency (i.e. rationality) in relation to morally respectable aims. Some ethicists would instead claim that it is a question of whether or not the severity of the scenario illustrating an actualization of the risk in question makes the taking of this risk morally wrong in itself. Others, yet, hint that they want to take a stand in between these two extremes, however, without specifying what this could mean. There is also a rather grim debate regarding whether or not it can ever be shown that a certain action does not effect too serious risks, and this of course depends on what requirements should be laid on someone who purports to show such a thing. In both cases, the questions seem to boil down to basic issues regarding what is required of risky decisions in order to make them morally justified. But, obviously, it must be a kind of moral justification different from the one dealt with by traditional ethical theories of the rights and wrongs of actions, since these only deal with justification in terms of actual outcomes, not in terms of risks for such outcomes.

  • 136. A role of the USA in the world politics
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 10.03.2006

    Also, it is possible that the USA will return to the policy of partial isolationism to concentrate on its own problems. First, US troops should be withdrawn from Iraq. This action will greatly destabilize the situation in the Middle East, and Iraq, probably, will become a new center of Islamic fundamentalism. Islamic radicals will increase their activity and the situation will become very dangerous for many countries, but not for the USA. The terrorists simply could not reach the United States. It will be a real danger for the EU and Russia, American adversaries. In Russia the war could spread from Chechnya to the whole Caucasus region. In European countries the danger of terrorist acts would increase dramatically. Of course it would be terrible act (an immediate withdrawing of the troops) from a moral point of view, but the States have already shown several times that they care only about their own interests.

  • 137. A Traveler's Guide to Moscow
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 09.12.2008

    t may come as a surprise to many to learn that Moscow is one of the world's great cities. It certainly did to me. I think that, like many people, I envisioned a city that was a cross between Beirut and ... well, I don'tknow what. Having never previously visited a post-communist city, particularly one that had the reputation for rampant crime and shoddy Stalinist architecture enjoyed by Moscow.Night Life

  • 138. A Traveller’s Guide to Moscow
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    -Arriving: If possible, arrange to have someone meet you with a car when you land at Sheremetivo Airport. Upon arrival you will be handed a customs form. Do not lose this: you'll be expected to turn it in along with a new one when you depart.

  • 139. A Valediction Forbidding Mourning by John Donne
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    The word "melt" implies a change in physical state. The bond of the lovers will dissolve quietly like the soul of a dying man separating from his body. "Noise" refers to "tear floods" and "sigh tempests" that the speaker implores his love not to release. He continues by comparing natural phenomena to a love relationship, the "sigh tempests" relating to the element of air, and the "tear floods" to the element of water. He uses this hyperbole to demand that his lover remain stoic and resist any show of emotion upon his departure. Next, the element of earth is introduced. Earthquakes are perceived by everyone, and people often interpret them as omens of misfortune. It is understandable that an earthquake would be looked upon with fear because of its potential to ravage the land; whereas a trepidation affecting a celestial sphere would be viewed in a different light, especially one that is imperceptible and has no apparent meaning for the average person. In order to understand the meaning of the third quatrain in the poem, it is necessary to consider the Ptolemaic Universe and the symbolism of the sphere. During the Middle Ages and the Elizabethan Age, the circle and sphere were looked upon as perfect shapes. The main influence behind that thinking may have been Greek philosophers such as Aristotle, who believed that since, "The motion of the celestial bodies is not straight and finite, but circular, invariable and eternal. So they themselves must be eternal, unalterable, divine". The well-educated Donne, 1572-1631, certainly studied famous Greek thinkers such as Aristotle and Ptolemy, and their views concerning the universe. Donne lived during a time when many people accepted the Ptolemaic theory of the universe, which held that the spherical planets orbited the earth in concentric circles called deferents. 2 Writing this poem in 1611, Donne would most likely be influenced by his previous classical studies, and he chose to use the circle and the sphere to represent a perfect relationship based on reason and harmony. The "trepidation of the spheres" is another obsolete astronomical theory, used to support the speaker's point that great changes in the heavens may be imperceptible to the layman. The speaker presents this comparison between the earthquake and the "trepidation of the spheres" to suggest that matters beyond one's control should be approached rationally. In quatrains four and five, the speaker urges his love to remain stoic by making any change in their relationship as imperceptible to others as the "trepidation of the spheres," and again, he uses terms from astronomy to illustrate his point. The term "sublunary" refers to the surface below the moon. According to the Greek astronomers, this sublunary area, composed of the four elements, was imperfect. The sphere's surface, composed of quinta essenta, the perfect part, radiates light and heat. The dull sublunary lovers are imperfect human beings who do not practice mature love. The soul of their love is "sense", so they need physical contact to cement their relationship. However, the speaker suggests that reason can free itself from any connection with a sensory experience. Therefore, the lovers with fully developed souls "Care less, eyes, lips, and hands to miss", having developed rational souls, the third part of the Aristotelian model for the human soul, consisting of vegetative, sense and rational parts. In quatrain six, Donne echoes the traditional marriage ceremony in which two become one, so the "two souls" of the lovers are joined together. He describes separation as a stretching exercise in which the joined soul of the lovers is gold beat to an "airy thinness". According to Pinka, the comparison is "beautiful and pure" but "fragile" since there is "expansion without increase". The "airy thinness" emphasizes the stretching of the lovers' resources, in that the love continues to exist, but its strength is weakened by the circumstances. He urges the lover to look at the separation in a positive light, but he sends out undertones suggesting that he is aware of the fragility of the situation. The speaker then begins his closing argument, in which he changes his symbol of perfection from the sphere to the circle. One might argue that the circle and the sphere are slightly different objects and should not be considered one and the same; however, the Ptolemaic Universe consisted of both perfect spheres and perfect circular orbits, and so the concept of circle and sphere both represented perfection. Poets and songwriters have often used sphere and circle symbolism. In Dante Alighieri's Paradiso, a story of a pilgrim journeying through Paradise, Dante sees nine concentric circles in the eyes of Beatrice, his guide. Beatrice explains to him that each of nine circles represents an angelic order. The brightest circles are in the center nearest to God and represent the highest order of angels and the greatest good. According to Beatrice, each circle also corresponds to one of the nine spherical heavens consisting of the five planets, the sun, the moon, the fixed stars, and the Prime Mover. It does not seem unusual for Donne to include both the sphere and the circle in his poetry as symbols of perfection, since other writers had linked the circle and the sphere together in various ways throughout the history of science and literature. The speaker in the poem is unique in that he does not compare the perfection of his love to a traditional object such as a rock or a fortress; instead he chooses to compare the twin legs of a compass to the lovers' sense of union during absence. Such a comparison would be called metaphysical according to Gardner, who states that a metaphysical conceit must concern two things so dissimilar that we "feel an incongruity". Here, the poet must then proceed to persuade the reader that these things are alike in spite of their apparent differences. The speaker proves the point by drawing the circle with the compass. The lover who stays behind is the fixed point, and the speaker is the other leg of the instrument. Without the "firmness" of the fixed point, he would be unable to complete the journey and make the circle just (precise). The adverb "obliquely" (l. 34) may have several different meanings. John Freccero supports the interpretation that obliquely means a spiral motion, referred to by the Neoplatonic tradition as a movement of the soul. Obliquely may also indicate a slant. Either the drawing instrument can be interpreted to move in a spiral, or the motion may refer to the second foot's tilted position in relation to the fixed one in the center. Such a position would be required during the drawing of a circle. According to Freccero, "No matter how far Donne roams his thoughts will revolve around his love.... At the end of the circle, body and soul are one". In Donne's "Valediction," the human souls are described in the context of a joint soul that is stretched by the separation, or two souls joined within a circle of spiritual strength. Donne once stated in an elegy, "...perfect motions are all circular."5 The circle in the "Valediction" represents the journey during which two lovers endure the trial of separation, as they support each other spiritually, and eventually merge in a physically and spiritually perfect union.

  • 140. A visit to a sick friend
    Статья пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    I always try to follow this rule. Fortunately, my friends dont fall ill frequent. But I remember such case that happened about 12 months ago. One of my best school friends had fallen ill with hard form of flu. Soon I went to his place to see him. I took some things that, as I was expecting, were interesting for him. Among them I brought a videocassette with best game moments of National Basketball Association. He was very glad for this present and soon we both were enjoying the outstanding games of the strongest basketball league in the world. Then I told him all last school news and everything about the material we had passed when he was absent. Then we tried to entertain ourselves and started to solve crosswords in the newspapers, to watch TV set, so we began to do all that everybody makes when he doesnt know what to do. To my surprise, I lost the feeling of time and there was deep evening, when I understood, that it was a time to go to the home. When I was leaving for the home, my friend promised that he would be all right soon and he kept his word. In a two days he came to school and started to study various subjects with new energy. Sometimes a little interval is useful for a person.