География

  • 21. Employment Relations of Bangladesh
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 04.08.2010
  • 22. Florida
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 30.07.2010
  • 23. Hауру
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Остров Науру был открыт в 1798 американским мореплавателем Джоном Фирном. В то время на острове обитали по крайней мере 12 племенных групп. В 1888 о.Науру был аннексирован Германией и включен в протекторат Новая Гвинея. В 1906 австралийская компания «Пасифик фосфейт компани» получила разрешение на разработку фосфоритов. Во время Первой мировой войны в 1914 о.Науру был оккупирован Австралией. В 1919 в соответствии с мандатом Лиги наций Науру был передан в совместное управление Австралии, Новой Зеландии и Великобритании, но административное управление осуществляла Австралия. Эти страны создали совместную компанию «Бритиш фосфейт комишн» для освоения месторождений фосфоритов, которая вплоть до Второй мировой войны вела их интенсивную разработку.

  • 24. Kazahstan
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 31.05.2010
  • 25. Kazakhstan
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    It is situated both in Asia and in Europe. The territory of its as largest as the territories of Italy, Spain, France, Portugal and Greece taken together. Kazakhstan borders on Kirgizia, Uzbikistan, Turkministan in the south, China in the east and Russia in the north. There are a lot of hills, mountains on its territory. The greatest of them are the Alatow, Tian-Shian mountains, besides there are long rivers in my country. The main rivers are the Ural, the Irtysh, the Tobol, the Syrdaria. The Kaspian sea, the largest lake in the world is situated in my country too. Besides this famous lake there are such lakes as the Balhash, the Issyck-Kul. The Aral sea is situated in Kazakhstan too. Some years ago, is was large and beatiful, and nowadays the government of Kazakhstan suffers about the Aral seas future. Many people, hearing about Kazakhstan, think about steppes and villages, but its not true. I think, our president is to do something for glory of our country, cause some people dont know, where my country is, its bad. In the north of Kazakhstan, winters are very cold and summers are very hot, and there are more rains in the north and east of Kazakhstan, but in the south there almost no rains. Kazakhstan has coal, oil, gas, gold and other minerals, which now are richening. Coal industry is developed in Mangyshlack. Chemical industry is highly developed in Tshymkent and Karaganda. Agriculture is also developed in my country. Fruits, vegetables are grown here. Cattle farming and sheep farming are very important here too. The population of Kazakhstan more than 16 million people. My country is a multinational state. More than one hundred nationalities live here. Kazakhstan is an independent state, it got its independence on 16 of December in 1995 year. Its new constitution was adopted in 1993 on 28th of January. The first president of our state is Nazarbaev. The flag of Kazakhstan consists of 2 color: yellow and blue. There is an eagle in the center and kazakh ornament in the left. The eagle flyes under the sun, which mean the freedom of country. The capitol of our country is Astana, it became a capitol in 1998, after Almaty. Almaty is a city of a million people, a big administrative economic and cultural center of my country. One can observe the entire city from the top of the hill Zailiiskiy Alatay. Almaty is known for highly developed engineering, metal-working, wood-working, light, food and printing industries. Machines made at the Almaty Heavy Machine Building plant are supplied to scores of foreign countries. Almaty today is a city of higher schools and research institutes. Over 100000 young people attend the higher and secondary specialized schools. Rich is the cultural life of the city. The theatre has become an important part of the citys life. Every night there go on the lights of the national opera, the Kazakh and Russian dramas, the Korean, the Young audience Theatre, the Concert halls get crowded. The biggest book depository here is the Pushkin library. Almaty is a garden city: the city especially nice in spring when everything is in blossom. The evening cool of the summer and the mountain breeze invite you for a walk about the streets, boulevards and square of the city. Autumn is beautiful with golden leaves and aroma of Apart apples. Winter in the city, though not lasting, but frosty and snowy is beautiful too. Practically every Almaty teenager goes skating and skiing at this season of the year, the high attitude “Medeu” skating-ring is admirable the whole year round. This sports complex is known all over the world. It meets it guests with warm and sun, presents them with happy laughter of children. It grows better year by year. And now about Astana: Astana is the capitol of Kazakhstan. First, it called Tselinograd, then Akmola and now Astana, cause Astana means capitol in Kazakh. It is the center of Akmola region. It was founded as Tselinograd in 1960s. Now Astana is a great administrative industrial and scientific center. It is the sit of the parliament government and the president of our country. The population of the city is more than 277.000 people. Since Astana has become the capitol of the country mane new multistoried buildings are constantly appear here. I didnt visit Astana, but I want, cause people say, that after becoming a capitol it became a great city. Other largest cities are: Aktobe, Karaganda, Semipolatinsk. Kazakhstan is country, where I was born and I live here for the length of my life. We are proud of our country believe in its future.

  • 26. Madagascar
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 02.06.2010
  • 27. Royal Dutch Shell: Evaluation of Oil Reserves
    Дипломная работа пополнение в коллекции 25.05.2010
  • 28. Short Overview of African Countries
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    From this time and up to 20-th century African continent was a big colony of a number of European countries. After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962. Angola former Portugal colony got its freedom in 1975. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon merged in 1961 to form the present country. Chad was a part of France's African holdings until 1960. The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. Mozambique almost five centuries was a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Rwanda gains its independence in 1962. The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the South Africa Company from 1891 until takeover by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated to keep whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. But even after formal independence most countries are heavily dependant on Europe in terms of investitions and aids. After the "lost decade" of the eighties when tumbling commodity prices, debt, economic and political mismanagement brought African economies to near bankruptcy, the majority of African countries have embarked on International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and donor supported economic reform programmes. In December of year 2000, the World Bank gave US$155 million in credits to help seven African countries Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda cope with an unexpected surge in oil prices and other losses in their terms of trade. These factors were causing serious hardship for the poor in terms of rising energy and transportation costs, which in turn were jeopardizing the success of the countries' reform programs. Still, poverty is higher in Africa than in any other region of the world. According to the latest data two out of five Africans subsist below a poverty line of less than $20 per month; the majority of these are women. This mean that some 300 million Africans live on barely 65 cents a day. Africa has the most unequal distribution of income of any region in the world. The richest twenty percent of Africans own 51 percent of total income, compared to 40 percent in western countries and in South Asia. The last report on Africa made by World Bank group also shows how civil conflict in the region has blunted and reversed growth prospects for war-torn countries. While the trend for many African countries during the 1990s was one of slow but steady economic improvement, those in conflict suffered negative growth and an alarming deterioration in basic conditions (Angola -0.2 percent, Burundi -2.4 percent, Democratic Republic of Congo, -4.6 percent, Rwanda, -2.1 percent, Sierra Leone, -4.6 percent). In essence, the present forecast is that the world's poverty will become even more concentrated in Africa.

  • 29. Short Overview of African Countries
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 03.07.2010
  • 30. Sweden
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Rootsi kesk- ja lõunaosa on killustatud tuhandete järvedega ja jõgedega ning lääneosas on pikk mäeahelik. Jõgede ja järvede pindala moodustab 9% ja mägede pindala 16% kogu pindalast. Kuna Rootsi on hästi "venitatud" põhjast lõuna, siis on ka kliima erinevates osades väga erinev. Põhjas on kogu aeg lumi, lõunas aga kliima on suhteliselt mõõdukas. Selle kliima põhimõjutajad on Põhja Atlandi voolus ning domineerivad läänetuuled, mis puhuvad suhteliselt soojast Atlandi ookeanist. Põhjas on märkavalt külmem kui lõunaosas, kuna seal on palju mäestikke ning soe mereõhk lihtsalt ei ulata sinna.

  • 31. Teхнические средства борьбы с АСПО
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Нет единого мнения об образовании АСПО при высокой обводненности продукции скважин. Любопытные данные получены при анализе 344 скважин на поздней стадии разработки месторождений ОАО "Татнефть" [9]. В этих условиях наиболее часто АСПО образуются в скважинах, дебиты которых меньше 20 т/сут., причем преобладают дебиты до 5 т/сут по жидкости. Критическим дебитом, когда АСПО в скважине незначительно, является дебит свыше 35 т/сут. АСПО образуются во многих скважинах с низкой обводненностью нефти, доля которых от общего количества скважин составляет 32 %. Второе место по частоте образования АСПО занимают скважины, имеющие обводненность от 50 до 90 %. Характерной особенностью формирования АСПО в таких скважинах является их образование не только в НКТ, но и в насосном оборудовании (более 50 % ремонтов). АСПО в колонне НКТ образуются в основном в скважинах с низкой и высокой (от 60 до 80 %) обводненностью. Большинство таких скважин (95 %) оборудовано штанговыми насосами, из них 54 % имеют диаметр плунжера 44 мм, а 31 % - 32 мм. Около 47 % скважин с АСПО в насосах имеют обводненность продукции выше 60 %, в то время как всего 28 % таких скважин - низкую обводненность.

  • 32. The Economy of Great Britain
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    By the mid 1970s both Labour and Conservative economists were beginning to recognise the need to move away from Keynesian economics, based upon stimulating demand by Injecting money into the economy. But, as described in the Introduction, it was the Conservatives who decided to break with the old economic formula completely. Returning to power in 1979, they were determined to lower taxes as an incentive to individuals and businesses to Increase productivity; to leave the labour force to regulate itself either by pricing itself out of employment or by working within the amount of money employers could afford; and, finally, to limit government spending levels and use money supply (the amount of money in circulation at any one time) as a way of controlling inflation. As Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher argued in the Commons, "If our objective is to have a prosperous and expanding economy, we must recognise that high public spending, as a proportion of GNP gross national product;, very quickly kills growth.... We have to remember that governments have no money at all. Every penny they take is from the productive sector of the economy in order to transfer it to the unproductive part of it." She had a point: between 1961 and 1975 employment outside Industry increased by over 40 per cent relative to employment in industry.

  • 33. The Economy of Great Britain
    Сочинение пополнение в коллекции 16.05.2010
  • 34. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 07.07.2010
  • 35. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Washington D.C. is the capitol of US. It is situated in the District of Columbia and is like no other city in America. its the worlds largest one-industry city. And that industry is government. The White House, where the US president lives and works, the Capitol, the home of the US congress, and the Supreme Court, are all in Washington. The city was so named in memory of George Washington, the first president of the USA, known for the active participation in the war with Britain. A special district was created for the city the District of Columbia. The city was laid out according to be a capitol. Washington is one of the most magnificent and unusual cities in the USA. In the centre of it rises the huge dome of the Capitol a big white dome standing in a circle of pillars. Its rather easy to get lost in this huge building, full of paintings and statues.

  • 36. The great Britain
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 14.05.2010
  • 37. The land down under
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 11.05.2012

    Australia (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>"> <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>"><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>"><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>">e? <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>),%20officially%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Australia,%20is%20a%20country%20in%20the%20Southern%20Hemisphere%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Hemisphere>%20comprising%20the%20mainland%20of%20the%20Australian%20continent%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_(continent)>,%20the%20island%20of%20Tasmania%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tasmania>%20and%20numerous%20smaller%20islands%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_of_Australia>%20in%20the%20Indian%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Ocean>%20and%20Pacific%20Oceans%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Ocean>.%20It%20is%20the%20world's%20sixth-largest%20country%20by%20total%20area%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_outlying_territories_by_total_area>.%20Neighboring%20countries%20include%20Indonesia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia>,%20East%20Timor%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor>%20and%20Papua%20New%20Guinea%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea>%20to%20the%20north,%20the%20Solomon%20Islands%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Islands>,%20Vanuatu%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanuatu>%20and%20New%20Caledonia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Caledonia>%20to%20the%20northeast%20and%20New%20Zealand%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand>%20to%20the%20southeast.at%20least%2040,000%20years%20before%20European%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe>%20settlement%20in%20the%20late%2018th%20century,%20Australia%20was%20inhabited%20by%20indigenous%20Australians%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australians>,%20who%20belonged%20to%20one%20or%20more%20of%20roughly%20250%20language%20groups%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australian_languages>.%20After%20discovery%20by%20Dutch%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Republic>%20explorers%20in%201606,%20Australia's%20eastern%20half%20was%20claimed%20by%20Great%20Britain%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Great_Britain>%20in%201770%20and%20initially%20settled%20through%20penal%20transportation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penal_transportation>%20to%20the%20colony%20of%20New%20South%20Wales%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_South_Wales>%20from%2026%20January%201788.%20The%20population%20grew%20steadily%20in%20subsequent%20decades;%20the%20continent%20was%20explored%20and%20an%20additional%20five%20self-governing%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsible_government>%20Crown%20Colonies%20were%20established.1%20January%201901,%20the%20six%20colonies%20federated%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia>,%20forming%20the%20Commonwealth%20of%20Australia.%20Since%20Federation,%20Australia%20has%20maintained%20a%20stable%20liberal%20democratic%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_democracy>%20political%20system%20which%20functions%20as%20a%20federal%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism>%20parliamentary%20democracy%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_democracy>%20and%20constitutional%20monarchy%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy>.%20The%20federation%20comprises%20six%20states%20and%20several%20territories%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_and_territories_of_Australia>.%20The%20population%20of%2022.6%20million%20is%20heavily%20concentrated%20in%20the%20Eastern%20states%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_states_of_Australia>%20and%20is%20highly%20urbanized%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization_by_country>.highly%20developed%20country%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developed_country>,%20Australia%20is%20the%20world's%20thirteenth%20largest%20economy%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)>%20and%20has%20the%20world's%20seventh-highest%20per%20capita%20income%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita>.%20Australia's%20military%20expenditure%20is%20the%20world's%20twelfth%20largest%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_military_expenditures>.%20With%20the%20second-highest%20human%20development%20index%20globally%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index>,%20Australia%20ranks%20highly%20in%20many%20international%20comparisons%20of%20national%20performance,%20such%20as%20quality%20of%20life,%20health,%20education,%20economic%20freedom%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_freedom>%20and%20the%20protection%20of%20civil%20liberties%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_liberties>%20and%20political%20rights.%20Australia%20is%20a%20member%20of%20the%20G20%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G20>,%20OECD%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organisation_for_Economic_Co-operation_and_Development>,%20WTO%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Organization>,%20APEC%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia-Pacific_Economic_Cooperation>,%20UN%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations>,%20Commonwealth%20of%20Nations%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations>,%20ANZUS%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANZUS>,%20and%20the%20Pacific%20Islands%20Forum%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum>.%20[1]"><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English><http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:IPA_for_English>), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Hemisphere> comprising the mainland of the Australian continent <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_(continent)>, the island of Tasmania <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tasmania> and numerous smaller islands <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_of_Australia> in the Indian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Ocean> and Pacific Oceans <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Ocean>. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_and_outlying_territories_by_total_area>. Neighboring countries include Indonesia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia>, East Timor <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Timor> and Papua New Guinea <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea> to the north, the Solomon Islands <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Islands>, Vanuatu <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanuatu> and New Caledonia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Caledonia> to the northeast and New Zealand <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand> to the southeast.at least 40,000 years before European <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe> settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australians>, who belonged to one or more of roughly 250 language groups <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_Australian_languages>. After discovery by Dutch <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Republic> explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Great_Britain> in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penal_transportation> to the colony of New South Wales <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_South_Wales> from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored and an additional five self-governing <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsible_government> Crown Colonies were established.1 January 1901, the six colonies federated <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia>, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_democracy> political system which functions as a federal <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism> parliamentary democracy <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary_democracy> and constitutional monarchy <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy>. The federation comprises six states and several territories <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States_and_territories_of_Australia>. The population of 22.6 million is heavily concentrated in the Eastern states <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_states_of_Australia> and is highly urbanized <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urbanization_by_country>.highly developed country <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developed_country>, Australia is the world's thirteenth largest economy <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)> and has the world's seventh-highest per capita income <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(nominal)_per_capita>. Australia's military expenditure is the world's twelfth largest <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_military_expenditures>. With the second-highest human development index globally <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index>, Australia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_freedom> and the protection of civil liberties <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_liberties> and political rights. Australia is a member of the G20 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G20>, OECD <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organisation_for_Economic_Co-operation_and_Development>, WTO <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Trade_Organization>, APEC <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asia-Pacific_Economic_Cooperation>, UN <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations>, Commonwealth of Nations <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations>, ANZUS <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANZUS>, and the Pacific Islands Forum <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum>. [1]">[??st?・lj?, -li?] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_English_phonology>,%20the%20name%20Australia%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_name_etymologies>%20is%20derived%20from%20the%20Latin%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin>%20australis,%20meaning%20"southern".%20The%20country%20has%20been%20referred%20to%20colloquially%20as%20Oz%20since%20the%20early%2020th%20century.%20Aussie%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aussie>%20is%20a%20common%20colloquial%20term%20for%20"Australian".of%20Terra%20Australis%20Incognita%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Australis>-an%20"unknown%20land%20of%20the%20South"-date%20back%20to%20Roman%20times%20and%20were%20commonplace%20in%20medieval%20geography,%20although%20not%20based%20on%20any%20documented%20knowledge%20of%20the%20continent.%20Following%20European%20discovery,%20names%20for%20the%20Australian%20landmass%20were%20often%20references%20to%20the%20famed%20Terra%20Australis.flag%20of%20Australia%20is%20a%20defaced%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defacement_(flag)>%20Blue%20Ensign%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Ensign>:%20a%20blue%20field%20with%20the%20Union%20Flag%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Flag>%20in%20the%20canton%20(upper%20hoist%20quarter),%20and%20a%20large%20white%20seven-pointed%20star%20known%20as%20the%20Commonwealth%20Star%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_Star>%20in%20the%20lower%20hoist%20quarter.%20The%20fly%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_terminology>%20contains%20a%20representation%20of%20the%20Southern%20Cross%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crux>%20constellation,%20made%20up%20of%20five%20white%20stars%20-%20one%20small%20five-pointed%20star%20and%20four,%20larger,%20seven-pointed%20stars.flag's%20original%20design%20was%20chosen%20in%201901%20from%20entries%20in%20a%20worldwide%20competition%20held%20following%20Federation%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia>.%20It%20was%20first%20flown%20in%20Melbourne%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne>%20on%203%20September%201901.%20A%20slightly%20different%20design%20was%20approved%20by%20King%20Edward%20VII%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VII_of_the_United_Kingdom>[1]%20in%201902.%20Over%20the%20next%20few%20years,%20the%20exact%20specifications%20of%20the%20flag%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag>%20were%20changed%20several%20times%20both%20intentionally%20and%20as%20a%20result%20of%20confusion.%20The%20current%20specifications%20were%20formally%20gazetted%20in%201934,%20and%20in%201954%20the%20flag%20became%20recognized%20by,%20and%20legally%20defined%20in,%20the%20Flags%20Act%201953%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flags_Act_1953>[2],%20as%20the%20"Australian%20National%20Flag%20<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_flag>".[1]"> in Australian English <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_English>, the name Australia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_name_etymologies> is derived from the Latin <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> australis, meaning "southern". The country has been referred to colloquially as Oz since the early 20th century. Aussie <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aussie> is a common colloquial term for "Australian".of Terra Australis Incognita <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Australis>-an "unknown land of the South"-date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography, although not based on any documented knowledge of the continent. Following European discovery, names for the Australian landmass were often references to the famed Terra Australis.flag of Australia is a defaced <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defacement_(flag)> Blue Ensign <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blue_Ensign>: a blue field with the Union Flag <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Flag> in the canton (upper hoist quarter), and a large white seven-pointed star known as the Commonwealth Star <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_Star> in the lower hoist quarter. The fly <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_terminology> contains a representation of the Southern Cross <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crux> constellation, made up of five white stars - one small five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars.flag's original design was chosen in 1901 from entries in a worldwide competition held following Federation <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation_of_Australia>. It was first flown in Melbourne <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne> on 3 September 1901. A slightly different design was approved by King Edward VII <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VII_of_the_United_Kingdom>[1] in 1902. Over the next few years, the exact specifications of the flag <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag> were changed several times both intentionally and as a result of confusion. The current specifications were formally gazetted in 1934, and in 1954 the flag became recognized by, and legally defined in, the Flags Act 1953 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flags_Act_1953>[2], as the "Australian National Flag <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_flag>".[1]

  • 38. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    Реферат пополнение в коллекции 14.06.2010
  • 39. The United States of America
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 24.07.2007

    (Mississippi River).

  • 40. Ukraine
    Информация пополнение в коллекции 12.01.2009

    Economyoverview: After Russia, the Ukrainian republic was far and away the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one-fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied equipment and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR. Ukraine depends on imports of energy, especially natural gas. Shortly after the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output in 1992-98 fell to less than half the 1991 level. Loose monetary policies pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels in late 1993. Since his election in July 1994, President KUCHMA has pushed economic reforms, maintained financial discipline, and tried to remove almost all remaining controls over prices and foreign trade. The onset of the financial crisis in Russia dashed Ukraine's hopes for its first year of economic growth in 1998 due to a sharp fall in export revenue and reduced domestic demand. Although administrative currency controls will be lifted in early 1999, they are likely to be reimposed when the hryvnia next comes under pressure. The currency is only likely to collapse further if Ukraine abandons tight monetary policies or threatens default. Despite increasing pressure from the IMF to accelerate reform, significant economic restructuring remains unlikely in 1999.